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Topics - Mrittika Shil

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Department of Entrepreneurship / Universities in transformation
« on: June 20, 2019, 03:25:28 PM »

The new demands upon the universities are not entirely novel, if all fields and higher educational institutions (HEI) are considered. What is new is the global nature of the phenomenon, national systems of knowledge production and innovation, believed to underlie national competitive positions, are undergoing deep changes nearly everywhere.
b] The emerging system has been captured in the triple helix model (Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff, 2000), consisting of three poles: university, industry, and government, previously assumed to constitute separate systems, each with distinct, stable roles. Increasingly, they are becoming intertwined and with partially overlapping functions.[/b]

Universities are shifting their paradigms towards entrepreneurship development in the recent years because of implications and development of the business which will enhance the macroeconomic development of the country. The role of knowledge commercialization and active contribution of developing private enterprises in the local economy. As such university has become the national innovation system.

Here are 3 examples from India which are not only doing things differently but at the same time contributing to environment also. Sustainability is the need of future business world & these startups know it very well.

1) Log 9 materials: - This one is delight for smokers! This Uttar Pradesh based company was founded by 23 year old IITian Mr.Akshay Singhal to promote graphene nanotechnology. Their product PPUF 'Smoke safe' is plug on filter for cigarettes ensuring that Cancer causing toxins are filtered without disturbing the taste or the flavour of the smoke .Company claims that it reduces 90% chance of Cancer caused due to cigarettes if an individual uses this product.

For further betterment they have collaborated with IISc institute from Bangalore for R&D. As country is getting more & more fitness conscious day by day, in near future this innovation is going to have spectacular demand as according to WHO India has roughly 120 million smokers, which are 12% of world’s smokers.

2) Bakeys:- This one has a unique concept of edible cutlery .Yes,one can eat your spoon once your eating is done. Founded in 2010, this Hyderabad based company works under the leadership of Mr. Narayana Peesapathy. Idea behind doing this is not completely new, which is to replace plastic from eating outlets (In school/college canteens, Food courts in malls etc.).However the solution is cool.

Company introduced edible spoons made up of ‘Jowar’ majorly, in combination with other flour giving it a healthy & nutritious value , also at the same time reducing the environmental hazard which plastic causes (to some extent). Organization is well supported via Crowd funding (No wonder when your initiative is efficient & unique, money will roll in ).

3) I got Garbage :-We are doing MBA to attach Managers tag to our profile. However this project has given an opportunity to Rag pickers to become a Recycling Managers & that also without any MBA degree. Thanks to Mr. Prashant Mehra, Project Manager from Mindtree an IT Giant,who was keen on initiating this 'Waste management' idea & chose Bangalore city, our very own Indian silicon valley for starting this project, considering the fact this city generates nearly 3000 tonnes of waste solid waste per day.

This company has given an opportunity to Rag pickers to earn more than what they earn on regular basis by contributing in waste management work .(On an average, Rag Picker associated with ‘I Got Garbage’ earns Rs.4828 per month).So along with Waste management this company is also impacting the livelihood of rag pickers by generating monthly salary for around 8000 of them.


"Ecopreneurs are entrepreneurs whose business efforts are not only driven by profit, but also by a concern for the environment. Ecopreneurship, also known as environmental entrepreneurship and eco-capitalism, is becoming more widespread as a new market-based approach to identifying opportunities for improving environmental quality and capitalizing upon them in the private sector for profit. "

Product design offers the opportunity to incorporate green and socially responsible attributes into a product. Referred to as Design for Sustainability (D4S), it is a process that addresses environmental and social considerations in the earliest stages of the product development process to minimize negative environmental and social impacts throughout the product's life cycle and to comply with the principles of economic, social and ecological sustainability.

Sustainable product design can encompass the selection of materials, use of resources, production requirements and planning for the final disposition (recycling, reuse, re-manufacturing, or disposal) of a product. It takes into account the socio-economic circumstances of the company and the opportunity for the firm to address social problems associated with poverty, safety, inequity, health and the working environment. It is not a stand-alone methodology but one that must be integrated with a company's existing product design so that environmental and social parameters can be integrated with traditional product attributes such as quality, cost, and functionality

Business Administration / Digital Marketing Channels
« on: May 15, 2018, 02:06:56 PM »
4 Important Digital Marketing Channels You Should Know About

It goes without saying that a company can't do without digital marketing in today's world.

