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Offline Shamim Ansary

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The Scientific 100:
A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present

The list below is from the book The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present, Citadel Press (2000), written by John Galbraith Simmons.

1    Isaac Newton                                                      the Newtonian Revolution                        
2    Albert Einstein                                                   Twentieth-Century Science                                      
3    Neils Bohr                                                      the Atom          
4    Charles Darwin                                              Evolution
5    Louis Pasteur                                                      the Germ Theory of Disease
6    Sigmund Freud                                              Psychology of the Unconscious
7    Galileo Galilei                                                      the New Science
8    Antoine Laurent Lavoisier                              the Revolution in Chemistry
9    Johannes Kepler                                              Motion of the Planets    
10    Nicolaus Copernicus                                      the Heliocentric Universe
11    Michael Faraday                                              the Classical Field Theory
12    James Clerk Maxwell                                      the Electromagnetic Field
13    Claude Bernard                                              the Founding of Modern Physiology    
14    Franz Boas                                                      Modern Anthropology
15    Werner Heisenberg                                              Quantum Theory
16    Linus Pauling                                                      Twentieth-Century Chemistry
17    Rudolf Virchow                                              the Cell Doctrine    
18    Erwin Schrodinger                                              Wave Mechanics
19    Ernest Rutherford                                              the Structure of the Atom    
20    Paul Dirac                                                      Quantum Electrodynamics    
21    Andreas Vesalius                                              the New Anatomy    
22    Tycho Brahe                                                      the New Astronomy    
23    Comte de Buffon                                              l'Histoire Naturelle    
24    Ludwig Boltzmann                                              Thermodynamics    
25    Max Planck                                                      the Quanta
26    Marie Curie                                                        Radioactivity
27    William Herschel                                              the Discovery of the Heavens
28    Charles Lyell                                                      Modern Geology    
29    Pierre Simon de Laplace                                      Newtonian Mechanics
30    Edwin Hubble                                                      the Modern Telescope   
31    Joseph J. Thomson                                              the Discovery of the Electron    
32    Max Born                                                         Quantum Mechanics              
33    Francis Crick                                                      Molecular Biology
34    Enrico Fermi                                                      Atomic Physics
35    Leonard Euler                                                      Eighteenth-Century Mathematics
36    Justus Liebig                                                      Nineteenth-Century Chemistry    
37    Arthur Eddington                                              Modern Astronomy
38    William Harvey                                              Circulation of the Blood
39    Marcello Malpighi                                              Microscopic Anatomy
40    Christiaan Huygens                                              the Wave Theory of Light
41    Carl Gauss (Karl Friedrich Gauss)                      Mathematical Genius
42    Albrecht von Haller                                              Eighteenth-Century Medicine    
43    August Kekule                                                      Chemical Structure    
44    Robert Koch                                                      Bacteriology    
45    Murray Gell-Mann                                              the Eightfold Way
46    Emil Fischer                                                      Organic Chemistry    
47    Dmitri Mendeleev                                              the Periodic Table of Elements    
48    Sheldon Glashow                                              the Discovery of Charm
49    James Watson                                              the Structure of DNA
50    John Bardeen                                                      Superconductivity    
51    John von Neumann                                              the Modern Computer
52    Richard Feynman                                              Quantum Electrodynamics
53    Alfred Wegener                                              Continental Drift    
54    Stephen Hawking                                              Quantum Cosmology
55    Anton van Leeuwenhoek                              the Simple Microscope
56    Max von Laue                                                      X-ray Crystallography    
57    Gustav Kirchhoff                                              Spectroscopy    
58    Hans Bethe                                                      the Energy of the Sun
59    Euclid                                                              the Foundations of Mathematics
60    Gregor Mendel                                              the Laws of Inheritance
61    Heike Kamerlingh Onnes                                      Superconductivity    
62    Thomas Hunt Morgan                                      the Chromosomal Theory of Heredity    
63    Hermann von Helmholtz                                      the Rise of German Science    
64    Paul Ehrlich                                                      Chemotherapy
65    Ernst Mayr                                                      Evolutionary Theory
66    Charles Sherrington                                      Neurophysiology    
67    Theodosius Dobzhansky                                      the Modern Synthesis
68    Max Delbruck                                                      the Bacteriophage
69    Jean Baptiste Lamarck                                      the Foundations of Biology    
70    William Bayliss                                                   Modern Physiology    
71    Noam Chomsky                                              Twentieth-Century Linguistics
72    Frederick Sanger                                              the Genetic Code
73    Lucretius                                                              Scientific Thinking
74    John Dalton                                                      the Theory of the Atom
75    Louis Victor de Broglie                                      Wave/Particle Duality    
76    Carl Linnaeus                                                      the Binomial Nomenclature
77    Jean Piaget                                                      Child Development    
78    George Gaylord Simpson                                      the Tempo of Evolution    
79    Claude Levi-Strauss                                      Structural Anthropology
80    Lynn Margulis                                                      Symbiosis Theory
81    Karl Landsteiner                                              the Blood Groups
82    Konrad Lorenz                                              Ethology    
83    Edward O. Wilson                                              Sociobiology
84    Frederick Gowland Hopkins                              Vitamins    
85    Gertrude Belle Elion                                      Pharmacology    
86    Hans Selye                                                      the Stress Concept    
87    J. Robert Oppenheimer                                      the Atomic Era
88    Edward Teller                                                      the Bomb
89    Willard Libby                                                      Radioactive Dating
90    Ernst Haeckel                                                      the Biogenetic Principle
91    Jonas Salk                                                      Vaccination
92    Emil Kraepelin                                                      Twentieth-Century Psychiatry    
93    Trofim Lysenko                                              Soviet Genetics
94    Francis Galton                                                      Eugenics
95    Alfred Binet                                                      the I.Q. Test
96    Alfred Kinsey                                                      Human Sexuality
97    Alexander Fleming                                              Penicillin
98    B. F. Skinner                                                      Behaviorism
99    Wilhelm Wundt                                              the Founding of Psychology
100    Archimedes                                                      the Beginning of Science
« Last Edit: May 21, 2010, 09:50:55 PM by Shamim Ansary »
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Offline shibli

