Author Topic: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE  (Read 1522 times)

Offline Shamim Ansary

  • Administrator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3552
  • Change Yourself, the whole will be changed
    • View Profile
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
« on: May 25, 2010, 11:47:27 AM »
Environmental science


Blue Marble composite images generated by NASA in 2001 (left) and 2002 (right).

Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical and biological sciences (including physics, chemistry, biology, soil science, geology, and geography) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems.

Related areas of study include environmental studies and environmental engineering. Environmental studies incorporates more of the social sciences for understanding human relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. Environmental engineering focuses on design and technology for improving environmental quality.

Environmental scientists work on subjects like the understanding of earth processes, evaluating alternative energy systems, pollution control and mitigation, natural resource management, and the effects of global climate change. Environmental issues almost always include an interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Environmental scientists bring a systems approach to the analysis of environmental problems. Key elements of an effective environmental scientist include the ability to relate space and time relationships as well as quantitative analysis.

Environmental science came alive as a substantive, active field of scientific investigation in the 1960s and 1970s driven by (a) the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to analyze complex environmental problems, (b) the arrival of substantive environmental laws requiring specific environmental protocols of investigation and (c) the growing public awareness of a need for action in addressing environmental problems. Events that spurred this development included the publication of Rachael Carson's landmark environmental book Silent Spring[2] along with major environmental issues becoming very public, such as a major oil spill off the coast of Santa Barbara, California (in 1969), and the Cuyahoga River of Cleveland, Ohio, "catching fire" (also in 1969), and helped increase the visibility of environmental issues and create this new field of study.
 
Components
Atmospheric sciences focuses on the Earth's atmosphere, with an emphasis upon its interrelation to other systems. Atmospheric sciences can include studies of meteorology, greenhouse gas phenomena, atmospheric dispersion modeling of airborne contaminants,[3][4] sound propagation phenomena related to noise pollution, and even light pollution.

Taking the example of the global warming phenomena, physicists create computer models of atmospheric circulation and infra-red radiation transmission, chemists examine the inventory of atmospheric chemicals and their reactions, biologists analyze the plant and animal contributions to carbon dioxide fluxes, and specialists such as meteorologists and oceanographers add additional breadth in understanding the atmospheric dynamics.

Ecology. An interdisciplinary analysis of an ecological system which is being impacted by one or more stressors might include several related environmental science fields. For example, one might examine an estuarine setting where a proposed industrial development could impact certain species by water and air pollution. For this study, biologists would describe the flora and fauna, chemists would analyze the transport of water pollutants to the marsh, physicists would calculate air pollution emissions and geologists would assist in understanding the marsh soils and bay muds.

Environmental chemistry is the study of chemical alterations in the environment. Principal areas of study include soil contamination and water pollution. The topics of analysis include chemical degradation in the environment, multi-phase transport of chemicals (for example, evaporation of a solvent containing lake to yield solvent as an air pollutant), and chemical effects upon biota.

As an example study, consider the case of a leaking solvent tank which has entered the habitat soil of an endangered species of amphibian. As a method to resolve or understand the extent of soil contamination and subsurface transport of solvent, a computer model would be implemented. Chemists would then characterize the molecular bonding of the solvent to the specific soil type, and biologists would study the impacts upon soil arthropods, plants, and ultimately pond-dwelling organisms that are the food of the endangered amphibian.

Geosciences include environmental geology, environmental soil science, volcanic phenomena and evolution of the Earth's crust. In some classification systems this can also include hydrology, including oceanography.

As an example study of soils erosion, calculations would be made of surface runoff by soil scientists. Fluvial geomorphologists would assist in examining sediment transport in overland flow. Physicists would contribute by assessing the changes in light transmission in the receiving waters. Biologists would analyze subsequent impacts to aquatic flora and fauna from increases in water turbidity.
 
Environmental science examines the effects of humans on nature. The upshot has been an explosion of documentation and study of environmental consequences before the fact of development actions. In England and Wales the Environment Agency (EA), formed in 1996, is a public body for protecting and improving the environment and enforces the regulations listed on the communities and local government site.(formerly the office of the deputy prime minister). The agency was set up under the Environment Act 1995 as an independent body and works closely with UK Government to enforce the regulations.

Terminology
In common usage, "environmental science" and "ecology" are often used interchangeably, but technically, ecology refers only to the study of organisms and their interactions with each other and their environment. Ecology could be considered a subset of environmental science, which also could involve purely chemical or public health issues (for example) ecologists would be unlikely to study. In practice, there is considerable overlap between the work of ecologists and other environmental scientists.

The National Center for Education Statistics in the United States defines an academic program in environmental science as follows:

A program that focuses on the application of biological, chemical, and physical principles to the study of the physical environment and the solution of environmental problems, including subjects such as abating or controlling environmental pollution and degradation; the interaction between human society and the natural environment; and natural resources management. Includes instruction in biology, chemistry, physics, geosciences, climatology, statistics, and mathematical modeling.
"Many thanks to Allah who gave us life after having given us death and (our) final return (on the Day of Qiyaamah (Judgement)) is to Him"

Offline naser.te

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 526
  • No dialogue, just do what you should do.
    • View Profile
Re: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
« Reply #1 on: July 30, 2016, 01:16:11 AM »
Informative post.
Abu Naser Md. Ahsanul Haque
Assistant Professor
TE, DIU

Offline smriti.te

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 634
  • Test
    • View Profile
Re: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
« Reply #2 on: September 03, 2016, 01:39:47 PM »
Informative post...

Offline azharul.esdm

  • Jr. Member
  • **
  • Posts: 78
  • Test
    • View Profile
Re: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
« Reply #3 on: October 16, 2016, 05:01:50 PM »
Thanks for the post.
Md. Azharul Haque Chowdhury
Lecturer
Dept. of Environmental Science and Disaster Management
Daffodil International University

Offline Tanvir Ahmed Chowdhury

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 517
    • View Profile
Re: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
« Reply #4 on: February 07, 2017, 01:05:53 PM »
Thanks for sharing..............
Tanvir Ahmed Chowdhury

Assistant Professor
Department of Textile Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
Daffodil International University

Offline shafayet

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 909
  • Test
    • View Profile
Re: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
« Reply #5 on: March 30, 2017, 03:59:41 AM »
Beauty of science :)

Offline azharul.esdm

  • Jr. Member
  • **
  • Posts: 78
  • Test
    • View Profile
Re: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
« Reply #6 on: April 12, 2017, 11:54:10 PM »
Informative.
Md. Azharul Haque Chowdhury
Lecturer
Dept. of Environmental Science and Disaster Management
Daffodil International University

Offline Zannatul Ferdaus

  • Full Member
  • ***
  • Posts: 127
  • Test
    • View Profile
Re: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
« Reply #7 on: May 08, 2017, 12:00:10 PM »
 :)
Zannatul Ferdaus
Lecturer
Department of Environmental Science and Disaster Management
Daffodil International University

Offline Mohammad Salek Parvez

  • Faculty
  • Sr. Member
  • *
  • Posts: 358
    • View Profile
Re: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
« Reply #8 on: June 04, 2017, 12:47:19 PM »
very much informative but hard.