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Topics - murshida

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1
Faculty Forum / QS World University Rankings
« on: November 12, 2018, 01:09:56 PM »
QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS). Previously known as Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings, the publisher had collaborated with Times Higher Education magazine (THE) to publish its international league tables from 2004 to 2009 before both started to announce their own versions. QS then chose to continue using the pre-existing methodology while Times Higher Education adopted a new methodology to create their rankings.

The QS system now comprises the global overall and subject rankings (which name the world's top universities for the study of 48 different subjects and five composite faculty areas), alongside five independent regional tables (Asia, Latin America, Emerging Europe and Central Asia, the Arab Region, and BRICS).[1]

Being the only international ranking to have received International Ranking Expert Group (IREG) approval,[2] the QS ranking is viewed as one of the three most-widely read university rankings in the world, along with Academic Ranking of World Universities and Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[3][4][5][6] However, it has been criticized for its over reliance on subjective indicators and reputation surveys, which tend to fluctuate over the years.[7][8][9][10][11] Concern also exists regarding the global consistency and integrity of the data used to generate QS ranking results.[8][12][13][14]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QS_World_University_Rankings

2
Faculty Forum / Smartphone
« on: September 19, 2018, 03:15:06 PM »
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer. It possesses extensive computing capabilities, including high-speed access to the Internet using both Wi-Fi and mobile broadband. Most, if not all, smartphones are also built with support for Bluetooth and satellite navigation. Modern smartphones have a touchscreen color display with a graphical user interface that covers the front surface and enables the user to use a virtual keyboard to type and press onscreen icons. Interaction is mostly done using touch, besides a few physical buttons. Smartphones are typically pocket-sized, with somewhat larger sizes being called phablets; they are generally smaller than tablet computers. Smartphones function using a rechargeable lithium-ion battery.

Smartphones use a mobile operating system and are able to process a variety of software components, known as "apps". Most basic apps (e.g. event calendar, camera, web browser) come pre-installed with the system, while others are available for download, either for free or charging money to one's balance, from official sources like the Google Play Store or Apple App Store. One may purchase apps by either adding and using valid credit card account information to the smartphone or by buying a gift card for exclusive use of the balance of the card on its specified app store. Apps, and the operating system itself, can receive bug fixes and gain additional functionality through updates.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smartphone

3

I don't like to put a label on my dietary advice. It is based on scientific research, not ethics, religion or a preconceived notion of what a healthy diet should be like.

But if you want to label it, call it a "Low-Carb, Real-Food" based diet (LCRF).

What Does "Low-Carb, Real-Food" Mean?
Let me start by explaining a bit of terminology.

A low-carbohydrate diet minimizes sugars and starches, replacing them with foods rich in protein and healthy fats.
"Real food" means choosing foods that humans had access to throughout evolution. Processed, unnatural foods with artificial chemicals are avoided.
LCRF is not a "diet." It is a way of eating, a lifestyle change based on bulletproof scientific evidence.

It is a way of eating that emphasizes the foods humans have evolved to eat for hundreds of thousands of years, before the agricultural and industrial revolutions.

This type of diet is proven to work better than the low-fat diet still recommended all around the world.

What Not to Eat
You should limit the following foods.

Sugar: Added sugar is addictive, fattening and a leading cause of diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).
Grains: Avoid grains if you need to lose weight, including bread and pasta. Gluten grains (wheat, spelt, barley and rye) are the worst (7, 8, 9, 10, 11). Healthier grains like rice and oats are fine if you don't need to lose weight.
Seed and vegetable oils: Soybean oil, corn oil and some others. These are processed fats with a high amount of Omega-6 fatty acids, which are harmful in excess (12, 13, 14).
Trans fats: Chemically modified fats that are extremely bad for health. Found in some processed foods (15, 16, 17).
Artificial sweeteners: Despite being calorie free, observational studies show a correlation with obesity and related diseases (18, 19, 20). If you must use sweeteners, choose Stevia.
"Diet" and "low-fat" products: Most of these "health foods" aren't healthy at all. They tend to be highly processed and loaded with sugar or artificial sweeteners. Agave syrup is just as bad as sugar.
Highly processed foods: Foods that are highly processed are usually low in nutrients and high in unhealthy and unnatural chemicals.
You must read ingredient lists. You'll be surprised at the amount of "health foods" that can contain sugar, wheat and other harmful ingredients.


