STUDENTS' RESEARCH WORK-7, SUPERVISED BY MD. MUSTAFIZUR RAHMAN SAMEEN

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Offline Mustafizur rRhman

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Appendix-II
[Student Questionnaire]
This questionnaire is designed to find out your opinions on the use of technology in learning. Your opinion will be used for research purpose only. Feel free to ask any kind of question about this paper. Thank You for your cooperation.

Instruction: Please put a tick in the box next to your answer or write in the space provided as the case may be.
Occupation:                                                                                Age:
Level of Study:                                                                           Institution:
Question   Yes   No
1.Do your teachers use technology in your classes?      
2.Do you think technologies are important for learning?      
Question   Strongly satisfied   Satisfied   Slightly Satisfied   Neutral   Dissatisfied
3.Are you satisfied with the use of technology in your classroom?               
4.How is the level of understanding in the classes using technologies?               
5.Are you satisfied with the technologies facilities provided by the institution?               

6. “Learning through Technology gives you more opportunities to learn” to what extent you agree to this statement?
Strongly Agree                    Agree                    Neutral                       Disagree                   Strongly disagree

7. “Technology in the classrooms hinders learning” to what extent you agree to this statement?
Strongly Agree                    Agree                    Neutral                       Disagree                   Strongly disagree

8. What kind of limitations do you face in the use of technology in your classes or institution? (you can tick more than one)
Lack of proper technology         
Lack of electricity           
Lack of fund         
 Lack of trained person         
 Lack of proper support of authority           
 Mismanagement             
If others, please mention ……………………………

9. Do you feel any negative impact of using technology in classroom? Such as-
Inattentiveness           
Abuses of technologies         
Decrease of social interaction         
 If others please mention ………

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Appendix-I
[Teacher Questionnaire]
This questionnaire is designed to find out your opinions on the use of technology in learning. Your opinion will be used for research purpose only. Feel free to ask any kind of question about this paper. Thank You for your cooperation.

Instruction: Please put a tick in the box next to your answer or write in the space provided as the case may be.
Designation:                                                                                  Age: 20-30          30-40           40-50           50-60 Institution:                                                                                             60+
Question   Yes   No
1. Do you use technology in your classes?      
2. Do you think technologies are important for learning?      
Question   Strongly satisfied    Satisfied   Slightly Satisfied   Neutral   Dissatisfied
3. Are you satisfied with the use of technology in your classroom?               
4. How is the level of understanding of the students in the classes using technologies?               
5.  Are you satisfied with the technologies facilities provided by the institution?               
6. “Learning through Technology gives you more opportunities to learn” to what extent you agree to this statement?
Strongly Agree                    Agree                    Neutral                       Disagree                   Strongly disagree
 7. “Technology in the classrooms hinders learning” to what extent you agree to this statement?
Strongly Agree                    Agree                    Neutral                       Disagree                   Strongly disagree

 8. What kind of limitations do you face in the use of technology in your classes or institution? (you can tick more than one)
Lack of proper technology         
Lack of electricity           
Lack of fund         
 Lack of trained person         
 Lack of proper support of authority           
 Mismanagement             
If others, please mention ……………………………

9. Do you feel any negative impact of using technology in classroom? Such as-
Inattentiveness           
Abuses of technologies         
Decrease of social interaction         
 If others please mention ………



Offline Mustafizur rRhman

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References
 1. Chapelle Carol A. (2003) English Language Learning and Technology: Lectures on applied linguistics in the age of information and communication technology (Language Learning & Language Teaching)

2. Chickering Arthur W. and Ehrmann Stephen C.; (1987) IMPLEMENTING THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES: Technology as Lever,

