Author Topic: Roman Mythology  (Read 2620 times)

Offline Anisur Rahman

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Roman Mythology
« on: October 26, 2011, 01:12:45 PM »

 Roman Gods 
Jupiter - King of the Gods
Juno - Queen of the Gods
Neptune - God of the Sea
Pluto - God of Death
Apollo - God of the Sun
Diana - Goddess of the Moon
Mars - God of War
Venus - Goddess of Love
Cupid - God of Love
Mercury - Messenger of the Gods
Minerva - Goddess of Wisdom
Ceres - The Earth Goddess
Proserpine - Goddess of the Underworld
Vulcan - The Smith God
Bacchus - God of Wine
Saturn - God of Time
Vesta - Goddess of the Home
Janus - God of Doors
Uranus and Gaia - Parents of Saturn
Maia - Goddess of Growth
Flora - Goddess of Flowers
Plutus - God of Wealth
 
Anisur Rahman
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Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Daffodil International University

Offline Anisur Rahman

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Re: Roman Mythology
« Reply #1 on: October 26, 2011, 01:14:38 PM »
Greek and Roman Mythology has a very complex history. The Greeks developed a Pantheon of twelve major Gods, who lived in Olympus (which I have translated as Heaven). These were Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hades, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Ares, Athene, Hermes, Hephaestus and Hestia. Dionysus later took the place of Hestia. Uranus and Cronos were the previous generations of gods. The gods sometimes changed their functions. Originally there were different gods of the Sun and Moon, Helios and Selene, before Apollo and Artemis took them over.

The Romans had their own gods. Although they conquered Greece, they admired Greek culture, and they identified the Greek gods with their own gods. The Olympic Twelve became Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Pluto, Apollo (the only one to stay unchanged), Diana, Venus, Mars, Minerva, Mercury, Vulcan and Vesta, with Bacchus as the late one. They played the same game with the Egyptian gods, and with the Northern Gods (see my page about the Days of the week). Educated Romans spoke and read Greek, and often rewrote the stories about Greek gods using their own Roman gods' names. (In fact, I've done the same with these web pages.) So the two groups of gods gradually merged into one group. Still, you can sometimes see the difference between the Greek and Roman gods. Juno, for example, is goddess of the family, a stately Roman matron. Hera, her Greek equivalent, is bad-tempered and her only interest in the family is to seek revenge on all the single mother families created by Zeus! Some relationships get confused as well. Hephaestus was married to Aphrodite, but Vulcan (the Roman equivalent) was married to Maia. When this happens, I don't give the relationship at all. Some gods are purely Roman, such as Janus and Flora.

After the Romans, particularly in the Middle Ages, there developed an interest in astrology and alchemy, based on the planets. This is where the words Jovial, Mercurial and Saturnine come from. These were the characteristics you had if you were born under the influences of these planets. They are still used today as descriptions of character.

Anisur Rahman
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Daffodil International University

Offline Anisur Rahman

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Re: Roman Mythology
« Reply #2 on: October 26, 2011, 01:15:59 PM »
At the founding of Rome, the gods were numina, divine manifestations, faceless, formless, but no less powerful. The idea of gods as anthropomorphized beings came later, with the influence from Etruscans and Greeks, which had human form. Some of the Roman Gods are at least as old as the founding of Rome.

The concept of numen continued to exist and it was related to any manifestation of the divine. For the Romans, everything in Nature is thought to be inhabited by numina, which explains the big number of deities in the Roman pantheon, as will be shown. Numina manifest the divine will by means of natural phenomena, which the pious Roman constantly seeks to interpret. That's why great attention is paid to omens and portents in every aspect of Roman daily life.

A groups of twelve Gods called Dii Consentes is especially honored by the Romans:

Iuppiter
Iuno
Minerva
Vesta
Ceres
Diana
Venus
Mars
Mercurius
Neptunus
Volcanus, and
Apollo.
These are the ones listed by the Poet Ennius about the 3rd Century, B.C.E.. Their gilt statues stood in the Forum, later apparently in the Porticus Deorum Consentium. As there were six male and six female, they may well have been the twelve worshipped at the lectisternium of 217 BC.