Here’s An Overview Of The Different Digital Marketing Channels That You Should Consider For Your Business.

Before you start planning an effective digital marketing strategy, you need to understand the different channels in digital marketing. Identifying what channels work best for your business and working on them will help you propel your business forward.

Display Advertising

This channel involves designing graphical advertisements and placing them next to content on websites, e-mails and other digital format, and instant messaging applications. The advertisements can be text, images, audio or video clips, animation, or other interactive content.

While surfing the internet or going through your mails, you may often be presented with advertisements of all sorts. That’s exactly what display advertising is, but it’s important for your adverts to be relevant to what people are looking for. That’s because the success of a display advertising campaign is determined by calculating the number of clicks an advert receives given the number of times it was displayed to the consumer or made an impression on him/her.

You can target your adverts according to consumer behaviour, demographics, or geographic location. Say for example, you own a salon in Raleigh and are offering attractive discounts to locals, there’s no point in letting people across the continent know about the same. A digital marketing services Raleigh firm will be able to set up your adverts in a way that will be beneficial to your business.

With the help of analytics, it is possible to track the number of people who have seen your adverts or clicked on them, what a person did on your site after entering it, and the conversion ratio.

Display advertising not only helps you promote new products or offers, but it helps you increase your online presence and reach out to your customers. Display advertising can help drive leads and increase brand awareness too.

E-mail Marketing

As the name suggests, you market your products or services to your targeted customers via e-mail. E-mail marketing is a great way to gain new customers or improve relationships with existing customers.

E-mail marketing campaigns are good for companies that may not be able to shell out a lot of dough for promoting their business. E-mail marketing also allows companies to promote other marketing channels effectively. However, building customer database and designing newsletters/e-mails can be very time consuming.

Furthermore, not all your customers may have the patience to go through your e-mails as most people have full inboxes. On the other hand, if you keep sending multiple e-mails, it may irk your customers and they may end up marking your e-mails as spam. Find the right balance and avoid sending e-mails that go with the line ’Do not reply’. Have a specific e-mail domain as communicating with your customers is of prime importance.

Social Media Marketing

Social networks like Facebook, MySpace, and LinkedIn, blogs, micro blogging websites like Twitter, forums, wikis or open encyclopedias, content communities like Flickr and YouTube, and podcasts are all forms of social media. All of these forms involve the building of networks or communities by allowing users to interact with each other.

Social media tools encourage users to share opinions, participate in discussions and engage with others in real time. As such, social media marketing can be the best way to market your brand or company, and connect with your customers. However, know that all digital marketing tools have different purposes; you’ll need to identify your company’s goals and your targeted audience before you get started.

Note that encouraging users to engage and participate is often a challenge, so you’ll need to figure out how you’ll go about these things. Furthermore, continuous communication with customers is necessary and you’ll have to make sure that you are aware of all the positive and negative things that customers have to say about your brand.

When posting new content or comments, always think and review more than twice as social media mistakes aren’t easily forgiven. Keep in mind that any user can take a screenshot of your blunder and even if you edit or delete an erroneous post later on, the damage will already have been done.

Lastly, follow social media etiquette so you don’t come across as a spammer.

Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate marketing is performance-based marketing involving a business owner and one or more websites or affiliates. The affiliate website owners place advertisements on their own websites to market the business owner’s goods or services in exchange for a percentage of profits.

Considering an affiliate marketing campaign for your company is generally a good choice; you get mass coverage at no additional costs. You also get more exposure when more websites are affiliated to your business.

Your affiliates can make money in three ways: Pay Per Click, Pay Per Sale, or Pay Per Lead. This means that your brand is advertised for free and you only incur a cost when an agreed action occurs- when a user clicks on your advert on the affiliate’s website, or when a user is led from the affiliate website to your website and purchases a product/service or if the user registers on your website.


While all of this sounds good, know that you’ll need to strategize first. It’s common to see companies marketing their goods digitally without a plan in place. If you dive into digital marketing without a plan, not only will you be unsure of your goals, you won’t even know what you’re achieving.