3. Craft,(2002).Using Technology to Enhance the Classroom Environment. THE Journal, 01 January
4. Cuban, L. (1993). How teachers taught: Constancy and change in American classrooms, 1880-1990 (2nd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press, 359 pp.
5. Eastwood, K., Harmony, D., and Chamberlain, C. (1998). "Integrating Technology into Instruction, How We Became One of the Best by Simply Listening." Curriculum Technology Quarterly, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Search archives at http://www.ascd.org/readingroom/ctq/framemain.html
6. Eisenberg, M. (2008). Information Literacy: Essential Skills for the Information Age. Journal of Library & Information Technology, 28 (2), 39-47.
7. Garrison D. Randy and Anderson Terry Anderson (2003). E-Learning in the 21st Century: A Framework for Research and Practice.
8. Gu, X., Zhu, Y. & Guo, X (2013). Meeting the “Digital Natives”: Understanding the Acceptance of Technology in Classrooms. Educational Technology & Society, 16 (1), 392–402
 9. Herbert A. Simon, (1987)  Scientific Discovery: computational explorations of the creative processes. MIT Press.
10. Hicks, S.D. , (2011). Technology in today’s classroom: Are you a tech-savvy teacher? The Clearing House, 84, 188-191.
11. Huneycutt Timothay, (2013) Technology in the Classroom: The Benefits of Blended Learning; National Math + Science Initiative Blog
 12. International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), (2008) Chapter 7: Technology Integration, U.S. Department of Education, December 9
13. Jewitt, C. (2008) Technology, Literacy, Learning: A Multimodality Approach. London: Routledge
 14. Kulik, James A. , (1994),  "Meta-analytic Studies of Findings on Computer-Based Instruction,"
Technology Assessment in Education and Training, edited by E.L. Baker and H.F. O'Neil Jr. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum
15. Lowenthal, P. R., & Wilson, B. G., (2010). Labels do matter! A critique of AECT’s redefinition of the field. TechTrends, 54(1), 38-46.
16. Robinson, T. (2006). Schools Kill Creativity. TED Talks. [Video]. Retrieved on October 25, 2012 from http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity.html.
17.Smith, Grace and Stephanie Throne, (2004)  Differentiating Instruction with Technology in the K-5 Classrooms. International Society for Technology in Education. 
18. Tremblay, Eric., (2010)"Educating the Mobile Generation – using personal cell phones as audience response systems in post-secondary science teaching. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 29(2), 217-227.




Offline Mustafizur rRhman

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Conclusion
The study includes that the use of technology in classes ensure better learning, but some limitation like lack of technology, lack of support, lack of trained person hampers it. This study recommends for sufficient technologies, proper teacher training, favorable support from the authority, good management and sufficient fund to ensure the use of technology in classes which bring the best result of using technology.




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Recommendations
The findings show that students’ learning is more satisfactory with the use of technology. But there are some limitations and negative impacts that pull down the effectiveness of using technology in classrooms. The limitations need to be solved for betterment of learning.
•   It is already found that technology is used for learning at the tertiary level of Bangladesh, but it should be ensured that every teacher use technology in each and every class.
•   The findings show that the use of technology is hampered for some limitations. Such as- lack of proper technology, lack of trained person, lack of proper support of the authority, mismanagement are some of the causes. The authority should give the proper support by providing sufficient and durable technological tools. They should organize the training programs to create skilled person. They should also organize the training programs for teachers. A teacher should have expertise as well as to teach his/her student in an effective manner.
•   Technology costs money. The government of our country should work for maximum use of technology. Government can set up more computer labs with internet connection in universities.
•   Faculty members can receive rewards for using technology in the classroom and developing new learning technologies. This is a fine method on the department level for a university to implement learning technology on a massive scale.
•   Not only teacher but students need to be able to use technology for a communicative relation. It helps students to learn lessons as well as the use of technologies.
•   Technology must be relevant and interactive to the coursework and must be used for a practical purpose. Irrelevant technologies cause no support for learning.
•   As we find some negative impacts of using technology in learning, such as inattentiveness, abuses of technologies. Here, to mention that every good thing has some negative sides; we should drop the negative and go along with the benefits. To reduce the negative effect in classrooms teacher can play a good role. They can hold the attention of the students by showing something interesting. And any kind of abuse of technologies should be forbidden.
•   Technology should not be used to do what can be done without it. Such as-drawing should be done in paper not in computer.
•   Technology should be used for good things in better ways.
Technology integration can't be accomplished overnight. It takes time, steps and lots of patience. Through training, time, strong administrative support and leadership, and long term planning, however, all institutions can reach their goals for technology integration.

