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Messages - tokiyeasir

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Great.... Well write up!

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Real Estate / BRE Updated Class Schedule; Spring-2018
« on: January 15, 2019, 01:47:40 PM »
Please Check the attached file. You acan also visit, online notice board. Thank You

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Real Estate / BRE Class schedule; Spring-2019
« on: January 13, 2019, 04:58:45 PM »
FYI

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Dear Student(s),

Greetings from Department of Real Estate!!!

Batch wise Course distribution, Advising Schedule, Semester Schedule & Course Registration Schedule for semester Spring-2019 uploaded in the online notice board. Please check and ensure your regular registration on 13 January 2019. Class will be start from 15 January 2019 and the class routine will be publish soon. In case of any confusion, please feel free to contact.

Alhamdulilah, this semester attendance of our students was 75% in average and we allowed. But from spring-2019 we will not consider less than 80% ATTENDANCE RECORD.

Thank you

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Thanks.....

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Customer Relationship Techniques / CRM
« on: December 22, 2018, 01:27:11 PM »
FYI

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Digital Marketing Techniques / Digital Marketing
« on: December 22, 2018, 12:23:37 PM »
Concepts

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Basic & Traditional Marketing / Principles of Marketing
« on: December 22, 2018, 12:06:52 PM »
FYI

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Basic & Traditional Marketing / Principles of Marketing
« on: December 22, 2018, 12:05:52 PM »
FYI

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Land Development / Brief Guide for Purchasing Land in Bangladesh
« on: December 22, 2018, 11:57:47 AM »
Brief Guide for Purchasing Land in Bangladesh
Every person, who has ownership rights of immovable property and is recorded as such in records of rights or other public documents in which record of ownership is entered or maintained, is considered, as legal owner of immovable property and is entitled to transfer such property, either wholly or in part. Any person though not the owner of immovable property but legally authorized by its owner to transfer the same is also competent to transfer such property. Possessor of immovable property may claim ownership of the property however mere possession of an immovable property does not mean that the person is the real owner of the property. Title of immovable property, as you would appreciate, may be acquired either through purchase, long-term lease, gift or by way of inheritance etc. In order to ascertain the real owner in possession who can sale the property, it is particularly necessary to examine the records of rights or other public documents in which record of ownership is entered or maintained.

Confirm the record of rights from the Land Office
Land administration system in Bangladesh separates records of ownership and records of revenue as such. We have Land Records Offices for land records, surveys, publication and maintenance of records under the directorate of land records and survey, Ministry of Land. Bangladesh also has Land Revenue Offices under Ministry of Land. There are 11 administrative offices in each upazila (sub district). There are 64 districts in Bangladesh but only 61 of them have registration facility.
Three hill districts do not have registration centers. In Dhaka, the district land registration office has 13 Sub-registrar offices under the Ministry of Law.

Check & Verify Bia Deeds, Khatiayans & Mutation of the property in favour of the Seller
If the present Seller obtained the land through Purchase, the present purchaser should first see all such Sale Deeds (Bia Deed) to ascertain chain of ownership and it is desirable that at least 25 years chain of ownership should be clearly determined.
The second step is to seek documents in the form of Khatain from the Seller. The purchaser should check the Khatiayan records (C.S., S.A. R.S., B.S./City Jarip) as supplied by the seller and needs to verify through the lawyers whether documents supplied establishes ownership (either through purchase or inheritance) in favour of the seller. It is to be noted that draft/Khosra Khatiyan supplied by the seller is not eligible to verify the record and purchaser should ask for copies of certified/printed Khatiyan.
Purchaser also should verify the Khatiyan with the records at the Deputy Collectors Office (there has been long tradition of fabrication of Khatiayans by prospective sellers). Specific importance should be given to the last two Khatiyan of the concerned property.

Physical Survey
Most importantly, the Purchaser should conduct physical survey of the land. This will also provide the current conditions and verify the possession of the land.
Verification of payment of Ground Rate of the Property
Purchaser should also ask the Seller to furnish record of payment of updated Ground Rent for the prospective land. It is to be noted here that if the Ground Rate is not clear, the sub registrar’s office may refuse to register the property in favour of the seller.