A plan will help you estimate your online market share and that of your competitors too. With so many companies turning towards digital marketing, it’s important that you pull your socks up and make optimal use of what you can.

Digital Marketing Vs. Traditional Marketing: Which One Is Better?

What's the difference between digital marketing and traditional marketing, and why does it matter? The answers may surprise you.

Many small businesses struggle with deciding which kind of marketing to do, because their budget will only stretch to one or the other, not both. The decisions that must be made are not easy: which method of marketing will give me the most bang for my buck? How do I know if my marketing is working? Who should I trust with my marketing? Should I do it myself? The answers may surprise you.

To clarify the terms, the use of print ads on newspapers and magazines is a simple example of traditional marketing. Other examples include flyers that are put in mailboxes, commercials both on TV and radio and billboards. On the other hand, when a business invests on building a website, advertising the brand name through different social media such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, this kind strategy is called digital marketing.

Benefits of Traditional Marketing

traditional marketing, digital marketing,You can easily reach your target local audience. For example, a radio ad might play in one location: your city or region. Or mailbox flyers will go to households in a select number of suburbs.

The materials can be kept. The audience can have a hard copy of materials of which they can read or browse through over and over again.

It's easy to understand. It can be easily understood by most people because they are already exposed to this kind of strategy.

Neuroscience seems to support the benefits of hard copy marketing. A study sponsored by Canada Post and performed by Canadian neuro-marketing firm TrueImpact compared the effects of paper marketing (direct mail pieces, in this case) with digital media (email and display ads).

The technologies used in this study were eye-tracking and high resolution EEG brain wave measurement. The three key metrics evaluated in the study were cognitive load (ease of understanding), motivation (persuasiveness), and attention (how long subjects looked at the content).

Direct mail was easier to process mentally and tested better for brand recall.  According to the report,

Direct mail requires 21% less cognitive effort to process than digital media (5.15 vs. 6.37), suggesting that it is both easier to understand and more memorable. Post-exposure memory tests validated what the cognitive load test revealed about direct mail’s memory encoding capabilities. When asked to cite the brand (company name) of an advertisement they had just seen, recall was 70% higher among participants who were exposed to a direct mail piece (75%) than a digital ad (44%).

The Downside to Traditional Marketing

There is very little interaction between the medium used and the customers. It is more of providing information to the public that the brand exists with the hope of these people patronizing the brand.

  • Print or radio advertisements can be very costly. Printing materials can be expensive and you need to hire people to distribute these.

    Results on this marketing strategy cannot easily be measured. Was the campaign successful?
Benefits of Digital Marketing

You can target a local audience, but also an international one. Further, you can tailor a campaign to specific audience demographics, such as gender, location, age and interests. This means your campaign will be more effective.

Your audience can choose how they want to receive your content. While one person likes to read a blog post, another person likes to watch a YouTube video. Traditional marketing doesn't give the audience a choice. Most people hate receiving sales flyers in their mailbox or phone calls at inconvenient times on stuff that they have little interest in.  Online people get the choice to opt in or out of communications and often it is relevant because they were the ones searching for it in the first place.  Don’t underestimate the power of market segmentation and tailored marketing.

Interaction with your audience is possible with the use of social media networks. In fact, interaction is encouraged. Traditional marketing methods don't allow for audience interaction. You can encourage your prospects, clients and followers to take action, visit your website, read about your products and services, rate them, buy them and provide feedback which is visible to your market.

Digital marketing is cost-efficient. Though some invest on paid ads online; however, the cost is still cheaper compared to traditional marketing.

Data and results are easily recorded. With Google Analytics and the insights tools offered by most social media channels, you can check on your campaigns at any time. Unlike traditional marketing methods, you can see in real time what is or is not working for your business online and you can adapt very quickly to improve your results.

Level playing field: Any business can compete with any competitor regardless of size with a solid digital marketing strategy.  Traditionally a smaller retailer would struggle to match the finesse of the fixtures and fittings of its larger competitors.  Online, a crisp well thought out site with a smooth customer journey and fantastic service is king – not size.