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Findings
The study of data analysis leads to the findings that technologies are used in most of the classes at the tertiary level of Bangladesh. It is a major tool of learning. The research also shows that most of the students and teachers think that technology is important for learning. The learners feel comfort by learning through technology and it is easier for them to understand the subject. Students and teachers both agree with the notion that the level of understanding is better with use of technology in the classroom than without the technology. Moreover, the research shows that learning through technology give student more opportunity to learn. They capture the subject matter quickly by the use of technology like-power point, picture, sound, video etc. it helps students to learn their lessons as well as to learn the use of technology. They are introduced with new uses of technology. The paper also demonstrates that most of the subjects think uses of technologies do not create any harm. The lack of proper technology, lack of trained person, lack of proper support of authority and mismanagement are the main causes for insufficient use of technology in classes. As we see in this research more than half of the subjects are satisfied with the use of technology in the classroom, though they believe that technologies are important for learning but those limitations prevent them to get maximum benefit from the technology. Half of the subjects are more or less satisfied with the technologies facilities provided by institution. The researchers try to find if there is any negative impact of using technology in classrooms. Most of the subjects say that inattentiveness and abuses of technologies are the negative impact of using technologies in classrooms.

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The sixth question in the student questionnaire was designed as ““Learning through technology gives you more opportunities to learn” to what extent you agree to this statement?”
Student table: 6
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
“Learning through technology gives you more opportunities to learn” to what extent you agree to this statement?   Strongly Agree   103
   46.8%
   Agree   97
   44%
   Neutral   20
   9%
   Disagree   00
   00%
   Strongly Disagree   00
   00%
N=220
The Student table: 6 gives us the reflection of students’ mind, as per statistics 46% of students are strongly agree and 44% of students agree with the statement. In other words we can say that all the students think that technology gives more opportunity to learn because there is no one to oppose this statement.
The seventh question in the student questionnaire was set as “Technology in the classrooms hinders learning” to what extent you agree to this statement?”

Student table: 7
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
Technology in the classrooms hinders learning” to what extent you agree to this statement?   Strongly Agree   22
   10%
   Agree   50
   22.7%
   Neutral   38
   17.2%
   Disagree   71
   32.2%
   Strongly disagree
   39   17.7%
N=220
As exhibit in the Student table: 7, 49% of students disagree with the provided statement. It proves that the students want technology for their learning. It also exhibits that about 30% of the student believe that technology may harm learning.
The eighth question in the student questionnaire was posed as “What kind of limitations do you face in the use of technology in your classes or institution?”
Student table: 8
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
What kind of limitations do you face in the use of technology in your classes or institution?(you can choose more than one)   Lack of proper technology   69
   31.3%
   Lack of electricity   26
   11.8%
   Lack of fund   30
   13.6%
   Lack of trained person   56
   25.4%
   Lack of proper support of authority   49   22.3%
   Mismanagement   
53   24%
   None   
08
   3.6%
N=220
Resembling the finding concerned with the teacher, Student table: 8 discovers that the lack of proper technology got the highest percentage. Lack of trained person (25%), Mismanagement (24%), Lack of proper support of authority (22%) are the factors which reducing the use of technical tools in classrooms.
The ninth question in the student questionnaire was set as “Do you feel any negative impact of using technology in classroom?”
Student Table: 9
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
Do you feel any negative impact of using technology in classroom?   Inattentiveness   77
   35%
   Abuses of technologies   62   28%
   Decrease of Social interaction   41
   18.6%
   Others   00
   00%
   None    40
   18.4%
N=220
Student Table: 9 demonstrates that 35% of students find “inattentiveness” as negative impact of technology. 28% students marked “abuses of technology” as a bad effect of technology. 18% of students did not feel any harm of using technology in classrooms.






Offline Mustafizur rRhman

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Student Questionnaire:
The student questionnaire consisted of nine items that are related to the students’ views on the varied aspects of the use of technology in their classes. The responses of the 220 students to the questionnaire are put forward item wise as follows:
The first question to the students to the students was formulated as “Do your teacher use technology in your classes?”
Student Table: 1
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
Do your teachers use technology in your classes?