Multiple Sellers & Attorney
In case of land is recorded in the name of the predecessor of the seller, Warishan certificate, issued by the representative of the local government in favour of the sellers has to be checked.
Also, if the land is sold by some of the successors (Not all), Registered Deed of Partition/Bia Deed has to be checked.
In case the land is sold by authorized attorney, Registered Power of Attorney is required.
Obtain the non-encumbrance certificate from the relevant sub-registry office
The buyer should check the legal status of the land (mortgaged or leased or ownership) at the relevant Sub-registry office. From January 2012 onwards, both Sub-registry and Land Revenue Offices provide non-encumbrance certificates. Sometimes land report is required.
A land report gives an idea about the current status and ownership of the land that may include chain of ownership, land tax, land record, registry status etc, whereas a non-encumbrance certificate is used in property transactions as an evidence of entitlement of the property.

Prepare deed of transfer and pay stamp duty
A lawyer may prepare the transfer deed, but it can also be prepared by the parties themselves. The deed must be prepared in stamped paper that should cost 3% of the property value to get it. This represents the stamp duty. Also, any Baina Deed executed between seller & purchaser needs to be registered as well.
Pay capital gains tax, registration fee, VAT and other taxes at a designated bank
Registration fee is payable to the bank in favour of the sub-registry office and the receipt is to be presented at the moment of applying for registration.
The buyer has to pay the local government tax to the concerned city corporation or municipality offices. Furthermore, a capital gains tax (CGT) and a VAT of 1.5% (applicable only for municipal corporation area payable by private housing and flat developers and commercial businesses) have to be paid at this stage. Capital gains tax is not applicable in rural areas for agriculture.

Apply for registration at the relevant Sub-registry
At this stage, the buyer may apply for registration at the concerned Sub-Registry Office, presenting the receipts of payment of the registration and other fees. A certified registration document is obtained within a week for the buyer’s record. The original sale deed/certificate requires about six months to be obtained.
Register the change in ownership at the Land Revenue Office
The change of ownership must be registered in the Land Revenue Office. The property is recorded under the name of the new owner, who is responsible for paying the land taxes from the day the property is transferred. An application is required to be made to the concerned AC with particulars of the property. The assistant commissioner will forward the same to the concerned Tahsil office who are responsible for conducting the relevant survey and providing a report to assistant commissioner of land. Upon satisfaction of the report, AC Land will issue Mutation Khatiyan in the name of the new owner along with a Duplicate Carbon Receipt (DCR). In the application form the applicant must clearly mention the name and address of the applicant and the transferor, detail description of the land and its surrounding boundary, size, nature and identification of the land, registered deed number and date of such registration. Moreover, the applicant ought to affix copy of main deed, via deed, copy of Khatiyan, receipt of payment of land development tax, proof of means to acquire the ownership i.e partition deed, copy of the decree or judgment obtained from competent court (if any), passport size photograph of the applicant etc. with the application. It is noteworthy to state that no middleman or extra money is necessary to do mutation of land. However, now 60 days is fixed to finish the whole process of mutation in metropolitan area and 45 days for any other region.
If the AC (Land) refuses to mutate the name of the applicant for default of document or for any other reason whatsoever, the aggrieved applicant can apply to the Additional Deputy Commissioner (Revenue) within 30 days from the date of such refusal. However, anyone can apply further to the Additional Divisional Commissioner (Revenue) within next 30 days against the impugned decision of the Additional Deputy Commissioner. Finally the complainant has another forum to appeal to Land Appeal Board within 90 days against an impugned order given by its immediate inferior authority. A person can also file a request for review within 30 days from the date of first refusal, however in that circumstances, right of appeal is lost.

Recording the Land in latest survey (B.S./City jarip)
The land purchased should be recorded, if possible, under the latest survey (i, e. B.S. Jarip or City Jarip) if the said surveys are being conducted in the locality the land is situated in the name of the present owner.
Additional requirements for Specific kind of land/s (Waqf, Lease, Khas Land)
1. In case of Waqf property, prior permission of Waqf Administrator is mandatory to transfer or mortgage the property, also the Sale Deed has to be executed by the authorized Mutawalli.
2. In case of Lease property from RAJUK/CDA (Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha) every time the property is transferred, permission from Ministry of Housing & Public Works is required.
3. In case of Khas land, the property can not be sold or mortgaged. This matter must be inquired before purchasing of any kind of land whether the land is Khas land or not.
4. In case of land of Shikosthi Jorip (river eroded Land) it is very difficult to get mutation of that specific land. So, it is to be inquired whether the land is under Shikosthi Jorip or not.