A lectisternium is a banquet of the gods, where the statues of the gods were put upon cushions, and where these statues were offered meals. The number 12 was taken from the Etruscans, which also worshipped a main pantheon of 12 Gods. Nevertheless, the Dii Consentes were not identified with Etruscan deities but rather with the Greek Olympian Gods (though the original character of the Roman Gods was different from the Greek, having no myths traditionally associated). The twelve Dii Consentes are lead by the first three, which for the Capitoline Triad. These are the three cornerstones of Roman religion, whose rites were conducted in the Capitoleum Vetus on the Capitoline Hill.

But what better characterizes the traditional Roman Religion is the household or family cult of the Dii Familiaris. In this cult, the Lar Familiaris (guardian spirit - Genius - of the family), the Lares Loci (guardian spirits of the place where the house is built), the Genius of the paterfamilias (House-Father), the Dii Penates (patron gods of the storeroom), the Dii Manes (spirits of the deceased) and a multitude of other domestic deities are daily worshipped by the members of the family. The household cult is so important that it even serves as the model for several practices of the state cult (e.g. there were the Lar Praestites, Penates Publici, etc.. Even during the Empire, the Imperial cult came to be based on the household cult, now interpreted as the cult of the Genius of the Emperor, paterfamilias of the family of all the Romans).

Other important Gods are

Ianus
Saturnus
Quirinus
Volturnus
Pales
Furrina
Flora
Carmenta
Pomona
Portunus
Fontanus.
There is also a group of mysterious deities formed by native tutelary deities, river Gods or deified heroes from Latium which are collectively called Dii Indigites (e.g. deified Aeneas, Faunus, Sol Indiges, Iuppiter Indiges, Numicus). A multitude of other deities is also traditionally worshipped, which includes tutelary deities (e.g. Roma, Tiberinus), native Latin deities (e.g. Bellus, Bellona, Liber, Libera), abstract deities such as Fortuna (Fate), Concordia (Concord), Pax (Peace), Iustitia (Justice), etc.. Pre-Roman native italian deities mainly adopted from the Sabines and Etruscans are also worshipped: Nerio (Sabine deity and the consort of Mars), Dius Fidius (Sabine as well), etc. In fact, Quirinus and Vertumnus were also adopted respectively from the Sabines and Etruscans. The Dii Inferi, Gods of the Underworld (Inferus) are Dis/Orcus and Proserpina, equated to the Greek Gods Hades/Plouton (Pluto in Latin) and Persephone. These Gods symbolize the creative power of the Earth which provide human beings the means for subsistence (Dis = wealth = Plouton in greek). The Inferus is also traditionally regarded as the home for the spirits of the dead, though the concept of afterlife was quite varied.

The pious spirit of the Romans consists of a constant wish to bring the favour of the divine upon him, the family and the state. As such, the Roman is naturally willing to pay the deserved homage and sacrifice to foreign deities, specially if he is in their land. In order to achieve victory in war, the Romans often asked the favour of the Gods of their enemies, paying them sacrifices even greater than those offered by their own people. This spirit joined by the affluence of foreigners which resulter either from trade or conquest, brough new cults to Rome. These were as expected democratically adopted by permitting the priests of these Gods to establish temples in Rome. Among the foreign deities, the Dii Novensiles, are Apollo, Ceres (these were adopted as early as to allow them to become part of the Dii Consentes), Bacchus/Dionysus, Sol Invictus Elagabalus, Isis, Serapis, Cybele, Attis, Mithras and many others.

Anisur Rahman
Assistant Professor
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Daffodil International University

Offline Anisur Rahman

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Re: Roman Mythology
« Reply #3 on: October 26, 2011, 01:21:18 PM »
Month Names  
Where do the month names come from?