Healthy Foods to Eat
You should eat natural, unprocessed foods that humans are genetically adapted to eating. Research shows that such foods are great for health (21, 22, 23, 24).

For healthy people who exercise and don't need to lose weight, there is absolutely no proven reason to avoid tubers like potatoes and sweet potatoes, or healthier non-gluten grains like oats and rice.

If you are overweight or have metabolic issues (low HDL, high LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, belly fat, etc.) you should restrict all high-carb foods (25, 26).

Meat: Beef, lamb, pork, chicken, etc. Humans have eaten meat for hundreds of thousands of years. Unprocessed meat is good for you, especially if the animals ate natural foods (like beef from grass-fed cows).
Fish: Fish is great. Very healthy, fulfilling and rich in omega-3 fatty acids and other nutrients. You should eat fish (preferably fatty fish like salmon) every week.
Eggs: Eggs are among the most nutritious foods on the planet. The yolk is the most nutritious and healthiest part. Omega-3 eggs are best.
Vegetables: Contain fiber and many nutrients that are essential for the human body. Eat vegetables every day.
Fruit: Increase variety, taste good, are easy to prepare and rich in fiber and vitamin C. They're still pretty high in sugar, so eat in moderation if you need to lose weight.
Nuts and seeds: Almonds, walnuts, sunflower seeds, etc. Rich in various nutrients, but very high in calories. Eat in moderation if you need to lose weight.
Potatoes: Root vegetables like potatoes and sweet potatoes are healthy, but they're still high in carbs. Eat in moderation if you need to lose weight.
High-fat dairy: Cheese, cream, butter, full-fat yogurt, etc. Rich in healthy fats and calcium. Dairy from grass-fed cows will be rich in vitamin K2, which is very important for health (27, 28, 29).
Fats and oils: Olive oil, butter, lard, etc. Choose saturated fats for high-heat cooking like pan frying, they are more stable in the heat.
What to Drink?
Coffee: Coffee is healthy and very rich in antioxidants, but people who are sensitive to caffeine should avoid it. Avoid coffee late in the day because it can ruin your sleep.
Tea: Tea is healthy, rich in antioxidants and has a lot less caffeine than coffee.
Water: You should drink water throughout the day and especially around workouts. No reason to drink a whole ton though, thirst is a pretty reliable indicator of your need.
Carbonated soda without artificial sweeteners is fine.
Avoid sodas with sugar and artificial sweeteners, fruit juice, milk and beer.

Simple rule: Don't drink calories.


Consume in Moderation
These indulgences can be enjoyed from time to time.

Dark Chocolate: Choose organic chocolate with 70% cocoa or more. Dark chocolate is rich in healthy fats and antioxidants.
Alcohol: Choose dry wines and drinks that don't contain added sugar or carbs: vodka, whiskey, etc.

How Many Carbs Per Day?
This varies between individuals.

Many people feel best eating very little carbs (under 50 grams) while others eat as much as 150 grams, which is still low-carb.

You can use these numbers as a guideline:

10-20 grams per day: Very low, can't eat any carbs except low-carb vegetables. Appropriate if you have a lot of weight to lose or if you have diabetes and/or the metabolic syndrome.
20-50 grams per day: If you need to lose weight fast. You can eat quite a bit of vegetables and one piece of fruit per day.
50-150 grams per day: If you want to achieve optimal health and lower your risk of lifestyle-related disease. There is room for several fruit per day and even a little bit of healthy starches like potatoes and rice.
When you lower carbohydrates below 50 grams per day, you can't eat any sugar, bread, pasta, grains, potatoes and a maximum of one fruit per day.

I recommend creating a free account on Fitday to log your food intake for a few days. This is great way to get a feel for the amount of carbs you are eating.

Warning For Diabetics: Carbs in the diet are broken down into glucose in the digestive tract, then they enter the body as blood sugar. If you eat less carbs, you will need less insulin and glucose-lowering drugs.

It is very dangerous if your blood sugar drops below a certain level (hypoglycemia). If you have diabetes, consult with your doctor before reducing carbohydrate intake.

