Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.

Messages - Anta

Pages: 1 ... 23 24 [25] 26 27
Thank you very much for your post.

English Grammar / Narration
« on: October 10, 2019, 01:27:05 PM »

Narration: Reported to Reporting Speech

David said, “I’m baking a chocolate cake for you.’’

David said that he was baking a chocolate cake for me.

If we consider these two sentences, we might notice that both of them convey the same message, but there is a difference if we look closely. In the first sentence, I am conveying the activities of David in his (D) own words without changing it; it is called direct speech or we can say reporting speech. In the second sentence, I am using my own words to convey the activities of the speaker (D) to the audience. This we can say indirect speech or reported speech.

There are some major rules to change these speeches from direct to indirect. We need to consider the tense, pronoun, words that describe time, place, distance, types of sentences, etc. let’s have a glance at the following rules:

1. Pronoun:
In an indirect speech the pronoun changes according to the speaker whether s/he is referring himself/herself or a third person. We can make this clearer if we learn this with some examples:

Direct: George said, “I cannot be with you.”
Indirect: George said that he could not be with me.
Direct: I said, “Leave me”
Indirect: I ordered to leave me alone. (Note: in this sentence the speaker is same, so there is no change in the indirect speech.)
Direct: They said, “We will be partying tonight.”
Indirect: They said that they would be partying that night.
Direct: I told George, “You should stay.”
Indirect: I told George that he should stay.
Direct: She asked, “How are you doing today?”
Indirect: She asked me how I was doing that day.
Direct: Robert said, “Can you pull me up?”
Indirect: Robert asked if I could pull him up.

2. Type of sentences:

a. Reporting Interrogative sentences:

I) If there is a yes-no question in the direct speech, then the reported speech will start with whether/if and the reported clause form will be (subject+verb).


Direct: Peter said, “Are you from Australia?”
Indirect: Peter asked if I was from Australia.
Direct: Tom asked, “Do you want to sit here?”
Indirect: Tom asked whether I wanted to sit there.
II) In indirect speech questions starting with who, whom, when, how, where and what the wh-word would be the subject or the object of the reported clause:


Direct: Brad said, “Who will come with me?”
Indirect: Brad asked who would go with him.
Direct: Tina said, “What will be the charges?”
Indirect: Tina inquired what the charges would be.
Direct: I said the man, “Where is the hotel?”
Indirect: I asked the man where the hotel was.
Direct: Mother said, “How is the chicken?”
Indirect: Mother asked me how the chicken was.
b. Reporting statement sentences:

In a statement speech, we will use ‘that’ before the reported statement and the reported verb will be ‘told’ (followed by an object) or ‘said’ (will not be followed by an object).


Direct: Edward said, “I like the book.”
Indirect: Edward said that he liked the book.
Direct: Alice said, “I want you to sing.”
Indirect: Alice told me to sing.
c. Reporting imperative sentences:

We will use ‘to’ as joining clause before the reported command or request, and the reported verb will be changed according to the moods of the sentence (e.g., ordered, requested, urged, advised, forbade or begged)


Direct: The man said, “Please, bring me a chair.”
Indirect: The man requested to bring him a chair.
Direct: The officer said, “Fall back!”
Indirect: The officer ordered to fall back.
Direct: Mother said, “Listen to your elders.”
Indirect: Mother advised me to listen to my elders.
Direct: Mr. Murphy said, “Do not go near the house.”
Indirect: Mr. Murphy forbade going near the house.
d. Reporting exclamatory sentences:

To change direct exclamatory speeches to the indirect one we need to replace interjection (hurrah, wow, alas, oh, etc.) with joining clause ‘that’ and the exclamatory wh-words (what, how) will be replaced by ‘very’ before the adjective in the reported clause.


Direct: Clare said, “Hurrah! Barcelona won the match!”
Indirect: Clare exclaimed with joy that Barcelona had won the match.
Direct: I said, “Alas! My pet died.”
Indirect: I exclaimed with grief that my pet had died.

3. Tense:
Usually, the present changes to past tense while we change direct speech to indirect. 

a. Simple present tense to simple past tense:


Direct: She said, “I work in New York Times.”
Indirect: She said that she worked in New York Times.
Direct: Jim said, “Bill loves to drink Wine.”
Indirect: Jim said that Bill loved to drink Wine.
Exceptions: If the content is still true or happening then we do not need to change the tense in the reported speech. Like;

Direct: She said, “I live in Paris.”
Indirect: She said that she lives in Paris.
b. Present continuous to past continuous tense


Direct: Mother said, “Bob is taking a nap.”
Indirect: Mother said that Bob was taking a nap.
Direct: He asked, “Are they writing the paper?”
Indirect: He asked if they were writing the paper.
c. Present perfect to past perfect tense:


Direct: Nicolas said, “I have made a donut.”
Indirect: Nicolas said that he had made a donut.
Direct: The teacher said, “The dates have been decided.”
Indirect: The teacher announced that the dates had been decided.
d. Present perfect continuous to past perfect continuous tense:


Direct: Mr. Parson asked, “How long have you been working here?”
Indirect: Parson asked me how long I had been working there?”
Direct: The boy said, “I have been waiting for my mother since morning.”
Indirect: The boy said that he had been waiting for his mother since morning.
e. Simple past to past perfect tense


Direct: Robert Langdon said, “My mother gave me the Mickey watch.”
Indirect: Robert Langdon said that his mother had given the Mickey watch to him.
Direct: The teacher said, “Shakespeare’s playing company built Globe Theatre in 1599.”
Indirect: The teacher said that Shakespeare’s playing company had built the Globe Theatre in 1599.
f. Past Continuous to Past Perfect Continuous tense;


Direct: Jenny said, “Marlow was leaving Belgium.”
Indirect: Jenny told me that Marlow had been leaving Belgium.
Direct: Maria said, “I was dialing your number, and you called.”
Indirect: Maria said that she had been dialing my number and I had called.
Note: If two sentences are combined with a conjunction, and both sentences have different tenses then we need to change the tenses of both sentences according to the rule.

g. Past perfect tense does not change in the indirect speech;


Direct: Alex said, “I had stopped to visit you.”
Indirect: Alex said that he has stopped to visit me.
Direct: She said, “Greece had tried to uphold their economy.”
Indirect: She said that Greece had tried to uphold their economy.
h Simple future tense to present conditional;


Direct: Smith said, “My parents will be there at 9am.”
Indirect: Smith said that his parents would be there at 9am.
Direct: Barbara asked, “Will you be my partner in the coming Summer Ball?”
Indirect: Barbara asked if I would be her partner in the coming Summer Ball.
Direct: John said, “I will be doing my CELTA next year.”
Indirect: John said that he would be doing his CELTA next year. (Continuous conditional)

4. Modals:
a. Modal verbs like shall, will, can, may change in reported speech. Let’s follow some examples:

Direct: John said, “I will be there.”
Indirect: John promised that he would be there.
Direct: The boy said, “May I come in?”
Indirect: The boy asked if he could come in. (note: may becomes could when it implies permission)
Direct: “I may not call you.” Said Boby.
Indirect: Boby said that she might not call me.
Direct: “I shall practice more.” said Barbara.
Indirect: Barbara said that she would practice more.
Direct: Joseph said, “Shall I buy the car?”
Indirect: Joseph asked if he should buy the car.
Note: shall becomes should if it implies a question.

b. Modal verbs like could, should, need, must, might, used to do not change in reported speech.


Direct: she said, “I would not be the victim.”
Indirect: she said that she would not be the victim.
Direct: David said, “You need to repair the car.”
Indirect: David said that I need to repair the car.
Direct: Mary said, “I used to love dancing.”
Indirect: Mary said she used to love dancing.