Real time results: you don’t have to wait weeks for a boost to your business like you would have to waiting for a fax or form to be returned.  You can see the numbers of visitors to your site and its subscribers increase, peak trading times, conversion rates and much more at the touch of a button.

Brand Development: A well maintained website with quality content targeting the needs and adding value to your target audience can provide significant value and lead generation opportunities.  The same can be said for utilising social media channels and personalised email marketing.

traditional marketing, digital marketing,Viral: how often do your sales flyers get passed around instantly by your customers and prospects?  Online, using social media share buttons on your website, email and social media channels enables your message to be shared incredibly quickly.  If you consider the average Facebook user has 190 friends of which an average of 12% see their liked posts – your one message has actually been seen by 15 new prospects. Now imagine a number of them also like and share your message and their friends do the same?  That's why high-quality content is so important.

So which kind of marketing is better?

Well, we would recommend both. Obviously, we are passionate about digital marketing, because we know that it works. But we do use traditional marketing materials, too.

A 2009 study conducted by Bangor University and branding agency Millward Brown also used fMRI to study the different effects of paper and digital media.

Some of their key conclusions were:

Physical material is more “real” to the brain.  It has a meaning, and a place. It is better connected to memory because it engages with its spatial memory networks.
Physical material involves more emotional processing, which is important for memory and brand associations.
Physical materials produced more brain responses connected with internal feelings, suggesting greater “internalization” of the ads.

How We Use Both Digital & Traditional Marketing

Our traditional marketing methods support our digital marketing efforts. The two do not operate in exclusion from each other. But we only use hard copy marketing materials to further strengthen a relationship with a contact, referral partner or client. We don't invest in television or radio ads, for example, but we will give brochures to someone who is interested in our services.

Rather than taking an all or nothing approach, it appears that a multi-channel approach that leverages the unique benefits of paper with the convenience and accessibility of digital will perform best.


The Best of the Best eCommerce Analytics Tools to Grow Your Business

E-Commerce Analytics Tools Convert more customers, whether they are cold traffic, social followers or email subscribers, Figure out your pricing structure to encourage new business and lifelong customers alike, Stop playing guessing games with your budget. Each of the following tools ticks the boxes of what modern eCommerce marketers need. Regardless of your budget or industry, any combination of these tools is fair game.

1. Google Analytics
2. Piwik
3. Kissmetrics
4. Hotjar
5. Woopra
6. Klaviyo
7. Visual Web Optimizer

Why social media marketing is important for  business

Social media is quickly becoming one of the most important aspects of digital marketing, which provides incredible benefits that help reach millions of customers worldwide. And if you are not applying this profitable source, you are missing out an incredible marketing opportunity, as it makes it easy to spread the word about your product and mission.

Improved brand awareness

Social media is one of the most stress-free and profitable digital marketing platforms that can be used to increase your business visibility. To get started, create social media profiles for your business and start networking with others. By applying a social media strategy, it will help you significantly increase your brand recognition. By spending only a few hours per week, over 91% marketers claimed that their social marketing efforts greatly increased their brand visibility and heightened user experience. Undoubtedly, having a social media page for your brand will benefit your business and with a regular use, it can also produce a wide audience for your business in no time.


For an advertising strategy, social media marketing is possibly the most cost-effective way. Creating an account and signing up is free for almost all social networking platforms. But if you decide to use paid advertising on social media, always start small to see what you should expect. Being cost-effective is important as it helps you attain a greater return on investment and hold a bigger budget for other marketing and business payments. Just by investing a little money and time, you can significantly increase your conversion rates and ultimately get a return on investment on the money that you primarily invested.

Engage with your customers

Social media is a good way for engaging and interacting customers. The more you communicate with the audience, the more chances you have of conversion. Set up a two-way communication with your target audience so that their wishes are known and their interest is catered with ease. Moreover, communication and engagement with customers is one the ways to win their attention and convey them your brand message. Thus, your brand will reach more audience in real terms and gets itself established without any hassle.

Improved brand loyalty

When you have a social media presence, you make it easier for your customers to find you and connect with you. By connecting with your customers through social media, you are more probable to upsurge customer retention and customer loyalty. Since developing a loyal customer base is one of the main goals of almost any business. Customer satisfaction and brand loyalty typically go hand in hand. It is essential to often engage with your customers and start developing a bond with them. Social media is not just limited to introducing your product, it is also a leading platform for promotional campaigns. A customer sees these platforms as service channels where they can directly communicate with the business.