Why Does It Work?
Humans evolved as hunter-gatherers for hundreds of thousands of years.

Our diet changed drastically in the agricultural revolution, about 10,000 years ago.

However, this change is small compared to the massive transformation we've seen in the last few decades with modern food processing.

It is quite clear that humans today are eating a diet that is very different from the diet our ancestors thrived on throughout evolution.

There are several "primitive" populations around the world that still live as hunter-gatherers, eating natural foods. These people are lean, in excellent health and most of the diseases that are killing western populations by the millions are rare or nonexistent (30, 31).

Studies show that when people eat natural foods that were available to our hunter-gatherer ancestors (also known as the paleolithic diet), they lose weight and see massive improvements in health (21, 22, 23, 24).

The Hormone Insulin
The hormone insulin is well known for its role of moving glucose from the blood and into cells. A deficiency in insulin, or resistance to its effects, causes diabetes.

But insulin also has other roles in the body. Insulin tells fat cells to produce fat and to stop breaking down the fat that they carry. When insulin levels are high, the body chooses not to dip in to the fat stores to provide energy.

On a Western, high-carb diet, insulin levels are high all the time, keeping the fat safely locked away in the fat cells.

Carbs are the main driver of insulin secretion. A low carb diet lowers and balances blood sugar and therefore lowers insulin levels (32, 33, 34).

When insulin goes down, the body can easily access the calories stored in the fat cells, but it can take a few days to adapt to burning fat instead of carbs (35, 36).

Low carbohydrate diets are very satiating. Appetite goes down and people start to automatically eat fewer calories than they burn, which causes weight loss (37).

The main advantage of a low-carb diet is that you can eat until fullness and lose weight without counting calories. Eat low-carb and you avoid the worst side effect of calorie restricted diets: hunger.

Health Benefits of a Low Carb Diet
It is a common misunderstanding, even among health professionals, that low-carb diets are somehow bad for health. People who make such claims obviously haven't bothered to check out the research.

Their main argument is that low-carb diets are bad because they're high in saturated fat, which raises cholesterol and causes heart disease.

But recent research suggests that there is nothing to worry about. Saturated fats raise HDL (the good) cholesterol and change the "bad" cholesterol from small, dense LDL (very bad) to large LDL which is benign (38, 39, 40, 41).

The fact is that saturated fat does not cause heart disease. This is simply a myth that has never been proven (42, 43, 44).

Low-carb diets actually lead to more weight loss and further improvements in risk factors compared to a low-fat diet (45, 46).

Body fat: A low-carb diet, eaten until fullness, usually causes more fat loss than a low-fat diet that is calorie restricted (47, 48, 49).
Blood sugar: One of the hallmarks of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome is an elevated blood sugar, which is very harmful over the long term. Low-carb diets lower blood sugar (50, 51, 52, 53, 54).
Blood pressure: If blood pressure is high, it tends to go down on a low-carb diet (55, 56, 57).
High triglycerides: These are fats that circulate around in the blood and are a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low-carb diets lower triglycerides much more than low-fat diets (58, 59, 60).
HDL (the good) cholesterol: Generally speaking, having more of the "good" cholesterol means you have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Low-carb diets raise HDL cholesterol much more than low-fat diets (61, 62).
sdLDL (the bad) cholesterol: Low-carb diets cause LDL cholesterol to change from small, dense LDL (bad) to large LDL, which is benign (63, 64).
Easier: Low-carb diets appear to be easier to stick to than low-fat diets, probably because it isn't necessary to count calories and be hungry, which is arguably the worst side effect of dieting (65, 37).
The statements above have been shown to be true in randomized controlled trials - scientific studies that are the gold standard of research.

Common Low-Carb Side Effects in The Beginning
When carbs in the diet are replaced with protein and fat, several things need to happen for the body to efficiently use fat as fuel.

There will be major changes in hormones and the body needs to ramp up production of enzymes to start burning primarily fat instead of carbs. This can last for a few days and full adaptation may take weeks.

Common side effects in the first few days include:

Headache
Feeling Lightheaded
Tiredness
Irritability
Constipation
Side effects are usually mild and nothing to worry about. Your body has been burning mostly carbs for decades, it takes time to adapt to using fat as the primary fuel source.