   Yes
   208   95%
   No   11   5%
N=220
Students’ table: 1 shows that a great number of 95% teachers used technology in classes. “the use of technology can promote a higher level of learning among students with different types of intelligence (Robinson 2006)
The next question of the student questionnaire was framed as “Do you think technologies are important for learning?”
Student Table: 2
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
Do you think technologies are important for learning?
   Yes
   202   92%
   No
   18
   8%
N=220
The findings of the Student Table-02, is closely cored to that of teachers, that is a great majority of students like teacher felt that technology is important for teaching and learning. It also suggest that students are interested to learn through technology in the class.
The third question to the students was posed as “Are you satisfied with the use of technology in your classrooms?”



Student Table: 3
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
Are you satisfied with the use of technology in your classrooms?   Strongly Satisfied   
47   22%
   Satisfied   
115   53%
   Slightly satisfied   
45   20%
   Neutral
   
9   4%
   Dissatisfied

   4   1%
N=220
The statistics of in the Student Table: 3 disclose that a good number of students (75%) are more
or less satisfied , there are 20% of students who are slightly satisfied. This table also
demonstrates that the classrooms of the students of the tertiary level of Bangladesh are quite
satisfactory.
Student Table: 4
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
How is the level of understanding of the students in the classes using technologies?   Strongly Satisfied   37
   16.8%
   Satisfied   127
   57.72%
   Slightly satisfied   32
   14.5%
   Neutral   14
   6.3%
   Dissatisfied   10
   4.5%
N=220
Student Table: 4 shows that students understanding more (57%) in learning through technology. it is easier for them to understand lessons by the use of technology. “By the use of microphones student can hear their teachers’ clearly, teacher can get feedback by the use of devices” (Tremblay,2010)
The fifth question of the student questionnaire was designed as “Are you satisfied with the technologies facilities provided by the institution?”
Student Table: 5
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
Are you satisfied with the technologies facilities provided by the institution?   Strongly Satisfied   23
   10.4%
   Satisfied   97
   44%
   Slightly satisfied   70
   31.8%
   Neutral   15
   6.8%
   Dissatisfied   15
   6.8%
N=220
The Student Table: 5 shows that 75% students are more or less satisfied with the technological tools provided by the institutions. Whereas 6% of students thought that the present technological support are inadequate.

Offline Mustafizur rRhman

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The sixth question in the Teacher Questionnaire was ““Learning through technology gives you more opportunities to learn” to what extent you agree to this statement?”
Teacher table: 6
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
“Learning through technology gives you more opportunities to learn” to what extent you agree to this statement?   Strongly Agree   16
   53.33%
   Agree   13
   43.33%
   Neutral   01
   3.33%
   Disagree   00
   00%
N=30
According to the statistics in Teacher Table-06 shows that 53% of teachers strongly agree with the statement that technology gives student more opportunity to learn. . 43% agree with the statement and remarkable point is no one disagrees with this statement. Student can focus more on the lesson. “With a computer in the classroom, teachers are able to demonstrate a new lesson, present new material, illustrate how to use new programs and show websites” (The Journal, 1st Jan 2002)

The seventh question in the Teacher Questionnaire was ““Technology in the classrooms hinders learning” to what extent you agree to this statement? ”
Teacher table: 7
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
“Technology in the classrooms hinders learning” to what extent you agree to this statement?   Strongly Agree   3
   10%
   Agree   6
   20%
   Neutral   1
   3.33%
   Disagree
   15   50%
   Strongly disagree   4
   13.33%
N=30
The above Teacher Table shows that 50% of teachers disagree with the statement. They believe that technology is a blessing for learning not an obstacle.  But 20% teachers believe that there are some problems using technology in classrooms.






The eighth question to the teacher was designed as “What kind of limitations do you face in the use of technology in your classes or institution?”
Teacher table: 8
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
What kind of limitations do you face in the use of technology in your classes or institution?(you can choose more than one)    Lack of proper technology   19   63..33%
   Lack of electricity   4
   13.3%
   Lack of fund   3
   10%
   Lack of trained person   8
   26.7%
   Lack of proper support of authority   7
   23.3%
   Mismanagement   7
   23.3%
   Others   2
   6.7%
N=30
The teacher table shows that 63% teachers marked for “Lack of proper technology” and 26% of teachers found “Lack of trained person” as the limitation. The findings disclose that “Lack of proper technology” is the main cause of insufficient use of technology in classrooms. Besides the “lack of trained person”, “lack of proper support of authority” and “mismanagement” are the obstacles of using technology in classrooms.