For more details, please contact info@juralacuity.com

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Conversion of Agricultural Land to
Non-agricultural Uses in Bangladesh:
Extent and Determinants

14
Financial Issues / Overview of Financial Institutions in Bangladesh
« on: December 22, 2018, 11:53:58 AM »
Overview of Financial Institutions in Bangladesh
Introduction:
Financial sector reform in Bangladesh started in 1976 with privatization of the banks to encourage private investment, and continue in the mid-1980s as part of Structural Adjustment Policies (SAP). Between 1992 and 1996, a Financial Sector Reform Programme (FSRP) was implemented. Its major aim was to improve the operations of Nationalized Commercial Banks (NCBs) through the development of new banking technologies, computerization of banking operations, upgrading of skills, changing outdated internal banking practices and corporate and credit cultures. Further reforms are underway.In Bangladesh, there are 49 banks (with 6318 branches) of which there are 30 private commercial banks, 10 foreign commercial banks and 9 nationalized commercial and specialized banks. The banking sector employs about 110,000 people. Total deposits and loans and advances also increased considerably between 1990 and 2005 and some financial deepening has taken place as a result of intensive reforms in the financial system. Foreign joint venture banks now hold about 9.5 percent of the total assets of commercial banks.
Types of financial institutions:
   Commercial Banks
   Insurance companies
   Securities firms and investment banks
   Non banking financial institutions
   Mutual funds
   Pension funds
   Micro financial institutions

Commercial Bank
A financial institution that provides services, such as accepting deposits, giving business loans and auto loans, mortgage lending, and basic investment products like savings accounts and certificates of deposit. The traditional commercial bank is a brick and mortar institution with tellers, safe deposit boxes, vaults and ATMs. However, some commercial banks do not have any physical branches and require consumers to complete all transactions by phone or Internet. In exchange, they generally pay higher interest rates on investments and deposits, and charge lower fees.The commercial banks are :-
1.   Sonali Bank Limited
2.   Janata Bank Limited
3.   Agrani Bank Limited
4.   Rupali Bank Limited
5.   
Private commercial banks
•  AB Bank Limited
•  Bangladesh Commerce Bank Limited
•  Bank Asia Limited
•  BRAC Bank Limited
•  Dhaka Bank Limited
•  Dutch Bangla Bank Limited
•  Eastern Bank Limited
•  IFIC Bank Limited
•  Jamuna Bank Limited
•  Meghna Bank Limited
 Thrift Bank:
A financial institution focusing on taking deposits and originating home mortgages. Thrift banks often have access to low-cost funding from Federal Home Loan Banks, which allows for higher savings account yields to customers and increased liquidity for mortgage loans.
Also known as "savings and loan associations".
Insurance companies:
A business that provides coverage, in the form of compensation resulting from loss, damages, injury, treatment or hardship in exchange for premium payments. The company calculates the risk of occurrence then determines the cost to replace (pay for) the loss to determine the premium amount. A protection against the loss of income that would result if the insured passed away. The named beneficiary receives the proceeds and is thereby safeguarded from the financial impact of the death of the insured.The insurance companies are:-
1.   Jiban Bima Corporation
2.   NATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE CO. LTD
3.   Delta Life Insurance Co. Ltd.
4.   Baira Life Insurance Company Ltd.


Securities
Evidence of a corporation's debts or property.
Securities are documents that merely represent an interest or a right in something else; they are not consumed or used in the same way as traditional consumer goods
Types of securities include notes, stocks, treasury stocks, bonds, debentures, certificates of interest or participation in profit-sharing agreements, collateral-trust certificates, preorganization certificates or subscriptions, transferable shares, investment contracts, voting-trust certificates, certificates of deposit for a security.
Finance company

an institution engaged in such specialized forms of financing as purchasing accounts receivable, extending credit to retailers and manufacturers, discounting installment contracts, and granting loans with goods as security.

Mutual fund

An open-ended fund operated by an investment company which raises money from shareholders and invests in a group of assets, in accordance with a stated set of objectives


Pension Fund
A fund established by an employer to facilitate and organize the investment of employees' retirement funds contributed by the employer and employees. The pension fund is a common asset pool meant to generate stable growth over the long term, and provide pensions for employees when they reach the end of their working years and commence retirement.


