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Messages - masud895

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Internet / What is IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6)?
« on: June 04, 2018, 10:08:56 AM »
IPv6 is the successor to Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4). It was designed as an evolutionary upgrade to the Internet Protocol and will, in fact, coexist with the older IPv4 for some time. IPv6 is designed to allow the Internet to grow steadily, both in terms of the number of hosts connected and the total amount of data traffic transmitted.
IPv6 is often referred to as the "next generation" Internet standard and has been under development now since the mid-1990s. IPv6 was born out of concern that the demand for IP addresses would exceed the available supply.
The Benefits of IPv6
While increasing the pool of addresses is one of the most often-talked about benefit of IPv6, there are other important technological changes in IPv6 that will improve the IP protocol:
•   No more NAT (Network Address Translation)
•   Auto-configuration
•   No more private address collisions
•   Better multicast routing
•   Simpler header format
•   Simplified, more efficient routing
•   True quality of service (QoS), also called "flow labeling"
•   Built-in authentication and privacy support
•   Flexible options and extensions
•   Easier administration (say good-bye to DHCP)

IT Forum / The advantages and disadvantages of Internet of Things
« on: May 20, 2018, 02:25:45 PM »
Here are some advantages of IoT:

1.   Data: The more the information, the easier it is to make the right decision. Knowing what to get from the grocery while you are out, without having to check on your own, not only saves time but is convenient as well.

2.   Tracking: The computers keep a track both on the quality and the viability of things at home. Knowing the expiration date of products before one consumes them improves safety and quality of life. Also, you will never run out of anything when you need it at the last moment.

3.   Time: The amount of time saved in monitoring and the number of trips done otherwise would be tremendous.

4.   Money: The financial aspect is the best advantage. This technology could replace humans who are in charge of monitoring and maintaining supplies.

Here are some disadvantages of IoT:

1.   Compatibility: As of now, there is no standard for tagging and monitoring with sensors. A uniform concept like the USB or Bluetooth is required which should not be that difficult to do.
2.   Complexity: There are several opportunities for failure with complex systems. For example, both you and your spouse may receive messages that the milk is over and both of you may end up buying the same. That leaves you with double the quantity required. Or there is a software bug causing the printer to order ink multiple times when it requires a single cartridge.

3.   Privacy/Security: Privacy is a big issue with IoT. All the data must be encrypted so that data about your financial status or how much milk you consume isn’t common knowledge at the work place or with your friends.

4.   Safety: There is a chance that the software can be hacked and your personal information misused. The possibilities are endless. Your prescription being changed or your account details being hacked could put you at risk. Hence, all the safety risks become the consumer’s responsibility.

IT Forum / What is the difference between H+, LTE, 4G and 3G?
« on: May 08, 2018, 12:48:31 AM »
E stands for Edge, Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution. It is pre 3G technology and again, more likely to occur when you are in a weak signal area. You may not be able to effectively browse the internet on your device, when getting this signal.
3G (Third Generation)
3G is the third generation of the mobile network and provides adequate signal strength for browsing the internet. Most smartphone devices have the option of 3G fallback (if 4G is unavailable in your area) and 3G network towers are available in nearly every city nationwide.
H (High Speed Packet Access)
H stands for HSPA, High Speed Packet Access. HSPA (or H) is considered an advancement of the 3G networks or "version 3.5". It offers a faster network connection than the 3G network.
H+ (Evolved HSPA)
H+ stands for Evolved High Speed Packet Access. The network created before the emergence of 4G. It offers the fastest maximum speeds of all 3G networks (including 3G and H or HSPA).
LTE/4G (Fourth Generation) 
Stands for fourth generation of the mobile network, and is also called LTE or Long Term Evolution. It offers the fastest maximum upload and download speeds of any network. For a network to consider itself 4G, it must meet the standards of the ITU or International Telecommunications Union.
Keep in mind, many H+ (HSPA+) networks mimic the speeds of 4G (or LTE), but because they do not meet the ITU requirements, they do not get the title of “LTE”.

