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Applied Linguistics & ELT / Matching picture and word cards - jobs
« on: November 14, 2018, 07:25:12 PM »
Lead into the topic: eg show all picture cards on the board and Ss talk about their jobs; the jobs of members of their family and friends, etc.

Learners match words and pictures. Then read them again and remember them. Feedback with concept checking and drilling.

Then students can do any or all of the following:

•   play memory game (see Chrissie’s story for description)
•   turn over the words and say the name of the job from the picture alone
•   take away the words. Ss pick a picture and say He’s a taxi driver. She’s a doctor. etc.
•   take it in turns to take a picture and ask What’s his/her job? He’s/ She’s a…
•   take a picture, don’t show it to partner, partner asks Is she a doctor? Yes she is/No she isn’t.
•   For a warmer the next day give each student a card. They mingle and show card to everyone they meet and ask What’s his her job? He’s a ……….   Can you spell it please?
•   You can also give each table a set of cards and get them to write the words on their mini-whiteboards, then check the spelling from the back of the card.


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Applied Linguistics & ELT / Dialogue build
« on: November 14, 2018, 07:24:43 PM »
Set the scene for the dialogue, perhaps using pictures.


Elicit a dialogue line by line, modelling and drilling each line as you get to it. Frequently go back and forward, asking students to repeat the dialogue to you, with a partner, across the room etc. Continue until you have elicited the entire dialogue.

Elicit it again line by line, this time writing it on the board as you go along. Mark the dialogue for stress and intonation, with the students’ input.

Ask students to practise the dialogue in pairs. Gradually rub out the words, but leave the features of pronunciation as a crutch for the students.


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•   Show picture of Chrissie on the whiteboard together with pictures representing her life story
•   Students in pairs or groups look at the pictures and talk about what they think happened in her life.
•   Give matching task: Ss match beginnings and ends of sentences and put them in order to make her life story.
•   Show correct version on IWB. Ss check theirs against that.
•   Give Ss time to read and understand the text. They might want to read the text aloud to each other.
Then you can do one or more of the following:
•   They can play pelmanism (matching pairs memory game): lay out the cards randomly on the table (this works best if the beginnings are all in one colour, and the ends in another). Each student takes it in turn to pick one beginning and one end. If they are a pair the student keeps the pair. If not (s)he puts them back in the same place as they were. The student with the most pairs is the winner.
•   They turn over the beginnings of all the sentences, and in their groups retell the story from the ends of the sentences.
•   Then they turn over the beginnings and do the same again.
Finally give them only the beginnings of the sentences and they use them to tell their partner their own life story.
The following day for a warmer you can give them only the beginnings (or show only the beginnings on IWB), and they use them to retell Chrissie’s and/or their own life story in pairs.
You can also show them the pictures, and get them to retell Chrissie’s life story from the pictures.
NB: for this activity to work it is important that the students can apply the sentence beginnings to their own experience.

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Applied Linguistics & ELT / Turning talk into learning
« on: November 14, 2018, 07:23:28 PM »
This is based on very clear and focused use of correction techniques and could be a short teaching phase in a lesson about something else, or a whole lesson or part of a lesson. It is about taking things learners say and helping them to achieve greater accuracy. It works well as a whole lesson when you only have a few learners and are chatting with them.

The core technique is as follows:

A learner makes a useful error in saying something he or she wants and needs to say: eg Why you late? when another learner arrives late.

Repeat what the learner says using questioning intonation and invite the learner who make the utterance then other learners to try to correct it. (if it’s a longer, more complex sentence you might need to write it on the board). If learners can’t correct it, use your fingers to indicate missing words or word order problems.

Ask learners why the sentence was wrong – they need to understand eg that the sentence needs a verb, that a question needs inverted word order. If necessary write the sentence on the board and highlight these things. Give learners time to absorb and understand.

Rub it off the board and drill the class chorally and individually, making sure you get the original student to repeat the utterance.

Get them saying it to each other, if possible in parallel situations: Why were late yesterday? Why are you always late? etc.

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Write one or two questions on the board (if possible using grammar/language from a previous lesson, or anticipating language coming up in the day’s lesson. Use language that is slightly above the level of language they normally produce.) This could be either:
•   a gapped question:  What ______ you  _________ at 3 o’clock yesterday afternoon?
•   a jumbled question: you   yesterday at doing  What  3 o’clock  were  afternoon
•   whole sentence hangman   __ __ __ __   ___ ___ ___ ___  etc.