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Re: The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists
« Reply #1 on: May 22, 2010, 11:28:38 AM »

You should give the source that made the ranking.
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Offline Shamim Ansary

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Re: The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists
« Reply #2 on: May 22, 2010, 02:28:03 PM »
* The list is from the book The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present, Citadel Press (2000), written by John Galbraith Simmons. (It is mentioned at the top of the post!)
« Last Edit: September 05, 2010, 02:38:18 PM by Shamim Ansary »
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Offline Shamim Ansary

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Ten Great Scientists of the World
« Reply #3 on: June 23, 2010, 03:00:14 PM »
Ten Great Scientists of the World

Scientists have enormous contribution in the advancement of human civilization. Throughout the history of the world, many scientists have dedicated their lives for research and innovation. Some of them even faced a lot of torture for their theories but they continued their mission and thus we are now in a modern world. I have made a list of 10 great scientists in the history. Well, naturally, I had to leave out a lot of great figures. However, I feel that my list represents some of the greatest scientists ever.

Aristotle

Aristotle is the Great philosopher who had a vast knowledge in different disciplines. Studying different subject he contributed a lot in each of those subjects. He contributed in physics, poetry, zoology, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, and biology. This laurel Greek philosopher was born in Stagira in 384 BC. His father Nicomachus was a physician to the king Amyntas III of Macedon’s court and it is believed that their ancestors also held this position. Earlier in his life he was taught by his father at home and the medical knowledge he got from his father led him to investigate natural phenomenon later on. At the age of 18 he admitted in to the young Greek aristocracy run by Plato, another Great Greek philosopher, and Aristotle became the most favorite student of Plato.

As a scientist Aristotle made a good contribution which was very influential for the development of the science over the year. Mainly he spent most of his life researching the natural science and he did the researches without making reference to the Mathematics which was later proven as the weakness of his research by the scientists. His natural science oriented research includes botany, zoology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, and meteorology, geometry and many more. He was also the teacher of the Great warrior Alexander the Great. This great philosopher died n 322 BC.


Sir Isaac Newton

Newton was also a man of versatile quality. He was physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, and natural philosopher in a row. His contribution in the development of science is a special one. He I best known for his explanation of Universal Gravitation and three laws of motion, and he was able to prove that the reason of both the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are controlled by the same Neutral laws. These findings could make a revolutionary change in the development of science. In mechanical science his great contribution was in optics. He could make a reflecting telescope. He also made some research on light and stars. His research on General binomial Theorem helped to be introduced today’s Calculus.

Newton was born to a farmer family but before three months of his birth his father died and then he was brought up to his maternal grandmother as her mother remarried. Newton could show his talent from his early life in The King’s School in Grantham and later he joined to the Cambridge University where he took his higher degrees.


Galileo Galilei

Galileo is considered as one of the greatest contributor to the development of Science. It is undoubtedly true that Galileo could first helped science to come out of the trend of Aristotle. He was physicist, astronomer, and philosopher and his best known contributions lie in the development of Telescope, first two laws of motion and also in Astronomy. He is also considered as the father of astronomy, father of physics and father of science.

He was born to a mathematician and musician father Vincenzo Galilei and his mother was Giulia Ammannati in Italy. He was taught form his very early life. He was the first scientist who followed the way of quantitative experiments in his research where the result was based on mathematics. He had to suffer a lot from the church for his theories.