This is called the "low carb flu" and should be over within 3-4 days.

On a low-carb diet, it is very important to eat enough fat. Fat is the new source of fuel for your body. If you eat low-carb and low-fat, then you're going to feel bad and abandon the whole thing.

Another important thing to be aware of is that insulin makes the kidneys hold on to sodium. When you eat less carbs, the kidneys release sodium. This is one of the reasons people lose so much bloat and water weight in the first few days.

To counteract this loss of sodium you can add more salt to your food or drink a cup of broth every day. A bouillon cube dissolved in a cup of hot water contains 2 grams of sodium.

Many people say they feel better than ever on a low-carb diet, when the initial adaptation period is over.

If you don't feel good, adding more fat and sodium should take care of it.

A Meal Plan That Can Save Your Life
This is a sample meal plan for one week that supplies less than 50 grams of carbs per day.

Day 1 — Monday:

Breakfast: Omelet with various vegetables, fried in butter or coconut oil.
Lunch: Grass-fed yogurt with blueberries and a handful of almonds.
Dinner: Cheeseburger (no bun), served with vegetables and salsa sauce.
Day 2 — Tuesday:

Breakfast: Bacon and eggs.
Lunch: Leftover burgers and veggies from the night before.
Dinner: Boiled Salmon with butter and vegetables.
Day 3 — Wednesday:

Breakfast: Eggs and vegetables, fried in butter or coconut oil.
Lunch: Shrimp salad with some olive oil.
Dinner: Grilled chicken with vegetables.
Day 4 — Thursday:

Breakfast: Omelet with various vegetables, fried in butter or coconut oil.
Lunch: Smoothie with coconut milk, berries, almonds and protein powder.
Dinner: Steak and veggies.
Day 5 — Friday:

Breakfast: Bacon and Eggs.
Lunch: Chicken salad with some olive oil.
Dinner: Pork chops with vegetables.
Day 6 — Saturday:

Breakfast: Omelet with various veggies.
Lunch: Grass-fed yogurt with berries, coconut flakes and a handful of walnuts.
Dinner: Meatballs with vegetables.
Day 7 — Sunday:

Breakfast: Bacon and Eggs.
Lunch: Smoothie with coconut milk, a bit of heavy cream, chocolate-flavoured protein powder and berries.
Dinner: Grilled chicken wings with some raw spinach on the side.
Do your best to include a variety of vegetables in your diet. If you want to stay below 50g of carbs per day then you can safely have one piece of fruit or some berries every day.

Organic and grass-fed foods are best, but only if you can easily afford them. Just make an effort to always choose the least processed option within your price range.

What About Snacks?
There is no scientific evidence that you should eat more than 3 meals per day. If you do get hungry between meals, here are a few ideas for snacks that are healthy, easily portable and taste good.

Full-fat yogurt
A piece of fruit
Baby carrots
Hard-boiled eggs
A handful of nuts
Leftovers
Some cheese and meat
[https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/how-to-eat-healthy]

4
Faculty Forum / milk
« on: May 16, 2018, 03:59:01 PM »
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals (including humans who are breastfed) before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other nutrients[1] including protein and lactose. Interspecies consumption of milk is not uncommon, particularly among humans, many of whom consume the milk of other mammals.[2][3]

As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011,[4] from 260 million dairy cows.[5] India is the world's largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products.[6][7] The ever increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy products in the future.[8] The United States, India, China and Brazil are the world's largest exporters of milk and milk products.[9] China and Russia were the world's largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both countries became self-sufficient, contributing to a worldwide glut of milk.[10]

Throughout the world, more than six billion people consume milk and milk products. Over 750 million people live in dairy farming households.[11]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk

5
Faculty Forum / The health benefits of almonds
« on: May 16, 2018, 03:58:14 PM »
Almonds are packed with vitamins, minerals, protein, and fiber, and are associated with a number of health benefits. Just a handful of almonds — approximately 1 ounce — contain one-eighth of our daily protein needs.
Almonds may be eaten on their own, raw, or toasted; they are available sliced, flaked, slivered, as flour, oil, butter, or almond milk.

Almonds are, in fact, seeds; they are a "drupe" and are therefore not considered a true nut.