5. Adverbs and demonstratives:

Indirect speech differs from the direct speech’s time and place. When someone is conveying the message to the listener, the speaker might not be on the same day or place. So the demonstrative (this, that etc.) and the adverb of time and place (here, there, today, now, etc.) change. We can look into the following chart for the usual changes:

direct   indirect
now   Then/at that moment
today   That day
Tomorrow   The next day
Yesterday   The day before
come   go
Bring   take
this   that

Direct: I said, “Simon read Wordsworth yesterday.”
Indirect: I said that Simon read Wordsworth the day before.
Direct: Mother said, “Come home now.”
Indirect: Mother ordered me to go home at that moment.
Direct: “Bring the money with you.” Said Jessie.
Indirect: Jessie demanded to take the money with me.
Direct: The lovers said, “We will meet here tomorrow.”
Indirect: The lovers promised to meet there the next day.


English Grammar / Changing the voice: Rules and examples
« on: October 10, 2019, 01:25:13 PM »
Please, see the attachment.

English Grammar / The rules of writing conditional Sentences
« on: October 10, 2019, 01:22:24 PM »
Conditional tenses are used to speculate about what could happen, what might have happened, and what we wish would happen. In English, most sentences using the conditional contain the word if. Many conditional forms in English are used in sentences that include verbs in one of the past tenses. This usage is referred to as "the unreal past" because we use a past tense but we are not actually referring to something that happened in the past. There are five main ways of constructing conditional sentences in English. In all cases, these sentences are made up of an if clause and a main clause. In many negative conditional sentences, there is an equivalent sentence construction using "unless" instead of "if".

The zero conditional is used for when the time being referred to is now or always and the situation is real and possible. The zero conditional is often used to refer to general truths. The tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present. In zero conditional sentences, the word "if" can usually be replaced by the word "when" without changing the meaning.

If clause                                                                       Main clause
If + simple present                                                            simple present
If this thing happens                                                  that thing happens.
If you heat ice                                                             it melts.
If it rains                                                                       the grass gets wet.

The type 1 conditional is used to refer to the present or future where the situation is real. The type 1 conditional refers to a possible condition and its probable result. In these sentences the if clause is in the simple present, and the main clause is in the simple future.

If clause                                                                         Main clause
If + simple present                                                       simple future
If this thing happens                                                   that thing will happen
If you don't hurry                                                              you will miss the train.
If it rains today                                                                 you will get wet

The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a time that is now or any time, and a situation that is unreal. These sentences are not based on fact. The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a hypothetical condition and its probable result. In type 2 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the simple past, and the main clause uses the present conditional.

If clause                                                                           Main clause
If + simple past                    present conditional or present continuous conditional
If this thing happened          that thing would happen
If you went to bed earlier            you would not be so tired.
If it rained                                  you would get wet.
If I spoke Italian                        I would be working in Italy.

The type 3 conditional is used to refer to a time that is in the past, and a situation that is contrary to reality. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed. The type 3 conditional is used to refer to an unreal past condition and its probable past result. In type 3 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the past perfect, and the main clause uses the perfect conditional.

If clause                                                               Main clause
If + past perfect                     perfect conditional or perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happened            that thing would have happened.
If you had studied harder                     you would have passed the exam.
If it had rained                                  you would have gotten wet.
If I had accepted that promotion    I would have been working in Milan.

The mixed type conditional is used to refer to a time that is in the past, and a situation that is ongoing into the present. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed. The mixed type conditional is used to refer to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. In mixed type conditional sentences, the if clause uses the past perfect, and the main clause uses the present conditional.

If clause                                                          Main clause
If + past perfect or simple past          present conditional or perfect conditional
If this thing had happened        that thing would happen. (but this thing didn't    happen so that thing isn't happening)
If I had worked harder at school               I would have a better job now.
If we had looked at the map                       we wouldn't be lost.
If you weren't afraid of spiders                    you would have picked it up and put it outside.


Reading Skill / Guessing meaning from the context
« on: October 10, 2019, 01:17:59 PM »
See the attachment.

« on: October 10, 2019, 01:15:51 PM »


Skimming and scanning are reading techniques that use rapid eye movement and keywords to move quickly through text for slightly different purposes. Skimming is reading rapidly in order to get a general overview of the material. Scanning is reading rapidly in order to find specific facts. While skimming tells you what general information is within a section, scanning helps you locate a particular fact. Skimming is like snorkeling, and scanning is more like pearl diving.
Use skimming in previewing (a preliminary reading), reviewing (reading after you read), determining the main idea from a long selection you don't wish to read, or when trying to find source material for a research paper. Use scanning in research to find particular facts, to study fact-heavy topics, and to answer questions requiring factual support.
Skimming can save you hours of laborious reading. However, it is not always the most appropriate way to read. It is very useful as a preview to a more detailed reading or when reviewing a selection heavy in content. But when you skim, you may miss important points or overlook the finer shadings of meaning, for which rapid reading or perhaps even study reading may be necessary.
Use skimming to overview your textbook chapters or to review for a test. Use skimming to decide if you need to read something at all, for example during the preliminary research for a paper. Skimming can tell you enough about the general idea and tone of the material, as well as its gross similarity or difference from other sources, to know if you need to read it at all.
To skim, prepare yourself to move rapidly through the pages. You will not read every word; you will pay special attention to typographical cues-headings, boldface and italic type, indenting, bulleted and numbered lists. You will be alert for key words and phrases, the names of people and places, dates, nouns, and unfamiliar words. In general follow these steps:
1. Read the table of contents or chapter overview to learn the main divisions of ideas.
2. Glance through the main headings in each chapter just to see a word or two. Read the headings of charts and tables.
3. Read the entire introductory paragraph and then the first and last sentence only of each following paragraph. For each paragraph, read only the first few words of each sentence or to locate the main idea.
4. Stop and quickly read the sentences containing keywords indicated in boldface or italics.
5. When you think you have found something significant, stop to read the entire sentence to make sure. Then go on the same way. Resist the temptation to stop to read details you don't need.
6. Read chapter summaries when provided.
If you cannot complete all the steps above, compromise: read only the chapter overviews and summaries, for example, or the summaries and all the boldfaced keywords. When you
skim, you take a calculated risk that you may miss something. For instance, the main ideas of paragraphs are not always found in the first or last sentences (although in many textbooks they are). Ideas you miss you may pick up in a chapter overview or summary.
Good skimmers do not skim everything at the same rate or give equal attention to everything. While skimming is always faster than your normal reading speed, you should slow down in the following situations:
•When you skim introductory and concluding paragraphs
•When you skim topic sentences
•When you find an unfamiliar word
•When the material is very complicated