1.   Students in groups try to fill gaps, sort out sentences (or play hangman in whatever way you like for the third option).
2.   Drill the sentences – rubbing out key words if you have written them in.
3.   Students ask each other the question(s) in pairs. Monitor and deal with errors in the target language afterwards.

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Applied Linguistics & ELT / Turn and talk: Tell us about
« on: November 14, 2018, 07:18:38 PM »
This is excellent practice for the listening and speaking exam and can be done on and off throughout the course. The example provided is intended for use after looking at the past tense. You can make sets which fit in with other language areas and build up a bank of tell us about question cards.

Students sit in pairs or 3s. One person takes a card and asks another. After the initial answer the other students join in the conversation. The teacher can encourage the use of conversation gambits to aid conversation, for example, ‘Really’, ‘How interesting!’, ‘How terrible!’ ‘What about you?’, etc.

The teacher listens in to conversations and makes notes of examples of interesting storied, good language to share with the group and errors which she/he could use to focus usefully with the group. In this case, possibly the pronunciation of the regular past tenses, or use of the verb in the present to talk about the past could be picked up on and further practised.

7
There are lots of ways of using these. They are especially useful for revising vocab taught  in the previous lesson or lessons:
•   put a set of cut up words on the table. Ss take it in turns to pick up a card, and describe the meaning. The rest of the group guess the word. The student who gets it first keeps the card. The student with the most cards at the end is the winner. If appropriate  and depending on level) you can start by teaching the language you want them to use to elicit, eg  It’s a place where…  or  You can ……. in this place.
•   give each student one card. They mingle and elicit the words from each other. Every time they finish eliciting with one partner they swap cards.
•   back to the board game (without cards): sit Ss in pairs; in each pair one student faces the board and the other sits with his/her back to the board. Write 4 or 5 of the words on the board. The student facing the board elicits the words from his/her partner. The first pair to finish is the winner.
•   You can make cards with the word on one side and the definition on the other. The students can either elicit the word or the definition.
•   You can build up a set of cards with words which have been introduced in your lessons. Ss can write definitions and example sentences on the back. Then Ss can test each other on the words: as warmers, if they finish an activity early, or for the last five or ten minutes of a lesson.

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Applied Linguistics & ELT / DIY Discussion
« on: November 14, 2018, 07:17:39 PM »
This is a great standby for lessons when a lot of students don’t come, for one reason or another (snow days, first/last days of term, etc.)

The teacher gives the students a blank piece of paper and asks them to fold it in half 3 times, then open it up again. The students should now see 8 different sections.

The teacher tells them what to write in each section. For example, in the first box, write the name of your mother, in the second, write the name of your best friend, in the third write the name of the place where you grew up, in the next write the name of your favourite bit of technology, etc. These could be totally random, or themed to fit in with what you have been doing in class.

The students then cut the papers up and pool the cut up slips for a group of 3 or 4 people and shuffle them.

Working in groups one person picks up a piece of paper, reads what is on it and asks a question, for example, ‘Who is Sultan?’ ‘Where is Santiago?’,’Who wrote mobile phone?’. The person who wrote it talk about the item on the paper and the others are encouraged to ask follow up questions. When the conversation has dried up, the person who spoke last time, chooses another paper, and so on.

9
After eliciting, modelling, clarifying and drilling the structure of the part continuous questions and statements, the teacher sits the students in groups of 3/4 and gives each group a set of cards.

One student turns over a card and makes a question. All the other listen for grammatical accuracy, helping the student to correct her/himself if necessary and then answering. The student who originally asked the question responds to the answers and decides which answer she/he liked best and gives the card to that person.

Example:
Student A:    What were you doing 6 months ago?
Student B:    I was taking my entry 2 exam.
Student C:    I was looking for a job.
Student D:    I was looking for a husband.
Student A:    A husband? Oh! Did you find one?

10
Applied Linguistics & ELT / Goldfish Bowl Discussions
« on: November 14, 2018, 07:16:43 PM »
This is a simply a way of organising discussions so that students speak to a variety of different classmates.

The teacher gives students something to talk about. This could be one of the following:
•   a dialogue/role play (e.g. asking for directions, making a complaint, etc.)
•   a topic for discussion (e.g. tell your partner about where you go shopping, compare ideas for making London greener, etc.)
•   a ‘longer turn’ type activity (e.g. Describe your best friend, what are your ambitions for your future, etc.)