January -Janus God of Doors -This month opens the year.
February- februo purify -This was a Roman month of sacrifices and purification.
March- Mars God of War -Start of year for soldiers (no fighting during winter)
April -aperire open -This is the month when trees open their leaves.
May  -Maia Goddess of Growth -This is the month when plants really start to grow.
June- Juno- Queen of the Gods 
July- Julius Caesar -Ruler of Rome He reorganised the calendar.
August- Augustus- Ruler of Rome He thought he was at least as important as Julius Caesar!
September- septem seven- Seventh month (counting from March)
October- octo eight Eighth month (counting from March)
November -novem nine- Ninth month (counting from March)
December -decem ten- Tenth month (counting from March)
Anisur Rahman
Assistant Professor
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Daffodil International University

Offline Gopa B. Caesar

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Re: Roman Mythology
« Reply #4 on: December 03, 2011, 09:36:51 AM »
Sir,
We all know there is a very deep connection between Greek Mythology and Roman Mythology...so are the 'off-shoots' of Norwegian Mythology. I think it would be very helpful for readers and members of the forum if you could come up with another booster dose that will knot all the loose ends hanging around.
Regard.
MEYE :P

Offline ns.tonmoy

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Re: Roman Mythology
« Reply #5 on: January 18, 2012, 12:35:32 AM »
ma'm  ;) ;D

Offline sushmita

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Re: Roman Mythology
« Reply #6 on: January 18, 2012, 03:56:01 PM »
Thank you, Anis Sir,

I love myth.

Offline Binoy

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Re: Roman Mythology
« Reply #7 on: January 18, 2012, 04:16:51 PM »
Do you find any similarity between the western and eastern gods? Can any Indian god be compared with any Greek or Roman god?

Offline sushmita

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Re: Roman Mythology
« Reply #8 on: January 18, 2012, 05:31:18 PM »
Yes Sir. Both of them are the branch of Aryans.

Obviously there have some similarities.

Offline Binoy

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Re: Roman Mythology
« Reply #9 on: January 19, 2012, 01:52:59 PM »
Sush, could you please give a concrete example, if you have? I know they are Aryans. And difference is probably wider than similarity.

Offline sushmita

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Re: Roman Mythology
« Reply #10 on: January 19, 2012, 03:30:34 PM »
Dear Sir,

I think most would probably compare Indra with Zeus as both threw thunder bolts.
Indra being the king of the Vedic gods like Zeus. The name Zeus is also
related to the sanscit Devas I believe etymologically. Mitra of course
became Mithra, popular god at the time of the rise of Christianity and
probably greatly influence the birth of Christ date as well as the
Communion ceremony. One can easily see that at one time time probably
during the Vedic period there was definitiely a connection between Iranian
Avesta gods and the Vedic gods, and the ancient Greeks pantheon likely was
an off shoot or derived from the Vedic period, which goes to say that due
to the similarities of Indo European languages which have been well
documented, we are at least cousins

Offline sushmita

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Re: Roman Mythology
« Reply #11 on: January 19, 2012, 03:38:02 PM »
Dear sir,

I have given some concrete example of Sumerian gods = hindu gods = greek gods = buddhist = vatican = jewish gods!

    This is very interesting!

    If u make comparisons on their life, characteristics & relationships, u will find incredible similarities !!!

    The same creator gods presented themselves in different cultures with different names.

    Nibiruan / Sumerian gods = Hindu gods = Greek gods and some vatican, Buddhist, jewish and south american gods as well !!!

    Sekhmet = Durga = Artemis = Mut = Athena = White Jaguar Lady = White Buffalo Calf Woman = Vaishno Devi

    Alcyone = Satyanarayana = Apollo = Vishnu = Rama = Amen Ra
    Amun Ra = Krishna

    Anat = Ereshkigal = Kali = Black Madonna = Black Tara = Demeter = Hecate

    Astarte = Parvati = White Tara = Madonna = Shekinah = Uma = Naamah
    Maia = Sati = Dakshayani = Damkina = Goddess Of The Mountains

    Enki = Shiva = Holy Spirit = Chakrasamvara = Avalokiteshwara = Ptah = Chenrezig = Lucifer = Ea = Geb = Adonai = Hadad = Ba'al

    Baphomet = Ardhanareshwara

    Hades = Rudra = Kaal Bhairava

    Peresphone = Rudrani = Bhairavi

    An = Anu = Para Brahma = Yahveh = Allah

    The Great Ra = Atum Ra = Prakash Brahma = Higher Aspect Of Yahveh = Father Of The Gods

    Ansar = Abzu = Abba = Apsu = Kashyapa = Helios = Aditya = Surya = Sun God = Shamash = Duas Pita = Satyavat Manu = Swayambhu = Vywamus = Aten = Ahura Mazda = Aton

