Author Topic: Lets know about Pneumonia(নিউমোনিয়া)  (Read 211 times)

Offline Shafa Ahmed

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Lets know about Pneumonia(নিউমোনিয়া)
« on: October 29, 2018, 11:43:00 PM »
What is pneumonia?

Pneumonia is lung inflammation caused by bacterial or viral infection, in which the air sacs(in alveoli) fill with pus and may become solid. Inflammation may affect both lungs ( double pneumonia ) or only one ( single pneumonia ).
It is mainly a lower repiratory tract inflammation caused by micro organism ( occasionally inhaled irritant ) .

Types and causes of pneumonia
There are more than 30 different causes of pneumonia. But the main types of pneumonia are:
•   Bacterial pneumonia. This type is caused by various bacteria. The most common is Streptococcus pneumoniae. It usually occurs when the body is weakened in some way, such as by illness, poor nutrition, old age, or impaired immunity. Bacterial pneumonia can affect all ages.

•   Viral pneumonia. This type is caused by various viruses, including the flu (influenza). Respiratory viruses are often the cause of pneumonia, especially in young children and older people. Viral pneumonia is usually not serious and lasts for a shorter time than bacterial pneumonia.

•   Mycoplasma pneumonia. Mycoplasma organisms are not viruses or bacteria, but they have traits common to both. It is caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It generally causes a mild, widespread pneumonia that affects all age groups.

•   Other pneumonias. There are other less common pneumonias that may be caused by other infections including fungi. This condition generally affects people with weakened immune systems.

Who is at risk for pneumonia?
Anyone can get pneumonia. However, the following groups are at the highest risk:
•   Adults ages 65 and older
•   Children younger than age 2
•   People with certain medical conditions
•   People that smoke
symptoms of pneumonia
the following are the most common symptoms of pneumonia can include:
•   coughing that may produce phlegm (mucus)
•   fever, sweating, and chills 
•   shortness of breath
•   chest pain
•   Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
•   Fatigue
Other symptoms can vary according to the cause and severity of the infection, as well as the age and general health of the individual.
Symptoms by cause
•   Viral pneumonia may start with flu-like symptoms, such as wheezing. A high fever may occur after 12–36 hours.
•   Bacterial pneumonia may cause a fever as high as 105°F along with profuse sweating, bluish lips and nails, and confusion.
Symptoms by age
•   Children under 5 years of age may have fast breathing.
•   Infants may vomit, lack energy, or have trouble drinking or eating.
•   Older people may have a lower-than-normal body temperature.

Diagnosis of pneumonia
•   Listening to your lungs, with a stethoscope, for a crackling or bubbling sound
•   Chest X-ray
•   Blood test to check white blood cell count
•   Sputum tests (using a microscope to look at the gunk you cough up)
•   A pulse oximetry test, which measures the oxygen in your blood
•   Pleural fluid culture
•   Urine test( This test can identify the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae )
•   In severe cases, your doctor might also do a bronchoscopy.
Treatment of pneumonia
Home treatment : You can help your recovery and prevent a recurrence by:
•   taking your drugs as prescribed
•   getting a lot of rest
•   drinking plenty of fluids
•   not overdoing it by going back to school or work too soon
If your symptoms are very severe, you may need to be hospitalized. At the hospital, doctors can keep track of your heart rate, temperature, and breathing. Treatment may include: 
 Intravenous antibiotics  :These are injected into your vein.
Respiratory therapy  : The respiratory therapist may also teach you or help you to perform breathing exercises to maximize your oxygenation..
Oxygen therapy : This treatment helps maintain the oxygen level in your bloodstream.

 Pneumonia vaccine
The first line of defense against pneumonia is to get vaccinated . According to the National Institutes of Health, pneumonia vaccines won’t prevent all cases of the condition. But if you’re vaccinated, you’re likely to have a milder and shorter illness, and a lower risk of complications.
Prevnar 13: This vaccine is effective against 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria.CDC( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention )  Recommended for:
•   babies and children under the age of 2
•   adults ages 65 years or older
Pneumovax 23: This vaccine is effective against 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria. The CDC recommends it for:
•   adults ages 65 years or older
•   adults ages 19–64 years who smoke

Offline Md. Al-Amin

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Re: Lets know about Pneumonia(নিউমোনিয়া)
« Reply #1 on: October 30, 2018, 10:59:17 AM »
Helpful information regarding pneumonia.