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CMMI Key Process Areas
« on: May 17, 2016, 06:23:37 PM »

CMMI Key Process Areas

A Process Area is a cluster of related practices in an area that, when implemented collectively, satisfy a set of goals considered important for making significant improvement in that area. All CMMI process areas are common to both continuous and staged representations.

The continuous representation enables the organization to choose the focus of its process improvement efforts by choosing those process areas, or sets of interrelated process areas, that best benefit the organization and its business objectives. Although there are some limits on what an organization can choose because of the dependencies among process areas, the organization has considerable freedom in its selection.

Once you select the process areas, you must also select how much you would like to improve the processes associated with those process areas (i.e., select the appropriate capability level). Capability levels and generic goals and practices support the improvement of processes in individual process areas.

Conversely, you will see that the staged representation encourages you to always look at process areas in the context of the maturity level to which they belong. The process areas are organized by maturity levels to reinforce this concept. When you use a process area, you use the entire process area: all goals and all practices.

The CMMI Process Areas (PAs) can be grouped into the following four categories to understand their interactions and links with one another regardless of their defined level:

Process Management

Project Management

Engineering

Support

Each process area is defined by a set of goals and practices. There are two categories of goals and practices:

Generic goals and practices: They are part of every process area.

Specific goals and practices: They are specific to a given process area.

A process area is satisfied when company processes cover all of the generic and specific goals and practices for that process area.

Generic goals and practices:
Generic goals and practices are a part of every process area.

NOTATIONS:GG --> Generic Goals and GP --> Generic Practice

GG 1 Achieve Specific Goals

GP 1.1 Perform Specific Practices

GG 2 Institutionalise a Managed Process

GP 2.1 Establish an Organizational Policy

GP 2.2 Plan the Process

GP 2.3 Provide Resources

GP 2.4 Assign Responsibility

GP 2.5 Train People

GP 2.6 Manage Configurations

GP 2.7 Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders

GP 2.8 Monitor and Control the Process

GP 2.9 Objectively Evaluate Adherence

GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level Management

GG 3 Institutionalise a Defined Process

GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process

GP 3.2 Collect Improvement Information

GG 4 Institutionalise a Quantitatively Managed Process

GP 4.1 Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process

GP 4.2 Stabilise Subprocess Performance

GG 5 Institutionalise an Optimising Process

GP 5.1 Ensure Continuous Process Improvement

GP 5.2 Correct Root Causes of Problems

Common Features:
The common features are attributes that indicate whether the implementation and institutionalization of a key process area is effective, repeatable, and lasting. The five common features are listed below:

Commitment to Perform: Commitment to Perform describes the actions the organization must take to ensure that the process is established and will endure. Commitment to Perform typically involves establishing organizational policies and senior management sponsorship.

Ability to Perform: Ability to Perform describes the preconditions that must exist in the project or organization to implement the software process competently. Ability to Perform typically involves resources, organizational structures, and training.

Activities Performed: Activities Performed describes the roles and procedures necessary to implement a key process area. Activities Performed typically involve establishing plans and procedures, performing the work, tracking it, and taking corrective actions as necessary.

Measurement and Analysis: Measurement and Analysis describes the need to measure the process and analyze the measurements. Measurement and Analysis typically includes examples of the measurements that could be taken to determine the status and effectiveness of the Activities Performed.

Verifying Implementation: Verifying Implementation describes the steps to ensure that the activities are performed in compliance with the process that has been established. Verification typically encompasses reviews and audits by management and software quality assurance.

The practices in the common feature Activities Performed describe what must be implemented to establish a process capability. The other practices, taken as a whole, form the basis by which an organization can institutionalize the practices described in the Activities Performed common feature.

Process Areas Detail:
The CMMI contains 22 process areas indicating the aspects of product development that are to be covered by company processes.

1. Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR)
A Support process area at Maturity Level 5
Purpose

The purpose of Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) is to identify causes of defects and other problems and take action to prevent them from occurring in the future.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Determine Causes of Defects
SP 1.1 Select Defect Data for Analysis
SP 1.2 Analyze Causes
SG 2 Address Causes of Defects
SP 2.1 Implement the Action Proposals

SP 2.2 Evaluate the Effect of Changes

SP 2.3 Record Data

2. Configuration Management (CM)
A Support process area at Maturity Level 2

Purpose

The purpose of Configuration Management (CM) is to establish and maintain the integrity of work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Establish Baselines
SP 1.1 Identify Configuration Items

SP 1.2 Establish a Configuration Management System

SP 1.3 Create or Release Baselines

SG 2 Track and Control Changes
SP 2.1 Track Change Requests

SP 2.2 Control Configuration Items

SG 3 Establish Integrity
SP 3.1 Establish Configuration Management Records

SP 3.2 Perform Configuration Audits

3. Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR)
A Support process area at Maturity Level 3

Purpose

The purpose of Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Evaluate Alternatives
SP 1.1 Establish Guidelines for Decision Analysis

SP 1.2 Establish Evaluation Criteria

SP 1.3 Identify Alternative Solutions

SP 1.4 Select Evaluation Methods

SP 1.5 Evaluate Alternatives

SP 1.6 Select Solutions

4. Integrated Project Management +IPPD (IPM)
A Project Management process area at Maturity Level 3
Purpose

The purpose of Integrated Project Management +IPPD (IPM) is to establish and manage the project and the involvement of the relevant stakeholders according to an integrated and defined process that is tailored from the organization's set of standard processes.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Use the Project's Defined Process
SP 1.1 Establish the Project's Defined Process

SP 1.2 Use Organizational Process Assets for Planning Project Activities

SP 1.3 Establish the Project's Work Environment

SP 1.4 Integrate Plans

SP 1.5 Manage the Project Using the Integrated Plans

SP 1.6 Contribute to the Organizational Process Assets

SG 2 Coordinate and Collaborate with Relevant Stakeholders
SP 2.1 Manage Stakeholder Involvement

SP 2.2 Manage Dependencies

SP 2.3 Resolve Coordination Issues

IPPD Addition:

SG 3 Apply IPPD Principles
SP 3.1 Establish the Project's Shared Vision

SP 3.2 Establish the Integrated Team Structure

SP 3.3 Allocate Requirements to Integrated Teams

SP 3.4 Establish Integrated Teams

SP 3.5 Ensure Collaboration among Interfacing Teams

5. Measurement and Analysis (MA)
A Support process area at Maturity Level 2

Purpose

The purpose of Measurement and Analysis (MA) is to develop and sustain a measurement capability that is used to support management information needs.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Align Measurement and Analysis Activities
SP 1.1 Establish Measurement Objectives

SP 1.2 Specify Measures

SP 1.3 Specify Data Collection and Storage Procedures

SP 1.4 Specify Analysis Procedures

SG 2 Provide Measurement Results
SP 2.1 Collect Measurement Data

SP 2.2 Analyze Measurement Data

SP 2.3 Store Data and Results

SP 2.4 Communicate Results

6. Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID)
A Process Management process area at Maturity Level 5
Purpose

The purpose of Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID) is to select and deploy incremental and innovative improvements that measurably improve the organization's processes and technologies. The improvements support the organization's quality and process-performance objectives as derived from the organization's business objectives.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Select Improvements
SP 1.1 Collect and Analyze Improvement Proposals

SP 1.2 Identify and Analyze Innovations

SP 1.3 Pilot Improvements

SP 1.4 Select Improvements for Deployment

SG 2 Deploy Improvements
SP 2.1 Plan the Deployment areas

SP 2.2 Manage the Deployment

SP 2.3 Measure Improvement Effects

7. Organizational Process Definition +IPPD (OPD)
A Process Management process area at Maturity Level 3
Purpose

The purpose of Organizational Process Definition +IPPD (OPD) is to establish and maintain a usable set of organizational process assets.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Establish Organizational Process Assets
SP 1.1 Establish Standard Processes