Percentage shares of assets of financial institutions :

 

 




Conclusion:

The financial sector of Bangladesh is generally small and underdeveloped. This sector consists of a banking segment and an emerging but still nascent capital market segment. The banking segment in the country is relatively more developed than the equity market segment, even though both are quite underdeveloped in international comparison. The root causes of the Bangladeshi financial sector problem are the lack of market discipline due to lack of competition in the banking industry. Excessive government intervention and political connections, economic and political corruptions, operational and managerial inefficiency and ineffectiveness result in vicious circle that inhibits economic development, industrialization, and social progresses in poor and developing countries in general and in Bangladesh in particular. Authors’ suggested that in the financial regulation should be strengthened and further needed reforms should be carried out. In addition, an ombudsman may be appointed in the financial sector. The ombudsman can act independently to investigate any complaints regarding financial services and must work freely and independently. Better financial services and diversified financial products would be the natural consequence of competitive financial industry. The authors argue that a strengthened regulatory environment and additional much needed financial sector reforms, a better and more efficient financial sector may evolve over time and serve better the development needs of the country.


References:

ASSIGNMENT POINT (2011) Financial overview of Bangladesh.[Online] available from: http://assignmentpoint.com
GOOGLE (2014) List of insurance company in bd. [online] available from: http://google.com/businessdirectory.com



Datta, R, Mohajan, H.K. and. (2013), Financial Intermediaries in Development of Capital market         in Bangladesh.

Fazlan Sufian (2007), Total Factor Productivity Change In Non-Bank Financial   Institutions:Evidence From Malaysia Applying A Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI), Applied Econometrics and International Development Vol.7-1 (2007).

Ahmed, M. N., & Chowdhury, M. I. (2007). Non-bank financial institutions in Bangladesh:An analytical review. Working Paper Series: WP 0709, Bangladesh Bank, Bangladesh.

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Financial Issues / Banks & FIs
« on: December 22, 2018, 11:52:08 AM »
Banks
After the independence, banking industry in Bangladesh started its journey with 6 Nationalized commercialized banks, 3 State owned Specialized banks and 9 Foreign Banks. In the 1980's banking industry achieved significant expansion with the entrance of private banks. Now, banks in Bangladesh are primarily of two types:

Scheduled Banks: The banks that remain in the list of banks maintained under the Bangladesh Bank Order, 1972.
Non-Scheduled Banks: The banks which are established for special and definite objective and operate under any act act but are not Scheduled Banks. These banks cannot perform all functions of scheduled banks.
There are 59 scheduled banks in Bangladesh who operate under full control and supervision of Bangladesh Bank which is empowered to do so through Bangladesh Bank Order, 1972 and Bank Company Act, 1991. Scheduled Banks are classified into following types:

State Owned Commercial Banks (SOCBs): There are 6 SOCBs which are fully or majorly owned by the Government of Bangladesh.
Specialized Banks (SDBs): 3 specialized banks are now operating which were established for specific objectives like agricultural or industrial development. These banks are also fully or majorly owned by the Government of Bangladesh.
Private Commercial Banks (PCBs): There are 41 private commercial banks which are majorly owned by individuals/the private entities. PCBs can be categorized into two groups:
Conventional PCBs: 33 conventional PCBs are now operating in the industry. They perform the banking functions in conventional fashion i.e interest based operations.
Islami Shariah based PCBs: There are 8 Islami Shariah based PCBs in Bangladesh and they execute banking activities according to Islami Shariah based principles i.e. Profit-Loss Sharing (PLS) mode.
Foreign Commercial Banks (FCBs): 9 FCBs are operating in Bangladesh as the branches of the banks which are incorporated in abroad.
There are now 5 non-scheduled banks in Bangladesh which are:

Ansar VDP Unnayan Bank,
Karmashangosthan Bank,
Grameen Bank,
Jubilee Bank,
Palli Sanchay Bank
FIs
Non Bank Financial Institutions (FIs) are those types of financial institutions which are regulated under Financial Institution Act, 1993 and controlled by Bangladesh Bank. Now, 34 FIs are operating in Bangladesh while the maiden one was established in 1981. Out of the total, 2 is fully government owned, 1 is the subsidiary of a SOCB, 15 were initiated by private domestic initiative and 15 were initiated by joint venture initiative. Major sources of funds of FIs are Term Deposit (at least three months tenure), Credit Facility from Banks and other FIs, Call Money as well as Bond and Securitization.
The major difference between banks and FIs are as follows:

FIs cannot issue cheques, pay-orders or demand drafts.
FIs cannot receive demand deposits,
FIs cannot be involved in foreign exchange financing,
FIs can conduct their business operations with diversified financing modes like syndicated financing, bridge financing, lease financing, securitization instruments, private placement of equity etc.

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