Almond trees are believed to have been one of the earliest trees to have been domesticated. Evidence of domesticated almond trees dating to 3000-2000 BC have been unearthed in Jordan.

The health benefits of almonds have been documented for centuries, and modern research backs up some of these claims - there any many goods reasons to include them in your diet.

Fast facts on almonds
Here are some key points about almonds. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.
Almonds are not, in fact, a true nut.
The almond is a species of tree native to India, North Africa, and the Middle East.
Wild almonds contain a powerful toxin.
Some evidence suggests that almonds can lower cholesterol levels.
Almonds were first domesticated thousands of years ago.
Benefits of almonds
There are a number of potential health benefits associated with almonds.

1) Almonds and cholesterol
A study published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association suggests that consuming almonds increases vitamin E levels in the plasma and red blood cells, and also lowers cholesterol levels.

One of the study's authors said:

"This study is important because it shows that eating almonds can significantly boost levels of vitamin E in the diet and bloodstream. Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that defends your cells against damage on a daily basis and prevents artery-clogging oxidation of cholesterol. Eating a handful of almonds a day is a great way to get the vitamin E your body needs to stay healthy."

Ella Haddad, DrPH, RD, Loma Linda University, CA
2) Almonds and cancer risk
Pile of almonds
Almonds could potentially reduce cancer risk.
A study, published in 2015 in Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, looked at nut consumption and cancer risk.

They found that individuals who consumed higher quantities of peanuts, walnuts, and almonds had their risk of breast cancer reduced by 2–3 times.

The authors concluded that "peanuts, walnuts, and almonds appear to be a protective factor for the development of breast cancer."
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/269468.php

6
Faculty Forum / Mango
« on: May 16, 2018, 03:57:00 PM »
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.

The majority of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes. The genus belongs to the cashew family Anacardiaceae. Mangoes are native to South Asia,[1][2] from where the "common mango" or "Indian mango", Mangifera indica, has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most widely cultivated fruits in the tropics. Other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, Mangifera foetida) are grown on a more localized basis.

It is the national fruit of India, Pakistan, and the Philippines, and the national tree of Bangladesh.[3]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mango

7
Faculty Forum / street food
« on: May 16, 2018, 03:56:17 PM »
Street food is ready-to-eat food or drink sold by a hawker, or vendor, in a street or other public place, such as at a market or fair. It is often sold from a portable food booth,[1] food cart, or food truck and meant for immediate consumption. Some street foods are regional, but many have spread beyond their region of origin. Most street foods are classed as both finger food and fast food, and are cheaper on average than restaurant meals. According to a 2007 study from the Food and Agriculture Organization, 2.5 billion people eat street food every day.[2]

File:Churro-Vendor.ogv
A video clip of a vendor making churros in Colombia
Today, people may purchase street food for a number of reasons, such as convenience, to get flavourful food for a reasonable price in a sociable setting, to try ethnic cuisines, or for nostalgia.[3]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Street_food

8
Faculty Forum / Fast food
« on: May 16, 2018, 03:54:38 PM »
Fast food is a mass-produced food that is typically prepared and served quicker than traditional foods. The food is typically less nutritionally valuable compared to other foods and dishes. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with frozen, preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a packaged form for take-out/take-away.

Fast food restaurants are traditionally distinguished by their ability to serve food via a drive-through. Outlets may be stands or kiosks, which may provide no shelter or seating,[1] or fast food restaurants (also known as quick service restaurants). Franchise operations that are part of restaurant chains have standardized foodstuffs shipped to each restaurant from central locations.[2]

Fast food began with the first fish and chip shops in Britain in the 1860s. Drive-through restaurants were first popularized in the 1950s in the United States. The term "fast food" was recognized in a dictionary by Merriam–Webster in 1951.[citation needed]

Eating fast food has been linked to, among other things, colorectal cancer, obesity, high cholesterol, and depression.[3][4][5][6] Many fast foods tend to be high in saturated fat, sugar, salt and calories. [7]

The traditional family dinner is increasingly being replaced by the consumption of takeaway fast food. As a result, the time invested on food preparation is getting lower, with an average couple in the United States spending 47 minutes and 19 seconds per day on food preparation in 2013.[8]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast_food

9
Faculty Forum / coffee
« on: May 16, 2018, 03:53:53 PM »
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant. The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia and Sudan) and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius, and Réunion in the Indian Ocean.[2] The plant was exported from Africa to countries around the world. Coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, India, and Africa. The two most commonly grown are arabica and robusta. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. Dried coffee seeds (referred to as beans) are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. Roasted beans are ground and brewed with near-boiling water to produce coffee as a beverage.