1.1.1 Skimming For Point Of View
Skimming is helpful when you want to find out quickly about the writer. You may want to find out what the writer thinks about some idea. This is the writer’s point of view.
When you want to know the point of view you do not need to read everything. You only need to read a few important words.
Dogs are often a problem at home. Many dogs are noisy and dirty. They may even be dangerous for small children.
Does this writer like dogs at home? No !.
You do not need to read all the sentences to learn this. You only have to read the words “problem”, “noisy”, dirty”, and “dangerous”. From those words you can tell the writer’s point of view. This writer is against dogs at home.
An apartment looks much nicer with some plants. The green leaves make it seem cooler in summer. The flowers give it a happy feeling.
Does this writer like plants in apartment?_______________
How do you know this? List the important words: ___________________________
Read these sentences very quickly. Ask youself. “Is the writer FOR or AGAINST the idea?”. Then make a check beside the answer. You should finish the page in less than 60 seconds. Time yourself.
1. Many people believe that meat is an important food to eat. It is not true. You do not need to eat meat at all. In fact, you may be more healthy if you do not eat meat.
For_____________ Against_______________
2. Travel is not always fun. Often there are problems with transportation, language or hotels. It is also very tiring to travel, and you can easily get sick.
For_____________ Against________________
3. Today it is better not to have a camera when you travel. A camera is heavy and difficult to carry. It is also not necessary. You can buy a good picture postcards almost everywhere.
For_____________ Against__________________
4. A Bicycle is the best way to see a country. It does not need gas. It is not expensive. And you also get some exercise at the same time you are traveling.
For_____________ Against_________________
5. Bicycles can be very dangerous. You can hurt yourself by falling off the bicycle. You can also get seriously hurt if you are hit by a car.
For_____________ Against__________________
6. Everyone should learn another language. A second language is very useful these days. It also may teach you something about other people and places.
For_____________ Against___________________
7. It is not easy to move to another country. There may be problems with language or culture. It may be difficult to find a job or a place to live. And in another country, you do not have family or friends to help.
For______________ Against____________________
8. Music often makes you feel better about life. It can make you happy if you are sad. It can make you relax when you are nervous.
For______________ Against_____________________
1.1.2 Skimming For Pattern Of Organization
Sometimes you need to find out quickly how a book or article is organized. You want to know its pattern. You do not need to know the details for this. You do not need to read all the words. You only do not need to read all the words. You only have to read the signals words and they will tell you about the pattern.
A whale eats a lot of ocean food every day. That is because it is a very large animal.
What is the pattern of organization for this passage? Make a check beside the best answer.
_________listing _________time-order
_________comparison-contrast _________cause-effect
The pattern is cause-effect.
What is (are) the signal word (s)? : because
The book has a lot of information about Poland. First it tells about the history. It also explains how
to travel around the country, and finally, it lists some interesting places to visit.
What is the pattern of organization for this passage? Make a check beside the best answer.
__________listing ____________time-order
__________comparison ____________cause-effect
The pattern is cause-effect.
What is (are) the signal word(s)? : First, also, And finally
Read these sentences quickly. Read only to find the pattern of organization. Make a check beside the best answer. Try to finish the page in less than 60 seconds. Time yourself.
1. A parakeet is a small bird that lives in southern forests. The parrot is similar to parakeet, but it is larger. Both birds sometimes can learn how to say words.
________listing _____________time-order
________comparison _____________cause-effect
2. Some kinds of birds cannot fly. The penguin is one of these birds. It lives mostly in the very cold Antarctic climate. Another kind of bird that cannot fly is the ostrich. It lives in Africa.
________listing ________________time-order
_________comparison ____________cause-effect
3. Lisa plans to travel in Europe this summer. In June she will visit Sicily. Then in July, she will ride a bicycle in Northern Italy. In August she will travel through France. By September, she hopes to be in Paris.
_________listing _______________time-order
_________comparison _______________cause-effect
4. Headaches are often the result of psychological causes. For example, worrying about something can cause a headache.
_________listing ___________time-order
_________comparison ___________cause-effect
5. The clambake is a popular New England dinner. It usually included many different kinds of seafood. Clams are the most common kind of seafood at a clambake. There may also be lobster and mussels.
________listing ____________time-order
________comparison __________cause-effect
6. Many people do not like to use computer for writing. They prefer to use typewriters. They know computers are faster and more accurate. But they are more comfortable with the typewriters.
_________listing _____________time-order
_________comparison ______________cause-effect
7. Gold was first found in California in about 1840. The next ten years in American history are called the California Gold Rush. Many people moved to the west during those years to look for gold. By 1850, there were many new “Gold Rush” towns in California.
_________listing _____________time-order
_________comparison _____________cause-effect
8. Cola and ginger ale are both kinds of soft drinks. Both these drinks have a lot of sugar in them. But Cola has caffeine in it, and ginger ale does not.
_________listing __________time-order
_________comparison __________cause-effect.
1.1.3 Skimming For Ideas
You can also skim when you want to find out the general idea quickly. Speed is important for this kind of skimming, too. You should skim at least two times faster than you usually read.
But you can only do this if you change the way you read. You can not read every word or even every sentence. You have to leave out a lot. In fact, you should leave out everything except a few important words. These are the words that tell you the general idea.
Here are the steps for skimming a chapter from a book or an article from a magazine or newspaper:
1. Read the first few sentences at your usual speed. Ask yourself, “What is this about?”
2. Go to the next paragraph as soon as you can guess the general idea. Remember, you do not need to know the details. You only want to learn something very general about the chapter or article.
3. Read only a few words in each paragraph after that. You should look for the words that tell you more about the general idea. Often they are at the beginning of the paragraph. But they may also be at the end.
4. Always work quickly. Remember that details are not important.
Here is an example from a newspaper article. Most of the article is not there. You will only find a few sentences at the beginning and a few words in each paragraph. But you should still be able to learn the general ideas of the article. Read this article and try to answer the questions.
McDonald’s Hamburgers are coming to Mexico. McDonald’s is a world-famous company _______Started in
California________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________In Paris, Tokyo and ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________but not in Mexico.
Last year the Mexican government changed_______open some McDonald’s restaurants_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________--“Big Mac” the McDonald’s specialty.
Some Mexicans are not happy______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________eat only hamburgers and forget about Mexican food.
1. McDonald’s is a
a. Kind of Mexican food
b. Mexican company.
c. Restaurant company
d. Kind of hamburger
2. There were no McDonald’s in Mexico because
a. Mexicans do not like hamburgers
b. Mexicans only eat Mexican food
c. There were McDonald’s in other countries.
d. The Mexican government did not want them.
3. The “Big Mac” is a
a. Restaurant
b. Kind of hamburger
c. Kind of Mexican food.
d. Person who works for McDonald’s.

Skim this newspaper article. You should finish in less than 60 seconds. Then answer the questions.
Doctors may now be able to stop many heart attacks. An important new study reports that doctors have a new drug. This drug is called TPA. It may be better than any other heart drug.
Many doctors now use a drug called Streptokinase. But this drug sometimes causes problems for patients. It can even cause bleeding in the brain. Some doctors do not use streptokinase. Streptokinase can save about 1/3 of the people with heart attacks. But TPA will save about 2/3. This means many people. About 1.5 million Americans have heart attacks every year.
One reason TPA can help more people is because of time. This new drug is easier and faster to use. It will give doctors more time in hospitals. Then they can study the problem well. People will heart problems can also keep some TPA at home. When a heart attack starts, they can take some TPA right away. Then they will have time to get to the hospital. This is important because about 860.000 people in the United States die before they get to the hospital.
There is another reason why TPA is good news for people with heart attacks. According to the study, it is much safer. It does not cause other problems like streptokinase. TPA works only on the heart. It does not have an effect on the blood or cause bleeding, like streptokinase.
Doctors plan to do more studies about TPA. They need to test this new drug on many more people with heart attacks. But in a few years, many doctors and hospitals will probably start using this exciting new drug.
1. The new drug is
a. The same as streptokinase.
b. Better than streptokinase.
c. Called streptokinase
d. Bad for people with heart attacks.
2. The study says that TPA
a. Is safer and faster than the old drug.
b. Is very dangerous.
c. Slower and harder to use than the old drug.
d. Causes many problems.
3. This new drug may mean
a. More people will die from heart attacks.
b. The same number of people will die from heart attacks.
c. Fewer people will die from heart attacks.
d. No one will die from heart attacks.