Healthier customer satisfaction

Social media plays a vital role in networking and communication platform. With the help of these platforms, creating a voice for your company is important in improving the overall brand image. Customers appreciate the fact that when they post comments on your page, they receive a modified reply rather than a computerized message. A brand that values its customers, takes the time to compose a personal message, which is perceived naturally in a positive light.

Marketplace awareness

One of the best ways to find the needs and wants of your customers instead of directly communicating with them is Marketplace awareness. It is also considered as the most valuable advantage of social media. By observing the activities on your profile, you can see customers’ interest and opinions that you might not know otherwise if you didn’t have a social media presence. As a complementary research tool, social media can help you get information and a better understanding of your industry. Once you get a large following, you can then use additional tools to examine other demographics of your consumers.

More brand authority

For making your business more powerful, brand loyalty and customer satisfaction both play a major role, but it all comes down to communication. When customers see your company posting on social media, especially replying to their queries and posting original content, it helps them build a positive image in their minds. Regularly interacting with your customers proves that you and your business care about them. Once you get a few satisfied customers, who are vocal about their positive purchase experience, you can let the advertising be done for you by genuine customers who appreciated your product or service.

Increased traffic

One of the other benefits of Social Media is that it also helps increase your website traffic. By sharing your content on social media, you are giving users a reason to click-through to your website. On your social account, the more quality content you share, the more inbound traffic you will generate while making conversion opportunities.

Enhanced SEO rankings

Social media presence is becoming a vital factor in calculating rankings. These days, to secure a successful ranking, SEO requirements are continuously varying. Therefore, it is no longer enough to simply optimize your website and regularly update your blog. Businesses sharing their content on social media are sending out a brand signal to search engine that speaks to your brand validity, integrity, and constancy.

Final words

There is no denying that Social media marketing has many advantages for startups and established brands. By regular updating the right social media marketing strategy, it will lead to increased traffic, better SEO, improved brand loyalty, healthier customer satisfaction and much more. Your competition is already increasing on social media day by day, so don’t let your competitors take your probable customers. The earlier you start, the faster you see the growth in your business.


এসএমই ক্লাস্টার

বিগত ২০১১-১২ অর্থবছরে ক্ষুদ্র ও মাঝারি শিল্প ফাউন্ডেশন (এসএমই ফাউন্ডেশন) -এর উদ্যোগে সমগ্র বাংলাদেশব্যাপি ১৭৭টি এসএমই ক্লাস্টার চিহ্নিত করে ক্লাস্টার ম্যাপ প্রস্তুত করা হয়েছে। এরই ধারাবাহিকতায় বর্তমানে চিহ্নিত এসএমই ক্লাস্টারগুলোর “উন্নয়ন চাহিদা নিরূপণ” করা হচ্ছে। ইতোমধ্যে নিন্মলিখিত ৮টি এসএমই ক্লাস্টারের উন্নয়ন চহিদা নিরূপণ প্রতিবেদন প্রস্তুত করা হয়েছেঃ
১.    আতর/আগর ক্লাস্টার, সুজানগর, বড়লেখা, মৌলভীবাজার।
২.    বেকারী এ্যান্ড কনফেকশনারী ক্লাস্টার, খুলনা সদর, খুলনা।
৩.    নারিকেল তেল উৎপাদন ক্লাস্টার, নাগের বাজার, বাগেরহাট সদর, বাগেরহাট।
৪.    ক্রিকেট ব্যাট ক্লাস্টার, বলদিয়া, নেছারাবাদ, পিরোজপুর।
৫.    কুমারখালী টেক্সটাইল ক্লাস্টার, কুমারখালী, কুষ্টিয়া (পরীক্ষামূলক)।
৬.    শতরঞ্জি ক্লাস্টার, নিশবেতগঞ্জ, রংপুর (পরীক্ষামূলক)।
৭.    পাদুকা শিল্প ক্লাস্টার, ভৈরব, কিশোরগঞ্জ (পরীক্ষামূলক)।
৮.    প্লাস্টিক শিল্প ক্লাস্টার, লালবাগ-ইসলামবাগ, ঢাকা (পরীক্ষামূলক)।