IT Forum / Difference between Mac OS X and Windows
« on: June 09, 2017, 01:59:42 AM »
The battle between Mac and PC users has been raging for decades and for those who are not sure which side to be on then the challenge is deciding between which platform to use. This is always easy, especially with an increasing number of programs that work on both systems or even in the cloud, not to mention the fact that both offer business-friendly operation systems. The real question is what are the differences between a Mac and a PC?

Apple prides itself on its iconic design while PC design depends on which company is making them. Even with the first Macintosh, introduced in 1984, the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and monitor were housed in one single unit thus reducing the number of cables necessary and creating a sleeker look. This design forward view has carried throughout the company’s history and modern Macs are sleek, light, and designed to look cool.

PCs on the other hand, don’t come from one single manufacturer like Mac so there are countless designs available on the market. If you don’t like the design from one manufacturer you can simply look to others. With Mac, if you’re not keen on their design, you’re out of luck.

While both Mac and PC have similar internal parts like RAM, hard drives, and graphics cards, their speed and capacity varies. Macs generally outperform PCs because of better hardware optimization, but tend to skimp slightly when it comes to RAM, hard disk space, and USB ports. PCs offer a wider range of customization, and you can add almost any parts you want.

Connections and optical drives found on Macs and PCs are different too. Mac offers standard selection of features including a Superdrive, audio in and audio out, USB, FireWire, Thunderbolt, and Ethernet. PCs on the other hand offer comparable features but with added bonuses like Blu-Ray players, TV tuners, touch screens, and HDMI ports.

The main difference here is that with Macs you have generally limited customization options, while PCs usually allow for a much wider range whilst supporting different kinds of hardware.

Operating System
Most PCs today come preinstalled with Windows 8.1 while Mac runs OS X Mavericks with users having the option to upgrade to the new OS X – Yosemite – this fall. OS X is generally thought to be more user-friendly, while Windows PCs generally see a more comfortable user base and a higher number of programs that work with the OS.

However, with the increasing adoption of virtual desktops and cloud systems, the idea of a separate OS being better is quickly falling to the wayside. This is especially true if you use a virtualized desktop solution where you connect to a server which delivers your desktop.

One of the biggest reasons as to why Mac hasn’t captured a larger share of the market is due to the lack of software for its OS. This is most obvious in business computing where many applications are standardized for Windows but are not available on Mac. That being said, the major programs businesses use on a daily basis are all available for Mac too, so it’s more the customized software you will need to look into.

User interface (UI)
While many computer users will proclaim one or the other superior when it comes to user interface, or UI, this is ultimately a matter of personal preference. Highlights of the UI in Mac include Launchpad which is a screen full of app icons for easy access, hot corners that can be customized for various types of views, a dock featuring your favorite apps, full screen mode for apps, and spaces that create as many desktops as you like to help minimize clutter.

With PCs UI, highlights include a touch-friendly interface which contains live tiles or rectangular boxes on the screen that represent an app and which is refreshed with the latest app content. Above all, Windows has the familiar desktop which almost every computer user is comfortable with using, and may even prefer.

There are more components that set Mac and PC apart. Find out more next month where we will dig into security, selections and customer satisfaction between the two.

IT Forum / iPhone 7 Features
« on: September 22, 2016, 03:57:15 PM »
The iPhone 7, as you may have heard (you've certainly heard), has no headphone jack and it looks almost identical to the 2014 iPhone 6 and 2015 iPhone 6S. But there are still compelling reasons to consider an iPhone 7, even if you own last year's model.

The iPhone 7 is now fully water-resistant (it can take a shallow dunking).

The camera takes notably better photos, especially in low light, and adds the optical image stabilization feature previously restricted to the 5.5-inch Plus model.

The battery lasts longer -- probably a couple of hours or more a day, under normal usage. (We'll update this review after we test the battery in our lab.)

The processor is faster, although you might only notice the speed on some intensive games and the video and photo-editing apps.