SP 1.2 Establish Life-Cycle Model Descriptions

SP 1.3 Establish Tailoring Criteria and Guidelines

SP 1.4 Establish the Organization's Measurement Repository

SP 1.5 Establish the Organization's Process Asset Library

IPPD Addition:

SG 2 Enable IPPD Management
SP 2.1 Establish Empowerment Mechanisms

SP 2.2 Establish Rules and Guidelines for Integrated Teams

SP 2.3 Balance Team and Home Organization Responsibilities

8. Organizational Process Focus (OPF)
A Process Management process area at Maturity Level 3
Purpose

The purpose of Organizational Process Focus (OPF) is to plan and implement organizational process improvement based on a thorough understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the organization's processes and process assets.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Determine Process Improvement Opportunities
SP 1.1 Establish Organizational Process Needs

SP 1.2 Appraise the Organization's Processes

SP 1.3 Identify the Organization's Process Improvements

SG 2 Plan and Implement Process Improvement Activities
SP 2.1 Establish Process Action Plans

SP 2.2 Implement Process Action Plans

SG 3 Deploy Organizational Process Assets and Incorporate Lessons Learned
SP 3.1 Deploy Organizational Process Assets

SP 3.2 Deploy Standard Processes

SP 3.3 Monitor Implementation

SP 3.4 Incorporate Process-Related Experiences into the Organizational Process Assets

9. Organizational Process Performance (OPP)
A Process Management process area at Maturity Level 4
Purpose

The purpose of Organizational Process Performance (OPP) is to establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization's set of standard processes in support of quality and process-performance objectives, and to provide the process performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization's projects.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Establish Performance Baselines and Models
SP 1.1 Select Processes

SP 1.2 Establish Process Performance Measures

SP 1.3 Establish Quality and Process Performance Objectives

SP 1.4 Establish Process Performance Baselines

SP 1.5 Establish Process Performance Models

10. Organizational Training (OT)
A Process Management process area at Maturity Level 3
Purpose

The purpose of Organizational Training (OT) is to develop the skills and knowledge of people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Establish an Organizational Training Capability
SP 1.1 Establish the Strategic Training Needs
SP 1.2 Determine Which Training Needs Are the Responsibility of the Organization
SP 1.3 Establish an Organizational Training Tactical Plan
SP 1.4 Establish Training Capability
SG 2 Provide Necessary Training
SP 2.1 Deliver Training
SP 2.2 Establish Training Records
SP 2.3 Assess Training Effectiveness
11. Product Integration (PI)
An Engineering process area at Maturity Level 3
Purpose

The purpose of Product Integration (PI) is to assemble the product from the product components, ensure that the product, as integrated, functions properly, and deliver the product.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Prepare for Product Integration
SP 1.1 Determine Integration Sequence
SP 1.2 Establish the Product Integration Environment
SP 1.3 Establish Product Integration Procedures and Criteria
SG 2 Ensure Interface Compatibility
SP 2.1 Review Interface Descriptions for Completeness
SP 2.2 Manage Interfaces
SG 3 Assemble Product Components and Deliver the Product
SP 3.1 Confirm Readiness of Product Components for Integration
SP 3.2 Assemble Product Components
SP 3.3 Evaluate Assembled Product Components
SP 3.4 Package and Deliver the Product or Product Component
12. Project Monitoring and Control (PMC)
A Project Management process area at Maturity Level 2
Purpose

The purpose of Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) is to provide an understanding of the project's progress so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when the project's performance deviates significantly from the plan.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Monitor Project Against Plan
SP 1.1 Monitor Project Planning Parameters
SP 1.2 Monitor Commitments
SP 1.3 Monitor Project Risks
SP 1.4 Monitor Data Management
SP 1.5 Monitor Stakeholder Involvement
SP 1.6 Conduct Progress Reviews
SP 1.7 Conduct Milestone Reviews
SG 2 Manage Corrective Action to Closure
SP 2.1 Analyze Issues
SP 2.2 Take Corrective Action
SP 2.3 Manage Corrective Action
13. Project Planning (PP)
A Project Management process area at Maturity Level 2
Purpose