The ninth question in the Teacher Questionnaire was “Do you feel any negative impact of using technology in classroom?”

Teacher table: 9
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
Do you feel any negative impact of using technology in classroom?   Inattentiveness   12
   40%
   Abuses of technologies   6   20%
   Decrease of Social interaction   3
   3%
   Others   6
   20%
   None    7
   23.33%
N=30
This Teacher Table-09 shows the teachers’ opinion about the negative impact of technology. 40% teachers marked “inattentiveness” as the negative result of the technology. 20% teacher thought that “Abuses of technology” is increasing for the vast use of technology; other 23% thought that there is no negative impact of technology in class.


Offline Mustafizur rRhman

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Presentation and interpretation of findings:
Teacher questionnaire
The teacher questionnaire contained eight items which were concerned with the teachers’ opinion on the different aspect of the use of technologies in classes. The responses of the 30 teachers to the questionnaire are recorded and discussed item wise as follows:

The first question that was asked as “Do you use technology in your classes?”
Teacher table: 1
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
Do you use technology in your classes?
   Yes   27   90%
   No   03   10%
N=30
The above teacher table: 1 indicates that 90% of subjects use technology at the tertiary level of Bangladesh and other 10% did not use any technology in their classrooms.
The findings indicates that the acquaintance of the teacher at the tertiary level in Bangladesh with modern English teaching equipment and which make learning relatively more scientific as well as more effective. It shows that the teachers have expertise in using technology and scientific tools and it helps students to learn, explore and enjoy the class. “Children and adult people are growing up in a vastly changing context. No aspect of their lives is untouched by the digital era which is transforming how they live, relate and learn” (Craft, 2012)

The first question to the teacher was put as “Do you think technologies are important for learning?”
Teacher table: 2
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
Do you think technologies are important for learning?
   Yes   29   96.6%
   No   01   3.3%
N=30
Teacher table-2 indicates that 96.6% of the teacher thought that technology is important for learning whereas 3.3% of did not think it is useful for their classes. So this table clearly uncover that a great majority of the teachers find it useful to use technology in classroom in Bangladesh. “A technology plan articulates, organizes and integrates he content and processes of education in a particular discipline with appropriate technology” (Eastwood, Harmony, Chamberlain,1998)

The third question to the teacher was famed as “Are you satisfied with the use of technology in your classrooms?”
Teacher table: 3
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
Are you satisfied with the use of technology in your classrooms?   Strongly Satisfied   04
   13.33%
   Satisfied   17
   56.7%
   Slightly satisfied   03
   10%
   Neutral   04
   13.33%
   Dissatisfied   02
   6.7%
N=30
Teacher table-03 shows that 56% of teachers are satisfied with the use of technology in classroom whereas 10% are slightly and 13% are strongly satisfied. This statistics conspicuous reveals that half of the teachers of the tertiary level in Bangladesh are satisfied with the use, it also reveals that there are some places to improve to upgrade the percentage.

The fourth question in the Teacher Questionnaire was “How is the level of understanding of the students in the classes using technologies?  ”
Teacher Table:4
How is the level of understanding of the students in the classes using technologies?   Strongly Satisfied   03
   10%
   Satisfied   15
   50%
   Slightly satisfied   04
   13.33%
   Neutral   06
   20 %
   Dissatisfied   02
   6.7%
N=30
Teacher table-04 demonstrates that 50% of teachers are satisfied with the level of understanding of student where 20% are neutral. “Teacher must be aware of their students’ motivators in order to successfully implement technology in the classroom” (Guo, Stevens 2012)

The fifth question to the teacher was constructed as “Are you satisfied with the technologies facilities provided by the institution?”
Teacher table: 5
Question   Choices   Scores   Percentage
Are you satisfied with the technologies facilities provided by the institution?   Strongly Satisfied   04   13.33%
   Satisfied   13
   43.33%
   Slightly satisfied   04
   13.33%
   Neutral   04
   13.33%
   Dissatisfied   05
   16.7%
N=30
Teacher table-05 unfolds that 56% teachers are more or less satisfied with the technologies provided by the institution. This result sums up that maximum teachers have a good satisfaction level with the technologies provided by their respective institution. But it is also shows that 16% of teachers are dissatisfied.