বর্তমান অর্থবছরে আরো ৫টি ক্লাস্টারের উন্নয়ন চাহিদা নিরুপণ করার কাজ চলছে। ক্লাস্টার ৫টি হলঃ
১.    মেরিন ইঞ্জিন রিপেয়ারিং/লাইট ইঞ্জিনিয়ারিং     ক্লাস্টার, এন্ডারসন রোড, কক্সবাজার সদর, কক্সবাজার।
২.    কাপড় বুনন সূতা     ক্লাস্টার, চান্দিনা, কুমিল্লা।
৩.    হোসিয়ারী শিল্প ক্লাস্টার, গোবিন্দগঞ্জ, গাইবান্ধা।
৪.    জুয়েলারী ক্লাষ্টার, সোনাপট্টি, নওগাঁ সদর, নওগাঁ।
৫.    কুমারখালী টেক্সটাইল ক্লাস্টার, কুমারখালী, কুষ্টিয়া।

উক্ত কর্মসূচিকে আরো বেগবান করে দ্রুত ১৭৭টি ক্লাস্টারের উন্নয়ন চাহিদা নিরূপণ করার জন্য আগামী অর্থবছরে আরো ৩০-৩৫টি এসএমই ক্লাস্টারের উন্নয়ন চাহিদা নিরূপণ করা যেতে পারে। 

Source: Webportal SME Foundation

Business Administration / what makes Uber successful?
« on: May 06, 2018, 03:43:07 PM »
What makes Uber successful?

Uber works because of its peer-to-peer business model running on a digital platform. This means that Uber is connecting people who offer a service with people who have a need.

But let’s take a step back and look at what exactly a business model is. You’ll be surprised that there is actually no universal definition of a business model. According to the St. Gallen University in Switzerland, a business model (see figure 1) provides answers to the following four questions.

Who is your target customer?
What do you offer to the customer?
How is the value proposition created?
How is revenue created?
Structure of a business model

Figure 1. Structure of a business model according to the St. Gallen University.

Let’s have a look at how Uber would answer these questions.

Uber offers its service to two types of customers:

1. people who offer
2. people who want a ride.

The requirements to become a driver are straightforward: a clean criminal record, a newish car and a mobile phone. To get an Uber ride, customers simply need to download the Uber app, register, and provide credit card details.

Uber’s value proposition is in providing a highly flexible source of income for people who own a car. Drivers can determine when and for how many hours they work.

The value proposition for passengers is in:

- cheap, undercut market rates
- a wide network of drivers
- real-time information on where their ride is
- automatic credit card payments.

Then Uber creates value internally by not having to deal with:

- servicing and maintaining a fleet of taxis
- rent
- call centre agents
- administration
- parking fees
- recruiting and training drivers and issuing permits.
This all means massive savings in fixed and variable costs.

Uber makes money by charging a commission of up to 30% from the drivers. Uber uses an automated algorithm to adjust prices and influence supply and demand in the market, resulting in significantly higher fares at times of high demand.

So what does this all mean?

Looking at all this, it’s clear that Uber is not a taxi company – it’s an online platform that connects people. And that’s not new either. The peer-to-peer business model is used by many organisations, including eBay, Trade Me, Airbnb, and essentially every dating service.

Technology itself is seldom disruptive. If your industry is going to be disrupted, it’s going to be by trivial technology combined with a trivial, but effective, business model. And it’s likely to be an outsider, a start-up or an organisation from a different industry that’s not constrained by current industry logic and thinking, that disrupts you.


Business Administration / 6 Elements of Transformative Model
« on: May 06, 2018, 03:31:09 PM »
The Six Keys to Success
We selected the 40 new business models we analyzed on the basis of how many mentions they received in the high-quality, high-circulation business press. All of them seemed to have the potential to transform their industries, but only a subset had succeeded in doing so. We looked for recurring features in the models and found six. No company displayed all of them, but as we shall see, a higher number of these features usually correlated with a higher chance of success at the transformation.