The purpose of Project Planning (PP) is to establish and maintain plans that define project activities.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Establish Estimates
SP 1.1 Estimate the Scope of the Project
SP 1.2 Establish Estimates of Work Product and Task Attributes
SP 1.3 Define Project Life Cycle
SP 1.4 Determine Estimates of Effort and Cost
SG 2 Develop a Project Plan
SP 2.1 Establish the Budget and Schedule
SP 2.2 Identify Project Risks
SP 2.3 Plan for Data Management
SP 2.4 Plan for Project Resources
SP 2.5 Plan for Needed Knowledge and Skills
SP 2.6 Plan Stakeholder Involvement
SP 2.7 Establish the Project Plan
SG 3 Obtain Commitment to the Plan
SP 3.1 Review Plans that Affect the Project
SP 3.2 Reconcile Work and Resource Levels
SP 3.3 Obtain Plan Commitment
14. Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA)
A Support process area at Maturity Level 2
Purpose

The purpose of Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) is to provide staff and management with objective insight into processes and associated work products.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Objectively Evaluate Processes and Work Products
SP 1.1 Objectively Evaluate Processes
SP 1.2 Objectively Evaluate Work Products and Services
SG 2 Provide Objective Insight
SP 2.1 Communicate and Ensure Resolution of Noncompliance Issues
SP 2.2 Establish Records
15. Quantitative Project Management (QPM)
A Project Management process area at Maturity Level 4
Purpose

The purpose of the Quantitative Project Management (QPM) process area is to quantitatively manage the project's defined process to achieve the project's established quality and process-performance objectives.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Quantitatively Manage the Project
SP 1.1 Establish the Project's Objectives
SP 1.2 Compose the Defined Processes
SP 1.3 Select the Subprocesses that Will Be Statistically Managed
SP 1.4 Manage Project Performance
SG 2 Statistically Manage Subprocess Performance
SP 2.1 Select Measures and Analytic Techniques
SP 2.2 Apply Statistical Methods to Understand Variation
SP 2.3 Monitor Performance of the Selected Subprocesses
SP 2.4 Record Statistical Management Data
16. Requirements Development (RD)
An Engineering process area at Maturity Level 3
Purpose

The purpose of Requirements Development (RD) is to produce and analyze customer, product, and product-component requirements.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Develop Customer Requirements
SP 1.1 Elicit Needs
SP 1.2 Develop the Customer Requirements
SG 2 Develop Product Requirements
SP 2.1 Establish Product and Product-Component Requirements
SP 2.2 Allocate Product-Component Requirements
SP 2.3 Identify Interface Requirements
SG 3 Analyze and Validate Requirements
SP 3.1 Establish Operational Concepts and Scenarios
SP 3.2 Establish a Definition of Required Functionality
SP 3.3 Analyze Requirements
SP 3.4 Analyze Requirements to Achieve Balance
SP 3.5 Validate Requirements
17. Requirements Management (REQM)
An Engineering process area at Maturity Level 2
Purpose

The purpose of Requirements Management (REQM) is to manage the requirements of the project's products and product components and to identify inconsistencies between those requirements and the project's plans and work products.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Manage Requirements
SP 1.1 Obtain an Understanding of Requirements
SP 1.2 Obtain Commitment to Requirements
SP 1.3 Manage Requirements Changes
SP 1.4 Maintain Bidirectional Traceability of Requirements
SP 1.5 Identify Inconsistencies between Project Work and Requirements
18. Risk Management (RSKM)
A Project Management process area at Maturity Level 3
Purpose