Recently, Apple announced that it has taken new and significant measures to strengthen privacy on mobile devices, which will ensure that it is no longer possible for Apple or law enforcement to unlock encrypted devices. The news quickly triggered a reaction from FBI Director James Comey who stated that he was “very concerned” about these new steps and then went on to say that “What concerns me about this is companies marketing something expressly to allow people to place themselves beyond the law.”

The FBI’s concern is fully justified; computer crime has become an extremely sophisticated, global and lucrative business that continues to grow in its prevalence and frequency. According to a recent study from the security company McAfee, the annual cost to the global economy from cyber crime is now more than $400 billion.

New and powerful technologies adopted by consumers and business offer the same advantages to criminals, potentially hampering forensic investigations and rendering many traditional tools and techniques obsolete. Ironically, the powerful encryption necessary to protect our data has become an important part of the modern criminal’s toolbox.

To further complicate matters, there is a deep shortage of forensic experts. In addition, the sheer volume of complex data generated and stored in the cloud, on social media platforms and on mobile devices is allowing criminals to better cover their tracks — making the workload for investigators even greater.

While complex, these challenges are not insurmountable. However, they do present a series of long-term issues and questions, which must be addressed.

Four key areas of immediate concern include the needs:

For business and government leaders to better understand the importance of digital forensics and the cyber crime risks facing their organizations?
To strengthen the relationship between law enforcement and private enterprise and to promote best practices for conducting joint cyber crime investigations.
To inspire appropriate individuals to enter the cyber security field and to use their skills to improve investigation and support methods.
To keep pace with technology and to move toward a 24/7 “Forensics as a Service” model that uses the cloud’s powerful processing power to facilitate complex investigations.

Source :

Tools for Cyber Security / computer forensics and Uses of computer forensics
« on: September 18, 2016, 01:32:52 PM »
Computer forensics is the practice of collecting, analysing and reporting on digital data in a way that is legally admissible. It can be used in the detection and prevention of crime and in any dispute where evidence is stored digitally. Computer forensics follows a similar process to other forensic disciplines, and faces similar issues.

There are few areas of crime or dispute where computer forensics cannot be applied. Law enforcement agencies have been among the earliest and heaviest users of computer forensics and consequently have often been at the forefront of developments in the field.

Computers may constitute a ‘scene of a crime’, for example with hacking [1] or denial of service attacks [2] or they may hold evidence in the form of emails, internet history, documents or other files relevant to crimes such as murder, kidnap, fraud and drug trafficking.

It is not just the content of emails, documents and other files which may be of interest to investigators but also the ‘metadata’ [3] associated with those files. A computer forensic examination may reveal when a document first appeared on a computer, when it was last edited, when it was last saved or printed and which user carried out these actions.

More recently, commercial organisations have used computer forensics to their benefit in a variety of cases such as;

* Intellectual Property theft
* Industrial espionage
* Employment disputes
* Fraud investigations
* Forgeries
* Bankruptcy investigations
* Inappropriate email and internet use in the work place
* Regulatory compliance

IT Forum / Certified Information Systems Security Professional
« on: September 18, 2016, 01:24:06 PM »
The vendor-neutral CISSP certification is the ideal credential for those with proven deep technical and managerial competence, skills, experience, and credibility to design, engineer, implement, and manage their overall information security program to protect organizations from growing sophisticated attacks.

Backed by (ISC)², the globally recognized, nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing the information security field, the CISSP was the first credential in the field of information security to meet the stringent requirements of ISO/IEC Standard 17024. Not only is the CISSP an objective measure of excellence, but also a globally recognized standard of achievement.

Who should obtain the CISSP certification?
The CISSP is ideal for those working in positions such as, but not limited to:

Security Consultant
Security Manager
IT Director/Manager
Security Auditor
Security Architect
 Security Analyst
Security Systems Engineer
Chief Information Security Officer
Director of Security
Network Architect

Internet / Attack of the Blue Screen of Death
« on: July 30, 2016, 01:19:12 PM »
Rewski13 asked the Desktops forum for the best way to diagnose and repair a recurring Blue Screen of Death.
You're working on an important project, and suddenly your screen is filled with seemingly incoherent white text against a blue background. There's nothing you can do but reboot your PC and hope that everything important was saved to your hard drive.