The teacher with students’ help then clears a space in the room and arranges the chairs in 2 concentric circles, one facing out and one facing in (see below). The students sit down and do the speaking task with the person in front of them. When instructed to do so, the ones on the outside (or the inside!) move one space along and the task is repeated. In this way students are encouraged to repeat, improve and extend their speaking, making it a little different and more interesting each time.

As with all speaking tasks of this kind, the teacher needs to listen and make notes of interesting content, good bits of language use and errors for analysis by the group and possible future language focus.

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Applied Linguistics & ELT / Board games for controlled and freer practice
« on: November 14, 2018, 07:16:15 PM »
This is excellent practice for the listening and speaking exam and can be done on and off throughout the course. The example provided is intended for use after looking at the past tense. You can make sets which fit in with other language areas and build up a bank of tell us about question cards.

Students sit in pairs or 3s. One person takes a card and asks another. After the initial answer the other students join in the conversation. The teacher can encourage the use of conversation gambits to aid conversation, for example, ‘Really’, ‘How interesting!’, ‘How terrible!’ ‘What about you?’, etc.

The teacher listens in to conversations and makes notes of examples of interesting storied, good language to share with the group and errors which she/he could use to focus usefully with the group. In this case, possibly the pronunciation of the regular past tenses, or use of the verb in the present to talk about the past could be picked up on and further practised.

12
Students look at pictures on cards and talk together to identify the activities.

Again, working in small groups, students try to write a sentence for each picture. They check the spelling by trial and error using mini-whiteboards. (e.g. She is cleaning the kitchen) NB Literacy students could match cards with the sentences on to the pictures. They visit other groups to compare answers and the teacher helps out where needed.

The teacher elicits, models and drills the question (What is she/are they doing?). Students turn over their written work and use the cards to test each other. One student turns a card and asks, ‘What is she doing?’. Others in the group respond, listening and checking each other.

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Applied Linguistics & ELT / My photos
« on: November 14, 2018, 07:15:14 PM »
Before the lesson spend some time thinking about what pictures you could have in the photo frames. You don’t have to put photos in, just imagine that they are there.

Ask the students if they would like to see your photos. ‘Show’ them your photos. Example: ‘This is my Dad. We all went to his house on his Birthday. He’s holding the book I gave him. He looks really happy, maybe because he had a really nice meal and a few glasses of wine! This is a picture of my house in the snow. Look at my son! He looks so happy. He didn’t have to go to school that day. etc.’

Give each student a frame and a little time to think about what photos they have in the album. They then sit in groups and ‘show’ each other. Some student may prefer to draw or write something in the blanks. That’s fine!

You could choose to do this activity in a ‘goldfish bowl’. (See another table for an explanation of this.)

Caution: This activity can be quite emotional as many students include pictures of lost relatives or places from their past.

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Applied Linguistics & ELT / A mingle for after the Christmas holiday
« on: November 14, 2018, 07:14:33 PM »
Teacher sets the context – going to ask each other about your holidays

Teacher elicits examples of the questions they could ask, focusing on the auxiliary verbs in the past (was/were/did), eliciting examples of when they would be used.

Give each student one card and gives them a few minutes to think about how to complete the questions but they don’t write in the missing words.

Students (and teacher) stand up and ask their question to one student, listening and responding appropriately to the answer. After answering their partner’s question they swap cards and go and find someone different to ask.

Continue in this way until most students have asked and answered most questions.

The teacher conducts feedback asking the group, for example, who they found who had a particularly good day and why. Who spent the most money? etc

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Curriculum & Material Design / A mingle for after the Christmas holiday
« on: November 14, 2018, 07:13:19 PM »
Teacher sets the context – going to ask each other about your holidays

Teacher elicits examples of the questions they could ask, focusing on the auxiliary verbs in the past (was/were/did), eliciting examples of when they would be used.

Give each student one card and gives them a few minutes to think about how to complete the questions but they don’t write in the missing words.

Students (and teacher) stand up and ask their question to one student, listening and responding appropriately to the answer. After answering their partner’s question they swap cards and go and find someone different to ask.

Continue in this way until most students have asked and answered most questions.

The teacher conducts feedback asking the group, for example, who they found who had a particularly good day and why. Who spent the most money? etc.

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