The purpose of Risk Management (RSKM) is to identify potential problems before they occur so that risk-handling activities can be planned and invoked as needed across the life of the product or project to mitigate adverse impacts on achieving objectives.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Prepare for Risk Management
SP 1.1 Determine Risk Sources and Categories
SP 1.2 Define Risk Parameters
SP 1.3 Establish a Risk Management Strategy
SG 2 Identify and Analyze Risks
SP 2.1 Identify Risks
SP 2.2 Evaluate, Categorize, and Prioritize Risks
SG 3 Mitigate Risks
SP 3.1 Develop Risk Mitigation Plans
SP 3.2 Implement Risk Mitigation Plans
19. Supplier Agreement Management (SAM)
A Project Management process area at Maturity Level 2
Purpose

The purpose of Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) is to manage the acquisition of products from suppliers for which there exists a formal agreement.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Establish Supplier Agreements
SP 1.1 Determine Acquisition Type
SP 1.2 Select Suppliers
SP 1.3 Establish Supplier Agreements
SG 2 Satisfy Supplier Agreements
SP 2.1 Execute the Supplier Agreement
SP 2.2 Monitor Selected Supplier Processes
SP 2.3 Evaluate Selected Supplier Work Products
SP 2.4 Accept the Acquired Product
SP 2.5 Transition Products
20. Technical Solution (TS)
An Engineering process area at Maturity Level 3
Purpose

The purpose of Technical Solution (TS) is to design, develop, and implement solutions to requirements. Solutions, designs, and implementations encompass products, product components, and product-related life-cycle processes either singly or in combination as appropriate.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Select Product-Component Solutions
SP 1.1 Develop Alternative Solutions and Selection Criteria
SP 1.2 Select Product Component Solutions
SG 2 Develop the Design
SP 2.1 Design the Product or Product Component
SP 2.2 Establish a Technical Data Package
SP 2.3 Design Interfaces Using Criteria
SP 2.4 Perform Make, Buy, or Reuse Analysis
SG 3 Implement the Product Design
SP 3.1 Implement the Design
SP 3.2 Develop Product Support Documentation
21. Validation (VAL)
An Engineering process area at Maturity Level 3
Purpose

The purpose of Validation (VAL) is to demonstrate that a product or product component fulfills its intended use when placed in its intended environment.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Prepare for Validation
SP 1.1 Select Products for Validation
SP 1.2 Establish the Validation Environment
SP 1.3 Establish Validation Procedures and Criteria
SG 2 Validate Product or Product Components
SP 2.1 Perform Validation
SP 2.2 Analyze Validation Results.
22. Verification (VER)
An Engineering process area at Maturity Level 3
Purpose

The purpose of Verification (VER) is to ensure that selected work products meet their specified requirements.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Prepare for Verification
SP 1.1 Select Work Products for Verification
SP 1.2 Establish the Verification Environment
SP 1.3 Establish Verification Procedures and Criteria
SG 2 Perform Peer Reviews
SP 2.1 Prepare for Peer Reviews
SP 2.2 Conduct Peer Reviews
SP 2.3 Analyze Peer Review Data
SG 3 Verify Selected Work Products
SP 3.1 Perform Verification
SP 3.2 Analyze Verification Results
Changes made in Version 1.2
Only changes made to the set of Process Areas are considered here. For a more detail visit the SEI homepage.

The following Process Areas have been removed (all on Maturity Level 3):
Organisational Environment for Integration (OEI)
Integrated Teaming (IT)
Integrated Supplier Management (ISM)
The following additions have been made within existing Process Areas:
IPM . SG3 and SG4 were eliminated, new SG3 was added (all IPPD PAs)
OPD . SG was added, turning it in an IPPD PA
OPF . two SPs were extracted from SG and created SG3 together with two new SPs
REQD . SP3.5 was renamed Validate Requirements
SAM . SP2.1 was eliminated, two new SPs added in SG2
TS . SP1.2 was eliminated
VER . SP3.2 was renamed Analyze Verification Results