Skim this magazine article. You should finish in less than 60 seconds. Then answer the questions.
What kind of jobs do women have in China today? Well, here are a few examples: Zhao Changbai is a manager of one of China’s largest companies. Zou Hon is the manager of a larger restaurant company. Wan Shiren is an important scientist who works in China’s space program.
The list could go on. According to Zhang Guoying of the All China Women’s Federation, women are now important to the country. She says the government believes this too. China needs educated women to help make the country more modern.
This was not true 50 years ago. Then, there were few women in important jobs. Women worked mostly at home or in factories. But now there are more than 40 millions women working in China. That is 40% of all the people who work. These working women include many women who work in factories. But now there are also many women scientific and technical workers – almost two million. And about 7.000 of the women are professors, engineers, chemists, and biologists. Some women are also working in important government positions, as governors or ministers.
It was not easy for these women ,says Zhang Guoying. She believes that Chinese women have more difficulties than Chinese men. Women still have to take care of their families. That means they really have two jobs. One is at their office or factory and the other is at home. This is the same problem women have in many other parts of the world.
The government in China is trying to make life better for women. It is building more day care centers for the children of working mothers. It is helping women get a better education and find better jobs. According to Zhang Guoying, the future for women in China should even be better.
1. In China today,
a. More women are working
b. Most women do not work.
c. Fewer women are working
d. Women do not like to work
2. Chinese women now
a. Have jobs only in factories
b. Have few important jobs.
c. Have important jobs
d. Do not work for the government.
3. For a Chinese women
a. Life is now very easy
b. Work is now very easy
c. Life is still not easy
d. Families are not important.
1.2 Scanning
Look at the following shopping list to find out if you remembered to order bread:
Ice cream
How many words did you read? Bread was the only word you needed to read. The other words were not important. This kind of reading is called scanning.
You usually scan:
 a telephone book
 an index in a textbook
 a list of movies in the newspaper
 the ads in a newspaper
 the pages of a dictionary
You usually do not scan:
 a mystery story
 a textbook for an important course
 important papers from a lawyer
 a map for getting to a party
 a question on a test
Scan the next page for the answers to these questions. Work as quickly as you can
Your answer
How many chapters are there in the book?
Which is the chapter on the computer in the class room?
On what page can you read about games?
Which part of Chapter 3 is about having fun with computers?
Does this book have an index? On what page?

Scan this news story to find the answers to these questions. Work fast. Ask your teacher or another student to time you.
1. How many people died in the typhoon (storm)?______________
2. On what day did the typhoon begin?_____________________
3. How many people lost their homes (were homeless)_______________
4. What is the name of the island that was hit worst?________________
5. What is the name of the typhoon?_________________
6. How many people are missing?_______________
Philippines Sends Aid For Typhoon Damage
Manila, Nov 10 (AP) – the Philippine Air Force ferried medical teams and relief supplies today in provinces ravaged by Typhoon Agnes. The authorities said 515 people had died in the typhoon and more than 400 were missing.
An air force spokesman said more than 163 tons of food, medicine and clothing had been sent to the Visayan region, 300 miles south of Manila and more aid was on the way.
The typhoon hit the region Monday. The spokesman said helicopter were rescuing people stranded by floods that remained chest-deep today in some areas of Panay island, which appeared to have been hit the worst. Most of the fatalities and missing were on the island, where 455,000 people were homeless.
The Philippine National Red Cross reported that 90 percent of the 86,000 houses in Capiz Province on Panay were destroyed. Many of the dead were children who drowned as 30-foot waves smashed into coastal villages.
Scan the two news stories to answer these questions. Work fast. Ask your teacher or another student to time you.
Starting time___________________
1. How many astronauts walked in space?_______________
2. On what date did this happen?_____________________
3. How much did the Palapa B-2 satellite weigh?_________________
4. How many miles above the earth were the astronauts?______________
5. Who held the satellite for more than 90 minutes?_______________
6. What is the commander’s name?_______________________
Finishing time __________________
Scanning time_______________________

If you know what a fluent reader looks like, it seems logical that you’d know the characteristics of a non-fluent reader. However, students who have reading problems with fluency aren’t necessarily the exact opposite of students who can read fluently. Just like fluent readers, non-fluent reading problems have uniquely identifying characteristics. A non-fluent reader:
• reads slowly and with difficulty, both orally and silently
. • doesn’t use expression and intonation when he reads out loud.
• is unable to see and process more than one word at a time.
• decodes words sound-by-sound rather than by phonemes or context. In other words, non-fluent readers frequently rely on phonics as their sole reading strategy
. • doesn’t always self-correct when something sounds wrong. Instead non-fluent readers often try to “Push Through” just to get done reading more quickly
. • needs to reread text to gain understanding or comprehension.
Considering above students’ reading problems, this book is the best solution to make easy for the students to have the Effective and Efficient Reading skills and activity. This book is designed in an easiest, systematical and effective form to achieve adequate reading theories and exercises. This book is designed specially for Intermediate-level-students in improving reading skills. I hope this book will be beneficial as the ladder for upgrading the students’ English academic reading competence.


If you wanna make the discussion about the content of the book you may contact the writer on his twitter account or send E-mail to :

Writing Skill / How to write a Good Comparison Sentence
« on: October 10, 2019, 01:11:44 PM »

Comparisons are useful in scientific writing, but they can create the opportunity to confuse the reader with imprecise or ambiguous wording.

It is often necessary to compare two or more items in academic writing, especially in the sciences. Comparisons can provide useful information and create a framework for understanding some results in the context of others. However, comparisons also create the opportunity to confuse the reader with imprecise or ambiguous wording. Given the importance of accurately and concisely conveying your results, what is the best way to write a comparison sentence?

The most critical aspect of any comparison is parallel structure. That is, each item being compared should be from the same type of thing. (In English, we say not to compare apples to oranges.) Consider the following example:

The asteroid belt is approximately 1,000 times farther from the Sun than the Earth and Moon.
The current structure of this sentence makes it sound as though the distance from the asteroid belt to the Sun is being compared to the distance between the Sun and the Earth and Moon. However, this interpretation is incorrect (the asteroid belt is only 2 to 3 times as far from the Sun as the Earth or Moon is).

Instead, consider “The asteroid belt is approximately 1,000 times farther from the Sun than the Earth is from the Moon.” Now, the distance between the first two items mentioned is being compared to the distance between the next two items.

Treatment with Compound A generated more muscle regrowth than Compound B.
This sentence compares treatment with Compound A directly to Compound B, instead of focusing on the effects of treatment with Compound B. Instead, try “Treatment with Compound A generated more muscle regrowth than treatment with Compound B.”

Many comparisons are written incorrectly to save space, as extra words are often necessary to achieve proper parallel structure. One common way to reduce the number of additional words in a comparison is the use of demonstrative pronouns (e.g., ‘that’ or ‘those’). Consider the following examples:

The growth rate of Mycobacterium smegmatis is faster than Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Currently, this sentences compares a growth rate to a species of bacterium.

Instead, consider “The growth rate of Mycobacterium smegmatis is faster than that of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.” or simply “Mycobacterium smegmatis grows faster than Mycobacterium tuberculosis.”

The bond length of dioxygen is similar to carbon monoxide.
Here, the bond length of one molecule is being compared to another molecule instead of its bonds.

A better version could read: “The bond length of dioxygen is similar to that of carbon monoxide.”

The colors used in Henri Matisse’s paintings are similar to those of Andre Derain.
The colors in Matisse’s paintings should be compared to colors in other paintings, not the colors of a painter (which could be considered to describe his appearance, not his work).