Charles Robert Darwin

There can be debate about whether Charles Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) is the greatest scientist of all time but there is no doubt that he is the most controversial scientist of all time. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859)- this is the book that has made Darwin immortal in the world history. This book has changed the course of science radically. It is perhaps an irony that Darwin studied theology and instead of becoming a clergy, he became naturalist.

Darwin went to different parts of the world and carried out extensive research. His theory about origin of human beings caused widespread controversy. Darwin stated that human beings have evolved through many changes and survival of the fittest was in important factor in the development of animal world. Darwin’s theory still causes passionate debate among his supporters and opponents.


Albert Einstein

Einstein is the great scientist of the twentieth century and notable physicist of all time. It is told that he had learning disability in his childhood. He could not talk till he was three and could not read till he was eight. Despite such problems he later became the noble prize winner for his contribution to the Physics. His theory of relativity is considered as a revolutionary development of Physics. He got Noble Prize in Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the Photoelectric Effect and for his research in Theoretical physics.


Thomas Edison

Edison is the great inventor who has over 1000 patents and his inventions are in various fields used in our daily life. In his early life he was thought to have a learning disability and he could not read till he was twelve and later he himself admitted that he became deaf after pulling up to a train car by his ears. He first could able to turn the attention of the world after inventing Phonograph. His one of the most popular invention is the Electric Bulb. He also developed the telegraph system. His invention of carbon telephone transmitter developed the carbon microphone which was used in the telephoned till 1980. He also became a prominent businessman and his business institution produced his inventions and marketed the products to the general people.


Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta

Volta was Italian physicist and he is best known for his contribution to the development of electric battery. This benevolent scientist is also regarded as one of the founder of the electric age. His parents sent him to the Jesuit school intending to make him a Jurist. He also taught in the University of Pavia for 25 year. After that in 1800 he could make voltaic pile which could produce steady electric current. He then worked on to develop the electric bulb. For his work in the electric development he was given a count by Napoleon. Emperor of Austria honored him naming him a professor of Philosophy at Padova. For his honor an electric unit Volt was named after him.


Stephen Hawking

This famous scientist is considered as the greatest scientist of the twentieth century after Einstein. Haw king’s big bang theory and black hole theory has turned the attention of the world. He is the professor of Mathematics of the University of Cambridge. Though he is now about to be paralyzed, he is teaching through a computer supported a machine by which his world are compiled. His physical illness could not make him stop form his research. His famous book is “A Brief History of Time”.


Louis Pasteur

He is one of the most famous contributors in the medical science. He first introduced the germ theory of diseases. This is regarded as the base of today’s microbiology. He found out some of the notion of the microbe and he could find out that the viruses were not detectable through microscope. Another important contribution of Pasteur is to protect harmful microbes in a way called “Pasteurization” where harmful microbes are destroyed by hitting the food. He is undoubtedly the most influential scientist in medical science.


Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose

He was the first renowned Bengali scientist who had an important contribution in the invention of Radio and microwave optics. He was born in Mymensingh in Bengal which is the current Munshiganj District in Bangladesh. He studied in Hare school in Kolkata and then he got his B.A. in Science degree from Calcutta University. Then he went to England and got a B.A. degree from Cambridge University and a B.Sc. from London University. After coming back to the country he started teaching Physics in the Presidency College at Kolkata. In his teaching career he had to prove his quality and talent as he was the first Indian to teach Science at the college. In 1894 he started to research on Radio wave to make wireless communication equipments. At the same time Italy’s Marconi also was researching on this project. He first invented "iron-mercury-iron coherer with telephone detector" and he is the first person to use a semiconductor junction to catch the radio waves. It is said that his work on millimeter wavelength made him 50 years ahead. Considering such things it is said that he was the real inventor of Radio but due to his less seriousness towards patent and the communication gap made Marconi to be regarded as the inventor of Radio.

After that he contributed in plant where he could make some vital theory of ascent of sap. In this research he showed that some living cells in the endodermis junction are the reason for the ascent of sap.



Guglielmo Marchese Marconi

Marconi is a Nobel laureate physicist from Italy. He is best known for his invention of Radio and he first introduced wireless telegraph system. He was born to a landowner father Giuseppe Marconi and his mother was Annie Jameson. He was very interested to science form his early life. He initially started working on electromagnetic wave or radio waves invented by Heinrich Hertz. Then after a long research he could figure out such a technology to communicate without wire. After his invention, he marketed this equipment for the commercial purpose and at that time he got a competitor free market in the U.S.


