Brand identity can consist of traits, benefits, values, differentiation, and personality; it can be seen as everything the brand owner wants the consumers’ to associate with the brand (Roy & Banerjee, 2007). According to Melin (1997) brand identity is what the brand stands for, what gives it meaning, and what makes it unique; it is the brand’s fingerprint.
Kapferer (2008) agrees with the previous researchers and also emphasizes that brand identity is to be seen as the foundation for a brand and that it should reflect the brand’s core values. Therefore, brand identity includes factors such as vision, aim, point of differentiation, values and sign of recognition.
Aaker (1996) provides another aspect of brand identity and explains how it can be both the core of the business but also how it can be extended to include value adding perspectives. The brand identity symbolizes the basic characteristics that will be carried with the brand over time. However, he further argues that brand identity should not be considered static, but should be open to change if needed. It should reflect its desired associations, but also its permanent qualities and benefits, prominent or not.