Another way to write this sentence is “The colors used in Henri Matisse’s paintings are similar to those used in Andre Derain’s paintings.”


Writing Skill / How to describe a process
« on: October 10, 2019, 01:09:56 PM »
Different Types of Process Question
There are generally two different types of process question: natural and man-made.
Natural processes include things like the life cycle of a butterfly or frog, pregnancy, the water cycle or how cows produce milk.
You might also be asked to describe a man-made process like how coffee, tea, beer or wine are made, how cement or bricks are produced or how an ATM or the internet works.
It does not matter if it is man-made or a natural process. The same skills and system we use to answer process questions are the same for both.
Writing Task 1 Process Questions: 5 Step Plan
To understand the task and quickly make a plan to answer process questions you should follow the 7 steps below:
1.   Understand the process. Find the start and the end of the process. Count how many stages there are and understand what each stage does and the relationship it has with the stage before and after it.
2.   Paraphrase the question.
3.   Describe what is happening generally in 2 sentences. This is your overview paragraph and I will show you how to write this in more detail below.
4.   Divide the process in two and write two separate paragraphs detailing each stage of the process.
5.   Check your work.
Understand the Process
One of the most challenging things about these questions is having to write about something you have never seen or heard of before.
Don’t worry, try to remember two things.
First, the examiner knows that you have probably never seen this process before and you have only 20 minutes to write about it. They do not expect a perfect answer. Just pick out the main features and report them accurately.
Second, you can quickly understand any process by asking yourself these questions:
1.   Where does the process start and where does it end?
2.   How many stages are there?
3.   Is it a man-made process or natural process?
4.   Is it a cyclical (in a circle) or linear (one start point and one end point) process?
5.   Are there any materials that need to be added to the process?
6.   What is produced?
7.   What does each stage of the process do?
8.   What are the relationships between each stage?
The processes you will be asked to write about in the IELTS test will not be very complicated and you should be able to easily answer all of the questions above. When you do this you will completely understand what is happening and you will be able to start writing your answer.
Paraphrase the Question
Every process question follows the same format. First, it tells you some general information about the process and then it instructs you to ‘Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features.’
For example, the question above states:
The diagram below shows the process of photosynthesis. (General information)
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features. (Instructions)
The first thing we need to do in every question is to paraphrase the general information. Paraphrasing is one of the most important IELTS skills to master. We paraphrase a sentence by rewriting it so that the words are different but the meaning stays the same. There are a few different ways we can do this but the easiest way is to use synonyms and change the word order of the sentence. Synonyms are different words that have the same meaning, for example, woman and female.
Let’s look at the questions above and paraphrase them.
Question 1: The diagram below shows the process of photosynthesis.
Paraphrased: The illustration demonstrates how plants produce energy from sunlight.
Question 2: The diagram below shows how electricity is produced in a nuclear power station.
Paraphrased: The illustration below shows the process of how nuclear power plants make electricity.
Every time you see an Academic Task 1 question rewrite the question and this should be your first paragraph. We can no move on and write our next paragraph; the overview.
Overview of Process
The overview is probably the most important paragraph in the whole essay. If you do not write an overview it is extremely difficult to get a high mark in IELTS Task 1, however, if you learn how to write a good one, you are far more likely to get the score you deserve.
Overviews for process questions can be done quite easily by asking yourself a few questions. The answers to these questions will allow you to form 2 overview sentences.
1.   Is it a man-made or natural process?
2.   How many stages are there?
3.   What is produced?
4.   Where does it start and where does it end?
5.   Is it cyclical or linear?
6.   Are any materials added?
You might not be able to answer all of these for each process question, but you will always be able to answer enough of them to be able to write a good overview.
Detail Each Stage of the Process
Now that we have paraphrased the question and provided an overview we need to tell the examiner about each stage in more detail.
You can:
•   say what each stage does
•   what it produces
•   if any materials are added
•   and/or discuss the relationship with the previous or subsequent stages.
Sequencing the Process
Try to sequence your language and make your details easier to read by using language like:
•   Firstly
•   First of all
•   Secondly
•   After that
•   From this
•   Where
•   Following that
•   Subsequently
•   Before that
•   In turn
•   Then
Make sure you know the meaning and grammar of the words and phrases above before you use them. Do not use them if you are not 100% sure about how they should be used in a sentence.
Check Your Essay
You should try to leave 3-4 minutes at the end to check and improve your work. Many students do not do this because they feel they do not have enough time, however, it is better to try and get everything done in 15 minutes and then check and refine your work, than do everything in 20 minutes.
Things that you should check are:
1.   Are there any spelling or punctuation mistakes?
2.   Are the verbs the correct tense?
3.   Does the process I describe make sense? Does it match the diagram?
4.   Is there any vocabulary repetition we could remove with synonyms?
5.   Do I have 4 clear paragraphs?
6.   Did I write over 150 words?
7.   Have I included things only obvious from the diagram?
8.   Have I included the main features in the overview?


Writing Skill / How to write cause/effect essays in IELTS?
« on: October 10, 2019, 01:07:23 PM »

Cause and effect essay questions in IELTS Writing task 2 give you a problem and ask you to state the main causes of this problem and discuss its possible effects

This is an example of cause/effect IELTS writing task 2 question:

Today more people are overweight than ever before.

What in your opinion are the primary causes of this?

What are the main effects of this epidemic?

Generating ideas

After you’ve read the question, you can clearly determine the problem: growing number of overweight people.

But before you start to write your essay, it’s a good idea to think of 2-3 causes and 2-3 possible effects of the problem.

Causes of obesity:

inactive lifestyle (relying on cars instead of walking, fewer physical demands at work, inactive leisure activities)
unhealthy eating habits (eating fast-food, drinking high-calorie beverages, consuming large portions of food, eating irregularly)

Effects of obesity:

physical health problems
loss of productivity
depressions and mental disorders
Now, after we’ve generated the main ideas for causes and effects, it’s time to use these ideas in our essay.

Band 9 answer structure

As you know, there are many ways to structure your essay, but we’ll use a structure that has been approved by many IELTS examiners to be high-scoring and coherent.

Band-9 essay structure:

Body paragraph 1 - causes
Body paragraph 2 - effects

Let’s take a look at each of these sections in detail.


Write your introduction in two sentences:

Sentence 1 - paraphrase the statement (you can use ‘nowadays/today/these days’ to start):
Nowadays the number of overweight people is constantly growing.

Sentence 2 - say what you’ll write about in your essay:
This essay will discuss the main reasons of this epidemic and then describe the possible effects of the problem.

Body paragraph 1 - causes

Sentence 1 - state all the main causes of obesity:
In my opinion, the foremost causes of obesity are inactive lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits.

Sentences 2-3 - describe the first cause. Assume that your examiner has no knowledge in this area and you have to explain all the details to him.
Today more and more people rely on cars instead of walking, have less physical demands at work and prefer inactive leisure activities. This results in burning less calories and gaining weight.

Sentences 4-5 - describe the second cause. Don’t forget that it’s useful to give examples while describing causes!
Moreover, the problem is accentuated by the growing number of people, who eat irregularly and consume large portions of high-calorie food. For example, about 50% of the adult population in Europe with so-called disordered eating suffer from obesity.

Body paragraph 2 - effects

Sentence 1 - state all the possible effects:
The possible effects of this problem include physical health problems and loss of productivity.

Sentences 2-3 - explain the first effect and give an example:
First of all, obesity results in incorrect functioning of the human body and contributes to the risk of developing some chronic illnesses. For example, as body fat percentage increases, the person’s metabolism worsens, which in turn may result in diabetes or heart diseases.