Offline Mustafizur rRhman

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Research design and Methodology:
Subjects:
This study was conducted with 30 university teachers and 220 tertiary level students randomly selected from one public university- University of Dhaka and 6 private universities-Daffodil International University, Military Institution of Science and Technology (MIST), Brac University, Eastern University, World University of Bangladesh and  State University. The teacher had at least a post graduate degree and all the students had completed the secondary level and studying in tertiary level.

Instruments:
To address and explore the research question, a quantitative method including two questionnaires, one for the teachers (see Appendix-I) and the other for the students (see Appendix-II), was exploited. The present researcher designed the questionnaires to find out the benefit as well as the limitation of the using technologies in institutions of tertiary level in Bangladesh.
Each of the questionnaires consisted of nine items related to the research problems stated in the introduction.












Data collection and analysis:
The data for the study were collected from 30 teachers as well as from 220 students at the tertiary level. To tap the teachers’ response to the use of technology in the classes, the researcher personally contacted each of the teachers and requested them to respond to the items in the questionnaire. And to collect the students’ responses to the use of technology in their classes, the researcher received cooperation of the teachers who administered the questionnaire after an explanation of the purpose of the study and some preliminary instruction. The data collected from the teachers and students were then scored by hand.





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Carey Jewitt proposed a multi model approach with technology, according to her, “In relation to technology-mediated learning speech and writing are clearly a part and often a small part of multi model ensemble” Cuban(1993) has highlighted three goals behind the introduction of computers in education-
•   To keep education system at the forefront of technology development and students’ skills up-to-date with those expected in the work force.
•   To increase efficiency and productivity in teaching and learning
•   To enable more self directed learning with students as active learners assisted by teachers to construct their own understanding.

New communication and information technologies have become major resources for teaching and learning in higher education (Chickering and Ehrmann, 1987). Technology can be used as a tool for second language teaching (Prof. Carol A. Chapelle, 2003) Educational technology is intended to improve education for the 21st century learner. Students today are considered "Digital Natives" who were born and raised in a digital environment and inherently think different because of this exposure to technology. (Gu, X., Zhu, Y. & Guo,2013) Instructors can post their course material or important information on a course website, which means students, can study at a time and location they prefer and can obtain the study material very quickly. According to James Kulik, who studies the effectiveness of computers used for instruction, students usually learn more in less time when receiving computer-based instruction and they like classes more and develop more positive attitudes toward computers in computer-based classes. Students are encouraged to use multimedia components and to incorporate the knowledge they gained in creative ways. (Smith, Grace and Stephanie Throne, 2004) Overall, the use of internet in education has had a positive impact on students, educators, as well as the educational system as a whole. It is important for teachers to embrace technology in order to gain these benefits so they can address the needs of their digital natives (Hicks, S.D.,2011) “Technology’s impact in schools has been significant, advancing how students learn, how teachers teach and how efficiently and effectively educational services can be delivered,” said Carolyn April, director, industry analysis, CompTIA.” With emerging technologies such as tablets and net books, interactive whiteboards and wireless solutions gaining ground in the classroom, the reliance on IT by the education market will only grow in the years ahead.” (D. Randy Garrison and Terry Anderson, 2003) Research has shown that there is a great deal of apprehension associated with assessing the effectiveness of technology in the classroom and its development of information-age skills. This is because information-age skills, also commonly referred to as twenty-first century illiteracies, are relatively new to the field of education. (Eisenberg, M., 2008)  Research from the Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI) indicates that inquiry and project-based approaches, combined with a focus on curriculum, effectively supports the infusion of educational technologies into the learning and teaching process.