Coffee is slightly acidic and has a stimulating effect on humans because of its caffeine content. Coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world.[3] It can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, café latte, etc.). It is usually served hot, although iced coffee is a popular alternative. Clinical studies indicate that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether long-term consumption lowers the risk of some diseases, although there is generally poor quality of such studies.[4]


A cup of coffee with added milk
The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in Yemen in southern Arabia in the middle of the 15th century in Sufi shrines.[5] It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a similar way to how it is now prepared. Coffee seeds were first exported from East Africa to Yemen, as the Coffea arabica plant is thought to have been indigenous to the former.[6] Yemeni traders took coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate the seed. By the 16th century, it had reached Persia, Turkey, and North Africa. From there, it spread to Europe and the rest of the world.

Brazil is the leading grower of coffee, producing one-third of the world total in 2016. Coffee is a major export commodity: it is the top agricultural export for numerous countries and is among the world's largest legal agricultural exports.[3][7] It is one of the most valuable commodities exported by developing countries. Green (unroasted) coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.[8] Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and the way developed countries trade with developing nations and the impact of its cultivation on the environment, in regards to the clearing of land for coffee-growing and water use. Consequently, the markets for fair trade coffee and organic coffee are expanding.[citation needed]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coffee

10
Faculty Forum / soap
« on: May 16, 2018, 03:51:40 PM »
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid[1] or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance. Household uses for soaps include washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping, where soaps act as surfactants, emulsifying[2] oils to enable them to be carried away by water. In industry, they are used as thickeners, components of some lubricants, and precursors to catalysts.
Kinds of soaps
Since they are salts of fatty acids, soaps have the general formula (RCO2−)nMn+ (R = alkyl). The major classification of soaps is determined by the identity of Mn+. When M = Na or K, the soaps are called toilet soaps, used for handwashing. Many metal dications (Mg2+, Ca2+, and others) give metallic soap. When M = Li, the result is lithium soap (e.g., lithium stearate), which is used in high-performance greases.[3]

Non-toilet soaps
Soaps are key components of most lubricating greases and thickeners. Greases are usually emulsions of calcium soap or lithium soap and mineral oil.[4] Many other metallic soaps are also useful, including those of aluminium, sodium, and mixtures thereof. Such soaps are also used as thickeners to increase the viscosity of oils. In ancient times, lubricating greases were made by the addition of lime to olive oil.[5]

Metal soaps are also included in modern artists' oil paints formulations as a rheology modifier.[6]

Production of metallic soaps
Most heavy metal soaps are prepared by neutralization of purified fatty acids:

2 RCO2H + CaO → (RCO2)2Ca + H2O
Toilet soaps
In a domestic setting, "soap" usually refers to what is technically called a toilet soap, used for household and personal cleaning. When used for cleaning, soap solubilizes particles and grime, which can then be separated from the article being cleaned. The insoluble oil/fat molecules become associated inside micelles, tiny spheres formed from soap molecules with polar hydrophilic (water-attracting) groups on the outside and encasing a lipophilic (fat-attracting) pocket, which shields the oil/fat molecules from the water making it soluble. Anything that is soluble will be washed away with the water.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soap

11
Faculty Forum / Robotics
« on: May 16, 2018, 03:50:11 PM »
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer science, and others. Robotics deals with the design, construction, operation, and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.

These technologies are used to develop machines that can substitute for humans and replicate human actions. Robots can be used in any situation and for any purpose, but today many are used in dangerous environments (including bomb detection and de-activation), manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot survive. Robots can take on any form but some are made to resemble humans in appearance. This is said to help in the acceptance of a robot in certain replicative behaviors usually performed by people. Such robots attempt to replicate walking, lifting, speech, cognition, and basically anything a human can do. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature, contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics.

