In jurisdictions which use the parliamentary system of government or a similar system, leaders debates are often held, usually during a general election campaign. These debates are normally televised. The exact format for a leaders debate varies, but normally the debate will begin with each leader making a short opening statement. Then a panel of well-known journalists will ask sets of prepared questions, which are to be answered either by all of the leaders or by one specific leader. After the leader(s) answer each question, the other leader(s) may get a chance to make a brief response, after which there may be some time allocated for an often heated "free for all" debate. The moderator will usually attempt to exercise some control through all of this, and then stop the debate after time has elapsed so the next question can be asked. After the panelists finish asking questions, each leader will make his or her closing remarks and the debate will end. The following countries hold leaders debate: USA, UK, France, Germany, Ireland, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Netherlands. Recently, Bangladesh is practicing this debate in a very small scale.
A legal debate is a discussion between lawyers, legal academics, jurists, politicians, and others who might have an interest or expertise in the law, about a particular legal issue. Legal debates can take many forms, and do not necessarily need to be face-to-face debates. Most legal debates take place on paperâ€”judges within a court, for example, might debate each other most effectively when the court publishes a decision. Legal debates include (but are not limited to) the following: Debates between legal academics, Debates between judges, Debate between politicians, General debate within society.
The Lincoln-Douglas Debate format is named for the 1858 Lincoln-Douglas Debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas. Their debates focused on slavery and the morals, values, and logic behind it. Lincolnâ€“Douglas debate is sometimes also called values debate because it traditionally places a heavy emphasis on logic, ethical values, and philosophy. It is a type of American high school one-on-one debate practiced in National Forensic League competitions, and widely used in related debate leagues such as the National Catholic Forensic League, National Educational Debate Association, the National Christian Forensics and Communication Association, the UIL, and their affiliated regional organizations. The vast majority of tournaments use the current NFL resolution. Though established as an alternative to policy debate, there has been a strong movement to embrace certain techniques that originated in policy debate (and, correspondingly, a strong backlash movement). Plans, counterplans, critical theory, postmodern theory, debate about the theoretical basis and rules of the activity itself, and critics have all reached more than occasional, if not yet universal, usage. Traditional L-D debate attempts to be free of policy debate "jargon". Lincoln-Douglas speeches can range from a conversational pace to well over 300 wpm (when trying to maximize the number of arguments and depth of each argument's development). This technique is known as speed. There is also growing emphasis on carded evidence, though still much less than in policy debate. These trends have created a serious rift within the activity between the debaters, judges, and coaches who advocate or accept these changes, and those who vehemently oppose them.
Maieutics is a pedagogical method based on the idea that the truth is latent in the mind of every human being due to innate reason but has to be "given birth" by answering intelligently proposed questions (or problems). The word is derived from the Greek "μαιευτικ�ς", pertaining to midwifery. The character of Socrates in the Theaetetus of Plato gives the first known reference to the maieutic principle, and the method was used in the Socratic school. According to Plato, several traits in Socrates' activity make it resemble a midwife's art, while the main difference between them is that a midwife operates with people whereas Socrates with ideas. The invention of this method occurred about the 4th century BC. It is said that Socrates is the author because he is mentioned as such in The Symposium and Theatetus. But Socrates is the author of the Socratic method that makes the interlocutor understand that what he thought was true was actually a prejudice. As to maieutics, it is based on the theory of reminiscence, so that whereas the Socratic method begins from the idea of a prejudice, maieutics holds that knowledge is latent in the conscience awaiting discovery. This discovery is sought through dialectic and inductive reasoning.