Author Topic: 4 Vedas in Brief  (Read 7923 times)

Offline mondal

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4 Vedas in Brief
« on: December 13, 2011, 01:21:39 PM »

The Rig Veda: The Book of Mantra
The Rig Veda is a collection of inspired songs or hymns and is a main source of information on the Rig Vedic civilization. It is the oldest book in any Indo-European language and contains the earliest form of all Sanskrit mantras that date back to 1500 B.C. - 1000 B.C. Some scholars date the Rig Veda as early as 12000 BC - 4000 B.C. The Rig-Vedic ‘samhita’ or collection of mantras consists of 1,017 hymns or ‘suktas’, covering about 10,600 stanzas, divided into eight ‘astakas’ each having eight ‘adhayayas’ or chapters, which are sub-divided into various groups. The hymns are the work of many authors or seers called ‘rishis’. There are seven primary seers identified: Atri, Kanwa,Vashistha, Vishwamitra, Jamadagni, Gotama and Bharadwaja. The rig Veda accounts in detail the social, religious, political and economic background of the Rig-Vedic civilization. Even though monotheism characterizes some of the hymns of Rig Veda, naturalistic polytheism and monism can be discerned in the religion of the hymns of Rig Veda.

The Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda were compiled after the age of the Rig Veda and are ascribed to the Vedic period.

The Sama Veda: The Book of Song
The Sama Veda is purely a liturgical collection of melodies (‘saman’). The hymns in the Sama Veda, used as musical notes, were almost completely drawn from the Rig Veda and have no distinctive lessons of their own. Hence, its text is a reduced version of the Rig Veda. As Vedic Scholar David Frawley puts it, if the Rig Veda is the word, Sama Veda is the song or the meaning, if Rig Veda is the knowledge, Sama Veda is its realization, if Rig Veda is the wife, the Sama Veda is her husband.

The Yajur Veda: The Book of Ritual
The Yajur Veda is also a liturgical collection and was made to meet the demands of a ceremonial religion. The Yajur Veda practically served as a guidebook for the priests who execute sacrificial acts muttering simultaneously the prose prayers and the sacrificial formulae (‘yajus’). It is similar to ancient Egypt’s “Book of the Dead”. There are no less than six complete recessions of Yajur Veda - Madyandina, Kanva, Taittiriya, Kathaka, Maitrayani and Kapishthala.


The Atharva Veda: The Book of Spell
The last of the Vedas, this is completely different from the other three Vedas and is next in importance to Rig-Veda with regard to history and sociology. A different spirit pervades this Veda. Its hymns are of a more diverse character than the Rig Veda and are also simpler in language. In fact, many scholars do not consider it part of the Vedas at all. The Atharva Veda consists of spells and charms prevalent at its time, and portrays a clearer picture of the Vedic society.
S. Mondal
Assistant Registrar
Daffodil International University

Offline shibli

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  • God is only one without a second. [Upanisad 6:2]
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Re: 4 Vedas in Brief
« Reply #1 on: December 31, 2011, 05:28:08 PM »
The Hindu scriptures also preached 'ONE GOD'

“Hinduism, as most Hindus would say, is not a religion but a "Dharma" and a Culture. The Vedas, the Upanishads, the Puranas, the Brahmanas Granth are considered to be the holy scriptures, most sacred being the Vedas. Also there is the Bhagavada Gita, the Mahabharata and the Ramanayan.
The degeneration of any society starts with becoming heedless to the guidance of God and falling prey to our own whims and desires. This eventually may lead to the degeneration of the concept of God itself. The worship of innumerable Gods in Hindu society is a degeneration of the message of God and in stark contrast to the oneness of God preached in the Hindu Holy Scriptures Vedas and Upanishads. A few examples from these scriptures reveal that they also preach Oneness of God, which is exactly the same truth which was conveyed by God through His final messenger Muhammad (There is no god, but God).
•   "There is only one God, worship Him" (Rig Veda, Vol. 6, Hymn 45 vs 16 )
•   "Do not worship any one beside Him" (Rig Veda Bk. 8, Hymn 1, Vs 1)
•   "God is only one, - not a second"- (Chandogya Upanishad Ch. 6, Sect. 2, verse 1).
•   "na tasya pratima asti "There is no image of Him." [Yajurveda 32:3]
Those who worship the natural elements enter darkness (Air, Water, Fire, etc.). Those who worship sambhuti sink deeper in darkness. [Yajurveda 40:9]; Sambhuti means created things, for example table, chair, idol, etc.

Offline sushmita

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Re: 4 Vedas in Brief
« Reply #2 on: January 18, 2012, 02:57:04 PM »
Thank you,Mondol da. You let everyone know the real sagacious part  of Hindu philosophy.

Offline Narayan

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Re: 4 Vedas in Brief
« Reply #3 on: March 24, 2013, 03:16:43 PM »
I am the proud member of The Sama Veda.
Narayan Ranjan Chakraborty
Assistant Professor
Department of CSE
Daffodil International University.