Although technology in the classroom does have many benefits, there are clear drawbacks as well. Limited access to sufficient quantities of a technology, lack of training, the extra time required for the implementations of technology, and the apprehension associated with assessing the effectiveness of technology in the classroom are just a few of the reasons that technology is often not used extensively in the classroom. Published in the Journal of Pediatrics, a 2007 University of Washington study on the vocabulary of babies surveyed over 1,000 parents in Washington and Minnesota. The study found that for every one hour that babies 8–16 months of age watched DVDs and Videos they knew 6-8 fewer of 90 common baby words than the babies that did not watch them. Andrew Meltzoff, PhD, a surveyor in this study states that the result makes sense, that if the baby's 'alert time' is spent in front of DVDs and TV, instead of with people speaking, the babies are not going to get the same linguistic experience.  It shows the result of lack of social interaction for technology. Michel Rich, an associate professor at Harvard Medical School and executive director of the center on Media and Child Health in Boston, said of the digital generation, "Their brains are rewarded not for staying on task, but for jumping to the next thing, and the side effects could linger: the worry is we're raising a generation of kids in front of screens whose brains are going to be wired differently." "Students have always faced distractions and time-wasters. But computers and cell phones, and they offer, pose a profound new challenge to focusing and learning. Researchers say the lure of these technologies, while it affects adults too, is particularly powerful for young people. The risk, they say, is that developing brains can become more easily habituated than adult brains to constantly switching tasks — and less able to sustain attention."( Lowenthal, P. R., & Wilson, B. G., 2010) But, we can say students who really want to learn and exhibit their talents; technology helps them to ensure their learning. When technology integration in the classroom is seamless and thoughtful, students not only become more engaged, they begin to take more control over their own learning, too. Effective technology integration changes classroom dynamics, encouraging student-centered project-based learning.



Offline Mustafizur rRhman

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Introduction:
This thesis of the paper is going to show the positive effects of using technologies in classes as well as to identify the problems regarding this issue. This report is designed to help educators more keenly understand technology’s potential to enhance student learning and also to detect the obstacles for students and teachers. But before that we need to define clearly that what we mean by technology in learning. Technology improves performance of the students by creating, using and managing appropriate technology processes and resources. Technology in education is most simply and comfortably defined as an array of tools that might helpful in advancing student learning. According to Herbert A.Simon (1987) from Carnegie Mellon University, “We must not use technology just because it is available. We must use it when, we can see how it will enable us to do the education job better”. The “International Society for Technology in Education” (ISTE) has established technology standards for students, teacher and administrators. The ISTE, a leader in helping teacher more effective users of technology, offers this definition of technology integration- “Curriculum integration with the use of technology involves the infusion of technology as a tool to enhance the learning in a content area or multidisciplinary setting… Effective integration of technology is advanced when students are able to select technology tools to help them obtain information in timely manner, analyze and synthesize the information and present it professionally. The technology should become an integral part of how the classroom functions-as accessible as all other classroom tools. The focus in each lesson or unit is the curriculum outcome, not the technology” The rapid and widespread adoption of these technological innovations has completely changed the way we conduct our daily lives. Technology is any tool that can be used to promote human learning, including-calculators, tablets, smart boards, video cameras, digital cameras, MP3 player, Portable Digital Assistants (PDAs) and of course the computers. According to Timothay Huneycutt (2013), “there are four specific benefits of using technology in the classrooms-
•   It can keep students focused for longer periods.
•   It makes students more excited to learn
•   It enables students to learn at their own pace
•   It prepares students for the future

Offline Mustafizur rRhman

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Abstract:
 This article explores the effectiveness of using technology in learning and to identify generic problems of its use at the tertiary level in Bangladesh. Using measures of student performance we demonstrate that technology in learning can significantly improve student learning. This paper will give a guideline to improve our student’s ability, to find out the limitation and give an effective way to use technologies in classrooms. With reference to research evidence, the researchers have studied on the basis of questionnaire survey, both from the teachers’ and students’ point of view, this paper now focuses on the importance and limitations of using technologies in classrooms. The ability of students to use technology to repeatedly return to resources was a clear benefit, allowing students to take responsibility for their own study at a pace appropriate for learner.

Offline Mustafizur rRhman

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Acknowledgement:
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor Md. Mustafizur Rahman for the continuous support of our research, for his patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and immense knowledge. His guidance helped us in all the time of research and writing of this thesis.
Besides my advisor, I would like to thank some of our friends who helped us during research.