    Dharma Dev = Yama

    Chaya = Aa

    Ashwins = Dioscuri

    Indra = Odin = Pan = Vajrapani

    Gaia = Aditi = Bhu = Bhoomi Devi = Koumudhi = Kamadhenu = Ninhursag = Ki = Uras = Cybele = Earth Goddess

    Enlil = Garbhodakasayi = Jehovah

    Ninlil = Lakshmi = Goddess Of Grain = Fortuna = Tyche

    Moon God = Chandra Dev = Nanna

    Inanna = Lilith = Selene = Mohini = Ishtar

    Dumuzi = Adami = Adam = Damu = Adonis

    Eve = Kheba = Nuit = Ninti = Ninki

    Jupiter = Brihaspati = Zeus

    Mercury = Wodan/Wotan = Budha

    Nergal = Orion = Narakasura = Agdistis = Attis

    Tiamat = Taraka

    Typhon = Puloman

    Thoth = Ganesha = Hermes

    Marduk = Murugan = Karthikeya = Nimrod = Mars

    Osirius - Horus = Dionysus - Eros = Bacchus - Cupid = Abraham - Isaac = Ancient Of Days = Tammuz = Min = Freyr = Kamdev = Pradyumna = Dipankara = El Khdir = Sanat Kumara

    Isis = Mary = Mariamma = Koumari = Venus = Freyja = Aphrodite = Semiramis = Hathor = Mayavati = Kanyakumari = Tripura Sundari = Rati = 16 Year Old Goddess = Sarah

    Jesus = Sananda Kumara = Yeshua = Jeshua Emmanuel = Baldr

    Mary Magdalene = Lady Nada

    Frigg = Demeter

    Shani = Satan = Wrathful Tibetan Deity

    7 archangels = 7 saptarishis = 7 amesha spentas = council of seven

    Atlas = Himavan = Daksha = El

    Pleione = Menaka

    Apep = Kalasura = Ahriman

    7 Pleiades' sisters = 7 krittikas = 7 sapta matrikas

    Parasuram = Gilgamesh = Hercules = Narayana

    Heracles = Enkidu = Arjuna = Thor = Nara

    Deianira = Draupadi

    Eurytion = Jayadhrata

    Alcmene = kunti

    Noah = Utnapishtim = Vivasvat Manu
    Noah's Arc = Malayan Hills.

    Wild Cow Goddess = Ninsun = Nininsina = Renuka

    Humbaba = Trishanku = Kalmashapada

    Saraswati = Seshat = Sophia

    Enoch = Metatron
    Moses = Akhenaten
    Hera = Indrani

    Aurora = Usha

    Eos = Savita

    Varuna = Poseidon

    Mithra = Zoroaster

    Tvastri = Haphaestos = Bunene

    Aesir = Annunaki

    Vanir = Venusians

    Holy Grail = Amritam = Ambrosia = Soma = Life Elixir = Nectar Of Immortality


    The list is endless!

    The nibiruan gods ( Nibiru = Nebadon = Vulcan = Vaikuntha = Planet X = Wormwood from Sirius B ) have always been here.

    All the religions have the same source !
    ( bible -> by-bal -> by Ba'al( Enki))
    ( quran -> Qur-an / Anu )

    Many of the compared characters/ incidents might have happened at one place and then implanted into another culture for their benefit.

[/pre]

Offline sushmita

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Re: Roman Mythology
« Reply #12 on: January 21, 2012, 01:40:24 PM »
Dear sir,

I completely agreed with your comment "difference is probably wider than similarity".  As you said to give some concrete examples,I am trying my best to give those examples.
« Last Edit: January 30, 2012, 05:05:16 PM by sushmita »

Offline Binoy

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Re: Roman Mythology
« Reply #13 on: January 21, 2012, 02:29:56 PM »
A nice attempt, Sush! I appreciate your inquisitiveness. You have provided evidence for your position. Splendid! Remember that the similarities you discovered are only on the surface level. If you go deep into the characteristics, you will discover the gaps. Sociopolitical contexts played an instrumental role in the emergence of gods in different parts of the world. That is the main reason that they seem sometimes similar and sometimes dissimilar! The purpose of one society is always different from another.

Offline nafrin

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Re: Roman Mythology
« Reply #14 on: January 22, 2012, 12:11:21 PM »
wow nice journey with such posts