Sentences 4-6 - explain the second effect and support it with an example:
Secondly, overweight people are very unhealthy and often suffer from stress and tiredness. This lessens their work capacity and results in lower productivity. For example, it has been proven that an obese person needs to put more effort to complete some task than a person with normal weight.

For the conclusion you need simply to restate the problem and sum up the causes and effects that you described in your body paragraphs:

To sum up, obesity is a big problem that affects a lot of people nowadays. It’s mainly caused by inactive lifestyle and eating disorders and results in severe health problems and loss of productivity.

Model essay

Nowadays the number of overweight people is constantly increasing. This essay will discuss the main reasons of this epidemic and then describe the possible effects of the problem.

In my opinion, the foremost causes of obesity are inactive lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits. Today more and more people rely on cars instead of walking, have less physical demands at work and prefer inactive leisure activities. This results in burning less calories and gaining weight. Moreover, the problem is accentuated by the growing number of people, who eat irregularly and consume large portions of high-calorie food. For example, about 50% of the adult population in Europe with so-called disordered eating suffer from obesity.

The possible effects of this problem include physical health problems and loss of productivity. First of all, obesity results in incorrect functioning of the human body and contributes to the risk of developing some chronic illnesses. For example, as body fat percentage increases, the person’s metabolism worsens, which in turn may result in diabetes or heart diseases. Secondly, overweight people are very unhealthy and often suffer from stress and tiredness. This lessens their work capacity and results in lower productivity. For example, it has been proven that an obese person needs to put more effort to complete some task than a person with normal weight.

To sum up, obesity is a big problem that affects a lot of people nowadays. It’s mainly caused by inactive lifestyle and eating disorders and results in severe health problems and loss of productivity.


Writing Skill / How to Write a Summary
« on: October 10, 2019, 01:05:13 PM »
How to Write a Summary
With thanks to: Swales, John M. and Christine B. Feat. Academic Writing for Graduate Students,
Essential Tasks and Skills. Ann Arbor: U Michigan P, 1994. 105-130.
Preparing to Write: To write a good summary it is important to thoroughly understand the
material you are working with. Here are some preliminary steps in writing a summary.
1. Skim the text, noting in your mind the subheadings. If there are no subheadings, try to
divide the text into sections. Consider why you have been assigned the text. Try to
determine what type of text you are dealing with. This can help you identify important
2. Read the text, highlighting important information and taking notes.
3. In your own words, write down the main points of each section.
4. Write down the key support points for the main topic, but do not include minor detail.
5. Go through the process again, making changes as appropriate.
For example:
Global Implications of Patent Law Variation
A patent is an exclusive right to use
an invention for a certain period of time,
which is given to an inventor as compensation
for disclosure of an invention.
Although it would be beneficial for the
world economy to have uniform patent laws,
each country has its own laws designed to
protect domestic inventions and safeguard
technology. Despite widespread variation,
patent laws generally fall under one of two
principles: the first-to-file and first-toinvent.
The first-to-file principle awards a
patent to the person or institution that
applies for a patent first, while the first-toinvent
principle grants the patent to the
person or institution that was first to invent –
and can prove it. Most countries have
adopted the first-to-file system. However,
the United States maintains a first-to-invent
system, despite obvious shortcomings. A
result of countries employing different
patent law principles is inconsistency of
patent ownership.
This first sentence is a general definition. It
may be safe to assume that your audience is
already familiar with patents; thus you do
not have to include it in your summary.
This is the main idea.
The classification of the two principles is
Ignore specific details about the different
principles. The terms are self-explanatory.
It is important to point out that most of the
world follows one system and the United
States another.
Include a description of the problem
surrounding variation in patent laws.
Patent ownership is not recognized
globally. On the contrary, ownership may
change depending on the country. It is not
uncommon for an invention to have two
patent owners – one in the United States and
one in the rest of the world. This unclear
ownership often has economic
consequences. If a company is interested in
using a patented invention, it may be unable
to receive permission from both patent
owners, which in turn may prevent
manufacture of a particular product. Even if
permission is received from both owners,
pay royalties to both may be quite costly. In
this case, if the invention is useful enough, a
company may proceed and pass on the
added cost to consumers.
International economic tension has
also been increasing as a result of differing
policies. Many foreign individuals and
companies believe that they are at a serious
disadvantage in the United States with
regard to patent ownership because of the
logistical difficulties in establishing first-toinvent
status. Further, failure of the United
States to recognize patent ownership in other
countries is in violation of the Paris
Conventions on Industrial Properties, which
requires all member nations to treat all
patents equally. The conflict surrounding
patents has prompted the World Intellectual
Properties Organization (WIPO) to lobby for
universality in patent laws. WIPO maintains
that the first necessary step involves
compelling the United States to reexamine
its patent principle, taking into account the
reality of a global economy. This push may
indeed result in more global economic
Provide some support/explanation for the
problem, but not all the details
Describe this other problem associated with
differing patent principles.
Provide some explanation, but not all the
Describe the action taken to solve the
Writing the Summary:
When writing the summary there are three main requirements:
1. The summary should cover the original as a whole.
2. The material should be presented in a neutral fashion.
3. The summary should be a condensed version of the material, presented in your own
* * Also do not include anything that does not appear in the original. (Do not include your own
comments or evaluation.)
Be sure to identify your source.
For example:
In his paper “Global Implications of Patent Law Variation,” Koji Suzuki (1991) states
that lack of consistency in the world’s patent laws is a serious problem. In most of the world,
patent ownership is given to the inventor that is first to file for a patent. However, the United
States maintains a first-to-invent policy. In view of this, patent ownership can change depending
on the country. Multiple patent ownership can result in economic problems; however, most
striking is the international tension it causes. The fact that the United States does not recognize
patent ownership in other countries, in violation of the Paris Convention on Industrial Properties,
has prompted the World Intellectual Properties Organization (WIPO) to push the United States to
review its existing patent law principles.

Reading Skill / Reading Comprehension: Tricks
« on: July 24, 2019, 04:35:08 PM »
One question that constantly plagues every student's mind is -  How to improve in reading comprehensions? You have to admit, Reading Comprehension questions are a tricky ball game. RC passages can be time-consuming, energy-sapping and information-intensive. On the other hand, the rewards they offer are fascinating: if you grasp a passage well, you should be able to get most questions in a single passage correct, and this means you gain quite a few marks by solving one set of questions. At the best of times, you are likely to find a passage that you have never read previously. One of the most significant factors for solving reading comprehensions and being accurate in this area actually revolves around the approach you adopt for this topic. How do you cope with such a challenge actually becomes a central aspect of how you perform in reading comprehension.
While ensuring that you strike a fine balance for this area, it is important that you keep a number of things in your mind and ensure you do not fall into the common pitfalls. With regards to the approach you should adopt for reading comprehensions, keep the following points in mind:

1. Do not over-emphasize trivialities
Details are important but don't be obsessed with examples, illustrations and so on. You just need to get a hang of the main point and not the examples. Comprehending the overall flow and structure will help you analyze and answer the questions.

2. Do not memorize
You do not need to memorize every word present in the passage. Understanding the flow, structure and the main points in the passage should be your priority. For factual or specific point questions, you can always re-read the passage.

3. Do not read the passage first
Always go through the questions first and then the passage. This will prepare you to focus on the things you need to look in the passage. Focus only on the questions, and not on a particular answer option. A quick overview of the questions is sufficient.

4. Do not over-emphasize on vocabulary skills for RCs
Having a strong vocabulary is great however having Shakespearean vocabulary will not prevent you from understanding the passage. So do not put yourself under stress in this area, and while reading the passage, make sure that you understand the gist of the passage and do not get stuck on particular words.

