Textiles in Medical Science
Medical textiles are one of the most rapidly expanding sectors in the technical textile market, according to reports, and hosiery products with medical industry applications are among a long list of textile products being consumed in that market. An important field of application of textile in medicine has been developed such as wound care and preventing chronic wounds. Bandages and wound dressings are most commonly used because they are affordable and reusable. The medical textile should have bio-compatibility, flexibility and strength.
Combination of textile technology and medical sciences has resulted into a new field called medical textiles. New areas of application for medical textiles have been identified with the development of new fibers and manufacturing technologies for yarns and fabrics. Development in the field of textiles, either natural or manmade textiles, normally aimed at how they enhance the comfort to the users. Development of medical textiles can be considered as one such development, which is really meant for converting the painful days of patients into the comfortable days.
Medical and hygiene textiles products range from high volume disposable products for babiesâ€™ nappies, feminine hygiene and adult incontinence, to extremely specialised and high value textile products for use in blood filtration, surgical sutures, prostheses and, most recently, scaffolds supporting tissue growth.
Bandages and dressing:
Bandages and dressings are both used in wound management. A bandage is a piece of cloth or other material used to bind or wrap a diseased or injured part of the body. Usually shaped as a strip or pad, bandages are either placed directly against the wound or used to bind a dressing to the wound. A dressing can consist of a wide range of materials, sometimes containing medication, placed directly against the wound.
The kidney serve as filtering devices of the blood. The nephrons, the working units of kidney, filter waste materials out of the blood and produce urine to secrete toxins from body. The kidneys also maintain normal concentrations of body fluids, which play a key role in homeostasis. In the natural kidney, ultrafiltration of the blood occurs through the glomerular capillaries leading to the removal of waste products and the purification of blood. In an artificial unit a membrane dependent ultrafiltration achieves essentially the same result. Hemodialysis is indispensable for people suffering from kidney disease.
Mechanical lungs use microporous membranes that provide high permeability for gases(both O2 and CO2) but low permeability for liquid flow and functions in the same manner as the natural lung allowing oxygen, displaces carbon dioxide, thus effecting purification. In this devices, oxygen flows around hollow fibres at extremely low pressure. Blood flow inside of the fibre. The oxygen permeats the micropores of the fibre and comes in contact with the blood. The pressure gradient between the blood and oxygen is kept near zero to prevent mixing of oxygen and blood. Red blood cells capture oxygen by diffusion process.
The artificial liver utilizes hollow fibres or membranes similar to those used for the artificial kidney to perform their function . Oxygen cells are placed around the fibres and blood flows inside the fibre. Blood nutrients pass through the fibre wall to the oxygen cells and enzymes pass from the cells to the blood. The metabolism of the liver is very complicated which poses problems for the artificial liver. This can be solved by using a double lumen structure with a hollow fibre within a hollow fibre. Blood runs outside and in contact with liver cells and blood, and after purification it runs inside the fibre.
We see from our discussion technical textile use in medical science widely. And we see most of the artificial body parts made by technical textile.