Microsoft calls these stop errors, but everyone else prefers a more descriptive label: The Blue Screen of Death (BSoD).

They're not as common as they used to be, but BSoDs still happen (I experienced one two days ago as I write this). If you get one, curse, reboot, and hope for the best. But if you're getting them frequently, you've got a problem that needs fixing.

The trick is to find information about your particular BSoD, and then--since that information usually comes in an obtuse form--search the Internet for more practical advice.

Link :

Internet / Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
« on: May 16, 2016, 11:02:44 AM »
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a protocol for speeding up and shaping network traffic flows. 
MPLS allows most packets to be forwarded at Layer 2 (the switching level) rather than having to be passed up to Layer 3 (the routing level). Each packet gets labeled on entry into the service provider's network by the ingress router. All the subsequent routing switches perform packet forwarding based only on those labels—they never look as far as the IP header. Finally, the egress router removes the label(s) and forwards the original IP packet toward its final destination.

Internet / Top Five VPN Advantages And Benefits
« on: May 16, 2016, 11:01:30 AM »
VPN is a technology which creates a virtual private network to which end users are connected via an encrypted channel.

VPN is popular both among home and corporate users. Its popularity is due to the fact that it brings unmatched benefits in an interconnected world full of challenges to information security and privacy.

VPN has unique advantages from which the top ones are improved security, privacy protection, access to restricted resources and better connectivity.

Security is one of the biggest challengers in today’s interconnected world. As soon as your PC and mobile phone are connected to the Internet, you are being targeted by unlimited number of malicious programs, viruses, hackers and other unknown new threats appearing every day. Not only this but also the information you send and received might be intercepted, read and even altered.

Local security solutions such as antivirus, firewall, etc., are not sufficient to protect you unfortunately. A separate, external solution is needed to protect the communication from you to the outside world.

That’s where VPN comes to play. VPNs secure the otherwise insecure connection between you and remote resources. VPNs should be used especially in public networks such as WiFis. In any case, as a general rule no network should be considered secure because the communication flow passes through numerous points (routers) and for an attacker is sufficient to compromise any one of these points in order to compromise the communication channel and its information flow.

However, even if the communication channel is compromised, you cannot be harmed or the harm will be minimal if you are connected to a VPN. This is because the VPN connection is encrypted and cannot be decrypted and thus read. When an attacker captures VPN traffic he will be able to see only incomprehensible characters going from you to a VPN server. Thus, the attacker is not even able to see to what remote resources you are connected (sites, chats, etc).

Privacy protection
Nowadays privacy is another serious challenge because you can be easily identified when you are online. This means that anyone from curious people and aggressive marketing company representatives to government officials can find your name, address and location with little difficulty.

As soon as you are connected online with your pc or mobile phone you are leaving traces such as your IP address and Internet service provider. This ultimately reveals essential personal information. To protect yourself from such highly undesired disclose you cannot count on any official regulations or Internet service providers.

Instead, to protect your privacy you should use VPN again. Thus, with VPN whenever you visit web sites, listen to radio, chat, etc. you will be identified with the VPN provider, i.e. his IP address, location etc. Essentially, your own IP address and personal details will remain hidden.

Using VPN for privacy protection is more than just recommended because of the frequent abuses with personal information. Furthermore, VPN is absolutely a must for any political activist or other people who have reasons to avoid disclosing their identity.

Even though there are other solutions such as web proxies to protect your identity they are not as efficient as the VPN technology. Proxies, for example, usually send information about the original IP of the client which makes them useless in regards to privacy protection.

Access to restricted resources
Sometimes service providers such as online radios, TVs, etc restrict access only to clients within certain geographical areas or Internet service providers. Other times company policies prevent employees to connect to generally available sites or resources such as Facebook. Such not always reasonable restrictions leave you with no option but to use VPN.

VPNs have multiple points of presence in different geographic regions. The fact that you are identified only with the VPN provider allows you to circumvent any geographical restrictions.