5. Do not spend time on RCs that you cannot comprehend at first
At times we come across a passage that we are not able to comprehend. If you are struggling with one such passage in the exam, make sure you have the patience to avoid such a passage. Focus on the ones that you can manage easily. Go back to the tricky passage in case of absolute necessity.

6. Do not think the correct option would come from outside the passage
Any of the options that is out of scope is never the correct answer. The right answer is always based on the information given within the passage. Do not focus on any of the options that distract you from the passage.

7. Do not rely on 'trigger words'
You might get trapped in the web of 'trigger words' if you don’t read attentively through the passage. A passage may focus on one point for quite a bit of sentences and then change it towards the end with trigger words like 'but' or 'however'. This will usually confuse readers who skim through the passage or rush through it in haste.

8. Make Notes
While reading obscure /abstract text, make sure you make some quick notes for ready reference. You can write the general flow, structure, paragraph-wise flow and important points. Remember that you do not have make really long notes, just make a quick note of the important markers/points in the passage.

9. Try to preempt questions
This is a really difficult skill but if you can master this, you will surely by the 'King of Reading Comprehensions'. While reading the passage, try to identify the possible questions that could be asked, and which parts of the passage seem the most likely candidates for question-setting.

10. Opening and Closing paragraphs require extra focus
Questions such as the main idea question are based on the overall subject of the passage, and majority of the times the answer for this question type lies in the first and last paragraph of the passage. Ensure you derive the maximum possible information from these paragraphs.

11. Constantly question yourself while reading the passage
In order to maintain your concentration while reading, make sure that some basic questions keep playing at the back of your mind: What is the author's main point? Why is the author writing this? How has the author chosen to convey his main point? How has the author organized his material?

Finally, don't expect to be stimulated. In fact, expect the opposite! The majority of the times you would be bored by RC topics and you should not allow this to drain your energy. Maintain an impartial attitude towards the passage, and do not get mentally hassled by obscure content.


Writing Skill / How to Write a Good Paragraph
« on: July 24, 2019, 04:28:18 PM »
Writing well composed of academic paragraphs can be tricky. The following is a guide on how to draft, expand, refine, and explain your ideas so that you write clear, well-developed paragraphs and discussion posts:
Step 1: Decide the Topic of Your Paragraph
Before you can begin writing, you need to know what you are writing about. First, look at the writing prompt or assignment topic. As you look at the prompt, note any key terms or repeated phrases because you will want to use those words in your response. Then ask yourself:
• On what topic am I supposed to be writing?
• What do I know about this topic already?
• If I don’t know how to respond to this assignment, where can I go to find some answers?
• What does this assignment mean to me? How do I relate to it?
After looking at the prompt and doing some additional reading and research, you should better understand your topic and what you need to discuss.
Step 2: Develop a Topic Sentence
Before writing a paragraph, it is important to think first about the topic and then what you want to say about the topic. Most often, the topic is easy, but the question then turns to what you want to say about the topic. This concept is sometimes called the controlling idea.
Strong paragraphs are typically about one main idea or topic, which is often explicitly stated in a topic sentence. Good topic sentences should always contain both (1) a topic and (2) a controlling idea.
The topic – The main subject matter or idea covered in the paragraph.
The controlling idea – This idea focuses on the topic by providing direction to the composition.
Read the following topic sentences. They all contain a topic (in orange) and a controlling idea (in purple). When your paragraphs contain a clearly stated topic sentence such as one of the following, your reader will know what to expect and, therefore, understand your ideas better.
Examples of topic sentences:
• People can avoid plagiarizing by taking certain precautions.
• There are several advantages to online education.
• Effective leadership requires specific qualities that anyone can develop.
Step 3: Demonstrate Your Point
After stating your topic sentence, you need to provide information to prove, illustrate, clarify, and/or exemplify your point.
Ask yourself:
• What examples can I use to support my point?
• What information can I provide to help clarify my thoughts?
• How can I support my point with specific data, experiences, or other factual material?
• What information does the reader need to know in order to see my point?
Here is a list of the kinds of information you can add to your paragraph:
Proprietary Information of Ashford University, Created by Academics, CR 215140
• Facts, details, reasons, examples
• Information from the readings or class discussions
• Paraphrases or short quotations
• Statistics, polls, percentages, data from research studies
• Personal experience, stories, anecdotes, examples from your life
Sometimes, adding transitional or introductory phrases like: for example, for instance, first, second, or last can help guide the reader. Also, make sure you are citing your sources appropriately.
Step 4: Give Your Paragraph Meaning
After you have given the reader enough information to see and understand your point, you need to explain why this information is relevant, meaningful, or interesting.
Ask yourself:
• What does the provided information mean?
• How does it relate to your overall point, argument, or thesis?
• Why is this information important/significant/meaningful?
• How does this information relate to the assignment or course I am taking?
Step 5: Conclude
After illustrating your point with relevant information, add a concluding sentence. Concluding sentences link one paragraph to the next and provide another device for helping you ensure your paragraph is unified. While not all paragraphs include a concluding sentence, you should always consider whether one is appropriate. Concluding sentences have two crucial roles in paragraph writing:
First, they draw together the information you have presented to elaborate on your controlling idea by:
• Summarizing the point(s) you have made.
• Repeating words or phrases from the topic sentence.
• Using linking words that indicate that conclusions are being drawn (e.g., therefore, thus, resulting).
Second, they often link the current paragraph to the following paragraph. They may anticipate the topic sentence of the next paragraph by:
• Introducing a word/phrase or new concept which will then be picked up in the topic sentence of the next paragraph.
• Using words or phrases that point ahead (e.g., the following, another, other).
Step 6: Look Over and Proofread
The last step in good paragraph writing is proofreading and revision. Before you submit your writing, look over your work at least one more time. Try reading your paragraph out loud to make sure it makes sense. Also, ask yourself these questions:
• Does my paragraph answer the prompt and support my thesis?
• Does it make sense? Does it use the appropriate academic voice?

Source: Ashford University writing center

ELT / ELT in Bangladesh: New method required
« on: July 13, 2019, 11:37:46 AM »
The overall condition of English in Bangladesh is undeniably in a declining state as the educational system is designed to generate more GPA 5s rather than building up a future generation skilled at the language. That is why, about a year ago, only two students qualified at the admission test of Dhaka University because most of the test takers failed in English.