The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century.[1] Throughout history, it has been frequently assumed that robots will one day be able to mimic human behavior and manage tasks in a human-like fashion. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as technological advances continue; researching, designing, and building new robots serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots are built to do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, finding survivors in unstable ruins, and exploring mines and shipwrecks. Robotics is also used in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) as a teaching aid.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotics

12
Faculty Forum / Shoe
« on: May 16, 2018, 03:48:30 PM »
A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot while the wearer is doing various activities. Shoes are also used as an item of decoration and fashion. The design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture to culture, with appearance originally being tied to function. Additionally, fashion has often dictated many design elements, such as whether shoes have very high heels or flat ones. Contemporary footwear in the 2010s varies widely in style, complexity and cost. Basic sandals may consist of only a thin sole and simple strap and be sold for a low cost. High fashion shoes made by famous designers may be made of expensive materials, use complex construction and sell for hundreds or even thousands of dollars a pair. Some shoes are designed for specific purposes, such as boots designed specifically for mountaineering or skiing.

Traditionally, shoes have been made from leather, wood or canvas, but in the 2010s, they are increasingly made from rubber, plastics, and other petrochemical-derived materials. Though the human foot is adapted to varied terrain and climate conditions, it is still vulnerable to environmental hazards such as sharp rocks and temperature extremes, which shoes protect against. Some shoes are worn as safety equipment, such as steel-soled boots which are required on construction sites.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shoe

13
Faculty Forum / The History of the Classroom Blackboard
« on: May 16, 2018, 03:47:09 PM »
Few people realize that the classroom blackboard is one of the most revolutionary educational tools ever invented. And it may be hard to hard to fathom that blackboards as we know them today were unknown until relatively recent times.

The invention of the blackboard had an enormous impact on classroom efficiency. Due to their simplicity, effectiveness, economy and ease of use, the simple blackboard and its cousin the whiteboard have substantial advantages over any number of more-complex modern technologies. It’s unlikely they will ever become obsolete.

Ancient origins
Blackboard classroom history begins, in rudimentary form, in ancient times. Students in ancient Babylonia and Sumeria inscribed their lessons on clay tablets with a stylus (predecessor to the pen and pencil) in cuneiform writing. These could be used wet and erased to be used again, or baked to create a permanent document. In India in the 11th century, teachers used something similar to personal blackboards in their lessons.

A modern revolution
At the end of the 18th century, students in Europe and America were still using individual slates made of actual slate or pieces of wood coated with paint and grit and framed with wood. Paper and ink were expensive but slate and wood were plentiful and cheap, making them the economical option. Unfortunately, they were also highly inefficient. Teachers had no way to present a lesson or a problem to the class as a whole; instead they had to go to each individual student and write a problem or assignment on each one’s slate.

In 1801, the rather obvious solution to the problem made its debut. James Pillans, headmaster and geography teacher at the Old High School in Edinburgh, Scotland, is credited with inventing the first modern blackboard when he hung a large piece of slate on the classroom wall. In America, the first use of a wall-mounted blackboard occurred at West Point in the classroom of instructor George Baron.

Other schools rapidly adopted this new innovation. America’s fast-growing railroad system assured that by the middle of the 19th century, almost every classroom in America had a blackboard, mostly using slate shipped from quarries in Vermont, Maine, Pennsylvania, New York, Maryland and Virginia. Businesses also started using them in their boardrooms.

20th century changes
Blackboard classroom history remained essentially the same until the 1960s with schools teachers using slate blackboards like their predecessors. Then the “greenboard” was introduced, which was a steel plate coated with a porcelain-based enamel. This was considered to be an improvement because chalk powder didn’t show as well when erased and the green color was considered to be more pleasing and easier on the eyes than black. It was also lighter and more durable than fragile slate, making it more economical and easier to ship.

The term “chalkboard” became more common when color of the board was no longer black. In the 1980s the whiteboard, or dry erase board, began to become common and by the mid-1990s 21% of American schools were using them.

Although chalkboards are still common in schools, especially in older schools, newer schools today tend to use the dry-erase board for its ease of use and because it eliminates chalk dust contamination in the classroom and avoids the need to have students clean erasers, a common chore in earlier days. Some critics, however, argue that the slickness of the whiteboard makes it harder for young students to use it when writing and that the slight resistance of the traditional blackboard is easier. The invention of dust-free chalk also makes blackboards more attractive to some.