VPNs are especially popular in countries such as China where access to sites / resources is heavily restricted. In such countries you can access anything online as long as you are connected to a VPN.

VPNs also work the other way around in access restrictions. You or your organization may wish to limit the access to certain private resources such as file shares only to a certain network segment. This is essential from security point of view because authentication is rarely enough to protect the security of sensitive information.

Here again VPNs can be used and you can allow only the VPN network to connect to such private sensitive resources.

Better connectivity
Sometimes your Internet routes may not be optimal or your bandwidth may be limited especially towards International online resources. This leads to poor web experience and slow browsing especially for certain resources which are distant from your physical location.

In such cases you can connect to a local VPN point of presence which further routes your traffic. This will allow you to have a bandwidth to distant destinations similar to the bandwidth available between you and your local VPN server.

Such better connectivity can be observed especially in users whose ISPs differentiate local (usually country-wide) resources and international such. These providers will enforce bandwidth limits on access to International resources and you can avoid these resources only by using VPN.

Other benefits
VPNs have also other benefits depending on the VPN service provider you are using. For example, some VPN service providers allow their users to share more easily and faster information between themselves, play games and perform any other activity as if they are within a local area network (LAN).

Another benefit may include port forwarding. This means that if you have a resource, e.g. web server, IP camera, etc, you wish to share to the world or access remotely you may use the VPN for this purpose. This is especially useful if your resource is located inside a local network and has an internal IP address. In such cases this resource can be configured to connect to the VPN and thus receive an external IP at which it can be accessed

Internet / Virtual private network (VPN)
« on: May 16, 2016, 10:58:28 AM »
A virtual private network (VPN) is a technology that creates an encrypted connection over a less secure network. The benefit of using a VPN is that it ensures the appropriate level of security to the connected systems when the underlying network infrastructure alone cannot provide it. The justification for using a VPN instead of a private network usually boils down to cost and feasibility: It is either not feasible to have a private network (e.g., for a traveling sales rep) or it is too costly to do so. The most common types of VPNs are remote-access VPNs and site-to-site VPNs.

Computer forensics is the application of investigation and analysis techniques to gather and preserve evidence from a particular computing device in a way that is suitable for presentation in a court of law. The goal of computer forensics is to perform a structured investigation while maintaining a documented chain of evidence to find out exactly what happened on a computing device and who was responsible for it.

Uses of computer forensics

There are few areas of crime or dispute where computer forensics cannot be applied. Law enforcement agencies have been among the earliest and heaviest users of computer forensics and consequently have often been at the forefront of developments in the field.

Computers may constitute a ‘scene of a crime’, for example with hacking [1] or denial of service attacks [2] or they may hold evidence in the form of emails, internet history, documents or other files relevant to crimes such as murder, kidnap, fraud and drug trafficking.

It is not just the content of emails, documents and other files which may be of interest to investigators but also the ‘metadata’ [3] associated with those files. A computer forensic examination may reveal when a document first appeared on a computer, when it was last edited, when it was last saved or printed and which user carried out these actions.

More recently, commercial organisations have used computer forensics to their benefit in a variety of cases such as;

* Intellectual Property theft
* Industrial espionage
* Employment disputes
* Fraud investigations
* Forgeries
* Bankruptcy investigations
* Inappropriate email and internet use in the work place
* Regulatory compliance

Internet Risk / How to safe your Facebook Account?
« on: May 04, 2016, 02:03:10 PM »
Security Tips for Facebook
Here are 6 things you can do to help keep your account safe:
1.   Protect your password:
   Don't use your Facebook password anywhere else online.
   Never share your password. You should be the only one who knows it.
   Avoid including your name or common words. Your password should be difficult to guess.
2.   Use our extra security features.
3.   Make sure your email account(s) are secure.
4.   Log out of Facebook when you use a computer you share with other people. If you forget, you can log out remotely.
5.   Run anti-virus software on your computer:
   For Windows
   For Mac OS
6.   Think before you click or download anything.

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