Under such depressing circumstances, classroom teaching practices require thorough review with the aim of creating new scopes for adopting and adapting to new teaching techniques to promote communicative skills for learners.
Bangladesh implemented a more interactive teaching approach--Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), replacing memorization and translation based method--Grammar Translation Method (GTM) in 1997 with a cordial intention to teach communicative English to the school students. However, the attempt miserably failed because of unskilled teachers in CLT, extremely large classes, and some other reasons.
CLT requires interactive classroom teaching involving speaking and learning activities like role-playing, interviewing, language games, etc. Speaking is more emphasized in this approach than reading or writing.
Unfortunately, the radical change in teaching method has not caused any constructive impact since classroom teaching remains the same as teachers are still practicing the old methods that were in use during the GTM phrase before 1997. Even today, classroom teaching in most of the schools of the country depends more on lectures and less on interactions--- teacher to student and student to student.
The text books have also been redesigned for the sake of the learners’ creativity; however, until or unless classroom teaching changes in schools, Bangladesh cannot hope for a positive drive in terms of the English skills of its population.
The teachers are habituated to deliver lectures having the students as passive listeners. Students are accustomed to the traditional teacher-fronted classroom atmosphere; they still feel comfortable to maintain silence all through the class and to passively listen to what their teachers say.
Teacher-dominated classroom decorum and natural shyness impede the students to speak out, to share or interact even at mathematics and general science classes, let alone English. And no effective measures are generally taken by the school authority or as a personal venture of the educators to make an exception in teaching English.
Particularly rural or semi-urban schools generally do not bother what the students are really learning and the instructors are also not cordial enough in the holistic improvement of their services to the students because of insufficient salaries they receive and also a large number of students they have to tackle. In such a despairing situation, English teachers should be given intensive training on how to manage large communicative classrooms in a short span of time because generally class duration at schools in Bangladesh is less than one hour. And managing large classes might get easier if the teachers are taught how to use educational games.
There are numerous games designed to teach students of different age groups and numbers. Besides, most of these games are really interesting requiring the class to be divided into small sub-groups thus making the whole process quite easier for the instructor to deal with. In addition, there are skill-particular games; for example, games to develop vocabulary, games to sharpen grammar, or games particularly designed to promote fluency. Teachers can feel free to take on a game according to the lesson plan or needs of the learners. It is high time that traditional lecture-based, teacher-dominated teaching methods be changed for more interactive and informal education techniques to ensure better outcomes of CLT.
Authentic materials—the texts that have not been written for educational purposes, including newspaper articles, pamphlets, menu cards, short stories, jokes, etc are extensively used as teaching materials at schools all over the world as these are easily available and affordable; teachers of our schools can also consider using such texts as supplementary
materials in classroom
The language of these texts is generally more spontaneous and there are millions of such documents available everywhere around us, and all a teacher has to do is to choose some that would be appropriate for his/her planned curriculum. Even an advertisement leaflet of some product could be used to inform about adjectives and articles. News articles of popular topics including sports and movies could also be used for references to sentence constructions etc. And all these materials---pamphlets or newspapers, are very economical and easily collectible. Undeniably textbooks are a must-read for students, but when it comes to promoting creativity and natural English, it is high time to think out of the box concerning supplementary teaching materials.


Discourse Analysis / Discourse Analysis and Vocabulary
« on: July 11, 2019, 03:31:20 PM »
Vocabulary is the most important single element of language learning syllabus. But, as Madrid and McLaren (1995:149) states, “vocabulary learning does not take place in a vacuum.” Vocabulary is integrated in texts; they are the bricks we insert in the structure of texts.
Lexical cohesion
Halliday and Hasan (1976) establish two ways of creating cohesion in a text: grammatical cohesion and lexical cohesion. Grammatical cohesion consists of reference, ellipsis, substitution and discourse markers and conjunctions. Lexical cohesion or “the cohesive effect achieved by the selection of vocabulary” (ibid.:274) refers to reiteration and collocation.
Reiteration is a general lexical cohesive phenomenon that includes several different procedures of cohesion: the repetition of a lexical item, the use of a synonym, near-synonym or superordinate and the use of a “general noun”. Consider the following example:

The ascent
The climb
The task
The thing
I started the ascent of the peak.
It is perfectly easy.

All of them ”have in common the fact that one lexical item refers back to another, to which it is related by having a common referent.” (ibid.:278) It is interesting to note that these items of lexical cohesion are normally accompanied by a (grammatical) reference item, normally the. It should also be considered that there is a continuum from the repetition of the same lexical item to the use of pronominal reference.

However, it is also possible to have lexical cohesion without both terms having the same referent, that is, “instances of cohesion (which) are purely lexical, a function simply of the co-occurrence of lexical items, and not in any way dependent on the relation of reference.” (ibid.:283) So, there are four possibilities of lexical cohesion as far as reference is concerned: Identical, inclusive, exclusive and unrelated, as it is shown in the following example:

That boy’s going to fall if he doesn’t take care.
Those boys are always getting into trouble.
And there’s another boy standing underneath.
There’s a boy climbing that tree.
Most boys love climbing trees.

So, lexical cohesion is a textual resource which does not depend on reference; it is based solely on form. However, lexical cohesion and reference normally happen together in a given context as a way of creating texture.
General Nouns
General nouns are a class of nouns that is particularly important for lexical cohesion and for text creation, but which is frequently underestimated by language teachers. As we have just seen, they represent a borderline case between lexical cohesion and reference, in the same sense as they are between lexical and grammatical items (members of open and closed systems respectively).

From a lexical point, they are superordinate members of large lexical sets; they are normally accompanied by the demonstrative reference, although it can also be found with other demonstratives in tonic position (general nouns in cohesive function are never tonic).
General nouns normally convey an interpersonal attitudinal meaning of familiarity. The interpersonal meaning implies that the speaker is emotionally involved with the referent of the general noun; this attitude may be contemptuous or sympathetic.
So far we have studied cohesion created by means of pairs of words somehow associated with each other in the language. For example, a boy and a girl are cohesive items through their opposition, called complementarity. However, cohesion should even be enhanced further to include terms whose association is difficult to define in lexico-semantic terms but which occur in proximity in a given text.

Collocation is defined as the tendency of two lexical items to appear in similar contexts. This co-occurrence provokes cohesion. For instance, it would be easy to find a text on English literature where words such as poetry…literature…reader…writer…style may appear. These collocations cooperate in the creation of texture, the quality of a text being a unity.


In this unit, we have completed the scheme of textual cohesion. Grammatical and lexical cohesion are the two procedures to create texture. In a sense, the meaning of cohesion has also been enhanced to include lexical cohesion without reference, as in collocations. Halliday and Hasan (1976:285) finally states that “there is cohesion between any pair of lexical items that stand to each other in some recognizable lexicosemantic (word meaning) relation”.
Lexical cohesion is a very important topic for language teachers, related as it is to vocabulary. The use of synonyms and near-synonyms, general nouns and collocations are features of a good text but they are unfortunately frequent absent from the language learning syllabus. And it is only through the use of authentic texts that language learners may familiarise themselves with these lexical cohesion devices.


Phonetics and Phonology / Phonetics and phonology
« on: July 11, 2019, 02:00:30 PM »
Phonetics: In order to produce sound humans use various body parts including the lips, tongue, teeth, pharynx, and lungs. Phonetics is the term for the description and classification of speech sounds, particularly how sounds are produced, transmitted and received. A phoneme is the smallest unit in the sound system of a language; for example, the t sound in the word top.

Various phonetic alphabets have been developed to represent the speech sounds in writing through the use of symbols. Some of these symbols are identical to the Roman letters used in many language alphabets; for example p and b. Other symbols are based on the Greek alphabet, such as θ to represent the th- sound in thin and thought. Still, others have been specially invented; e.g. ð for the th- sound in the and then. The most widely used phonetic script is the International Phonetic Alphabet. There is an excellent article on this in Wikipedia.

: Phonology is the term used for the study of the speech sounds used in a particular language. The distinctive accents that many learners of English have are due to differences between the phonological system of their language and that of English. From birth, and possibly before, we learn to recognize and produce the distinctive sounds of our own language. We do not need to give any thought to how to have the lips, tongue, teeth, etc. working together to produce the desired sounds. The physical structures of parts of the sound system are adapted to produce native-language sounds.

English has some speech sounds (phonemes) that do not exist in other languages. It is no surprise, therefore, that native speakers of those languages have difficulties producing or even perceiving such sounds. This is particularly true for speakers from language families other than the Germanic one to which English belongs.

Note: It is assumed that most visitors to these pages will not know the phonetic script. Consequently, phonological difficulties will be made clear by reference to common English words or syllables, and not by the use of phonetic symbols.


Pages: 1 ... 23 24 [25] 26 27