Whatever its incarnation, it’s clear that the blackboard, because of its low-tech efficiency, will remain a staple of the classroom and the boardroom for the foreseeable future.

Tags: History and Social Studies
https://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/.../the-history-of-the-classroom-blackboard/

14
Faculty Forum / History of Marker Pens
« on: May 16, 2018, 03:45:42 PM »
The marker pen is a pen that has a tip made of porous, pressed fibers (felt) and a reservoir of colored ink. This reservoir has a core of an absorbent material which carries the ink. One more necessary part of a marker is a cap that prevents drying of ink in a nib. The ink of a marker has a solvent in it that keeps it in liquid form. Until the 1990s, that solvent was toluene or xylene. These solvents are harmful and because of that, we today use alcohols instead.

The first felt-tip marking pen was patented in 1910 by Lee Newman. It was basically a cylinder filled with ink that led to a felt tip. Benjamin Paskach patented his “fountain paintbrush" in 1926. It had a sponge-tipped handle and was filled with different paint colors. These marker pens were not commercially viable and didn’t sell. In 1944, Walter J. De Groft patented a "marking pen" that held ink in liquid form in its handle and used a felt tip. This is the patent that will become a “Sharpie” pen in 1964. First modern (and usable) marker pen was Sidney Rosenthal's “Magic Marker” which he invented and started selling in 1953. This marker had glass tube of ink for a body and a felt wick and its name comes from a fact that it was able to write on any surface. Yukio Horie of the Tokyo Stationery Company invented a modern fiber-tipped pen in 1962.

Highlighters and fine-line markers appeared in 1970's. Binney & Smith, who made Crayola, bought name “Magic Marker” in 1989 and started selling improved permanent markers and highlighters. In 1996 they started selling Magic marker II and dry-erase markers for writing on whiteboards and glass.
www.historyofpencils.com/writing-instruments-history/history-of-marker-pens

15
Faculty Forum / History of television
« on: May 16, 2018, 03:44:32 PM »
The invention of the television was the work of many individuals in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Individuals and corporations competed in various parts of the world to deliver a device that superseded previous technology. Many were compelled to capitalize on the invention and make profit, while some wanted to change the world through visual and audio communication technology.[1]Facsimile transmission systems pioneered methods of mechanically scanning graphics in the early 19th century. The Scottish inventor Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. The English physicist Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. The first practical facsimile system, working on telegraph lines, was developed and put into service by the Italian priest Giovanni Caselli from 1856 onward.[2][3][4]

Willoughby Smith, an English electrical engineer, discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873.


The Nipkow disk. This schematic shows the circular paths traced by the holes, which may also be square for greater precision. The area of the disk outlined in black shows the region scanned.
As a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.[5] This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model of the system, variations of Nipkow's spinning-disk "image rasterizer" became exceedingly common.[6] Constantin Perskyi had coined the word television in a paper read to the International Electricity Congress at the International World Fair in Paris on August 24, 1900. Perskyi's paper reviewed the existing electromechanical technologies, mentioning the work of Nipkow and others.[7] However, it was not until 1907 that developments in amplification tube technology, by Lee de Forest and Arthur Korn among others, made the design practical.[8]

The first demonstration of the instantaneous transmission of images was by Georges Rignoux and A. Fournier in Paris in 1909. A matrix of 64 selenium cells, individually wired to a mechanical commutator, served as an electronic retina. In the receiver, a type of Kerr cell modulated the light and a series of variously angled mirrors attached to the edge of a rotating disc scanned the modulated beam onto the display screen. A separate circuit regulated synchronization. The 8x8 pixel resolution in this proof-of-concept demonstration was just sufficient to clearly transmit individual letters of the alphabet. An updated image was transmitted "several times" each second.[9]

In 1911, Boris Rosing and his student Vladimir Zworykin created a system that used a mechanical mirror-drum scanner to transmit, in Zworykin's words, "very crude images" over wires to the "Braun tube" (cathode ray tube or "CRT") in the receiver. Moving images were not possible because, in the scanner, "the sensitivity was not enough and the selenium cell was very laggy".[10]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_television

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