« Last Edit: June 23, 2010, 03:09:31 PM by Shamim Ansary »
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Re: The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists
« Reply #4 on: August 27, 2010, 01:32:10 PM »
this is really fantistic  ,all are the great person stay in the world  permanently.........

thanks bro

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Re: The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists
« Reply #5 on: September 05, 2010, 11:07:31 AM »
Thank you for the informative post. We should know about these valuable people, their life, career and creativity.
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Re: The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists
« Reply #6 on: September 05, 2010, 04:04:54 PM »
very very informative post for learning
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Re: The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists
« Reply #7 on: September 06, 2010, 10:17:51 AM »
Thanks Mr. shamim ansary. Really Very Very informative post for everyone. I enjoy it..........
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Re: The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists
« Reply #8 on: September 06, 2010, 10:38:01 AM »
 Mr.Ansary great post .........

                                                                                     Ten invention

1. The Telephone
 
The telephone is an instrument that converts voice and sound signals into electrical impulses for transmission by wire to a different location, where another telephone receives the electrical impulses and turns them back into recognizable sounds. In 1875, Alexander Graham Bell built the first telephone that transmitted electrically the human voice.

2. The History of Computers
 
There are many major milestones in the history of computers, starting with 1936, when Konrad Zuse built the first freely programmable computer.

3. Television
In 1884, Paul Nipkow sent images over wires using a rotating metal disk technology with 18 lines of resolution. Television then evolved along two paths, mechanical based on Nipkow's rotating disks, and electronic based on the cathode ray tube. American Charles Jenkins and Scotsman John Baird followed the mechanical model while Philo Farnsworth, working independently in San Francisco, and Russian émigré Vladimir Zworkin, working for Westinghouse and later RCA, advanced the electronic model.

4. The Automobile
In 1769, the very first self-propelled road vehicle was invented by French mechanic, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot. However, it was a steam-powered model. In 1885, Karl Benz designed and built the world's first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine. In 1885, Gottlieb Daimler took the internal combustion engine a step further and patented what is generally recognized as the prototype of the modern gas engine and later built the world's first four-wheeled motor vehicle.


5. The Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin on March 14, 1794. The cotton gin is a machine that separates seeds, hulls and other unwanted materials from cotton after it has been picket

6. The Camera
In 1814, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce created the first photographic image with a camera obscura, however, the image required eight hours of light exposure and later faded. Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre is considered the inventor of the first practical process of photography in 1837.


7. The Steam Engine
Thomas Savery was an English military engineer and inventor who in 1698, patented the first crude steam engine. Thomas Newcomen invented the atmospheric steam engine in 1712. James Watt improved Newcomen's design and invented what is considered the first modern steam engine in 1765.


8. The Sewing Machine
The first functional sewing machine was invented by the French tailor, Barthelemy Thimonnier, in 1830. In 1834, Walter Hunt built America's first (somewhat) successful sewing machine. Elias Howe patented the first lockstitch sewing machine in 1846. Isaac Singer invented the up-and-down motion mechanism. In 1857, James Gibbs patented the first chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine. Helen Augusta Blanchard patented the first zig-zag stitch machine in 1873


9. The Light Bulb
Contrary to popular belief, Thomas Alva Edison didn't "invent" the light bulb, but rather he improved upon a 50-year-old idea. In 1809, Humphry Davy, an English chemist, invented the first electric light. In 1878, Sir Joseph Wilson Swan, an English physicist, was the first person to invent a practical and longer-lasting electic lightbulb (13.5 hours) with a carbon fiber filament. In 1879, Thomas Alva Edison invented a carbon filament that burned for forty hours.

10. Penicillin
Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928. Andrew Moyer patented the first method of industrial production of penicillin in 1948.


Enjoy the invention........


 






« Last Edit: September 06, 2010, 10:41:22 AM by bidita »
Bidita Rahman :)
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Offline raju

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Re: The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists
« Reply #9 on: September 06, 2010, 10:39:40 AM »
GREAT activism Dear Bidita.

Regards,

Raju
Syed Mizanur Rahman
Head, Department of Journalism and Mass Communication
Director of Students' Affairs, DIU

Offline bidita

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Re: The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists
« Reply #10 on: September 06, 2010, 10:45:34 AM »
Its because of Almighty ....

Thank you sir for being encourages ........

Bidita Rahman :)
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Offline rumman

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Re: The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists
« Reply #11 on: September 06, 2010, 12:41:12 PM »
Thanks Mr. Ansary and Bidita for your posting. Now all of us will be able to know the great scientists and their actitives very well.
Md. Abdur Rumman Khan
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Offline shohel

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Re: The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists
« Reply #12 on: September 18, 2010, 03:40:10 PM »
Thanks Ansary and also Bidita for your thoughtful post regarding the great scientists and changing communication tools.I thing it will help to gather knowledge regarding many unknown things,every body should be benifited in their real life.

sohel

Offline Aarif

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Re: The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists
« Reply #13 on: September 20, 2010, 09:33:36 AM »
Thank you all for the informative post.

Offline shaikat

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Re: The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists
« Reply #14 on: September 20, 2010, 09:55:57 AM »
Very informative, Thanks.
Moheuddin Ahmed Shaikat
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