1. A more personalized product or service.
Many new models offer products or services that are better tailored than the dominant models to customers’ individual and immediate needs. Companies often leverage technology to achieve this at competitive prices.

2. A closed-loop process.
Many models replace a linear consumption process (in which products are made, used, and then disposed of) with a closed loop, in which used products are recycled. This shift reduces overall resource costs.

3. Asset sharing.
Some innovations succeed because they enable the sharing of costly assets—Airbnb allows home owners to share them with travelers, and Uber shares assets with car owners. Sometimes assets may be shared across a supply chain. The sharing typically happens by means of two-sided online marketplaces that unlock value for both sides: I get money from renting my spare room, and you get a cheaper and perhaps nicer place to stay. Sharing also reduces entry barriers to many industries, because an entrant need not own the assets in question; it can merely act as an intermediary.

4. Usage-based pricing.
Some models charge customers when they use the product or service, rather than requiring them to buy something outright. The customers benefit because they incur costs only as offerings generate value; the company benefits because the number of customers is likely to grow.

5. A more collaborative ecosystem.
Some innovations are successful because a new technology improves collaboration with supply chain partners and helps allocate business risks more appropriately, making cost reductions possible.

6. An agile and adaptive organization.
Innovators sometimes use technology to move away from traditional hierarchical models of decision making in order to make decisions that better reflect market needs and allow real-time adaptation to changes in those needs. The result is often greater value for the customer at less cost to the company.

Each feature on this list is tied to long-term trends in both technology and demand. On the tech side, one trend is the development of sensors that allow cheaper and broader data capture. Another is that big data, artificial intelligence, and machine learning are enabling companies to turn enormous amounts of unstructured data into rules and decisions. A third is that connected devices (the internet of things) and cloud technology are permitting decentralized and widespread data manipulation and analysis. And a fourth is that developments in manufacturing (think nanotechnology and 3-D printing) are creating more possibilities for distributed and small-scale production.

Source: Harvard Business Review

Coca Cola, as a part of their Happiness Machine Campaign (which included installing happiness machines, which pass out free drinks and other coca cola merchandises, to various crowded destinations like colleges, malls), installed a love machine in a mall of Istanbul. This machine gave free coca cola cans to any couple who proved their love.

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Department of Entrepreneurship / Features of Guerrilla Marketing
« on: May 05, 2018, 04:17:58 PM »
Features of Guerrilla Marketing

Pocket-Friendly Campaigns

Guerrilla marketing usually involves campaigns that are more economical as well as effective.

Targeted Reach
Guerrilla marketing focuses on creating campaigns which get more reach through word of mouth & publicity.

Fewer resources, big message. That’s what guerrilla marketing is all about.

Communication of the campaign is done through word of mouth, social media, and publicity, etc. That is, business doesn’t do much to communicate it. They just implement the campaign and rest of the communication is done by people who become a part of it.

Department of Entrepreneurship / WHAT IS GUERRILLA MARKETING?
« on: May 05, 2018, 04:13:40 PM »

Guerrilla Marketing is an advertising strategy that focuses on low-cost unconventional marketing tactics that yield maximum results.

The original term was coined by Jay Conrad Levinson in his 1984 book ‘Guerrilla Advertising’. The term guerrilla marketing was inspired by guerrilla warfare which is a form of irregular warfare and relates to the small tactic strategies used by armed civilians. Many of these tactics includes ambushes, sabotage, raids and elements of surprise. Much like guerrilla warfare, guerrilla marketing uses the same sort of tactics in the marketing industry.

This alternative advertising style relies heavily on unconventional marketing strategy, high energy and imagination. Guerrilla Marketing is about taking the consumer by surprise, make an indelible impression and create copious amounts of social buzz. Guerrilla marketing is said to make a far more valuable impression with consumers in comparison to more traditional forms of advertising and marketing. This is due to the fact that most guerrilla marketing campaigns aim to strike the consumer at a more personal and memorable level.


আমজনের সফলতার পেছনে পিৎজা!

সবচেয়ে বড় ই-কমার্স ওয়েবসাইট আমাজন। এই আমাজনই প্রধান নির্বাহী কর্মকর্তা জেফ বেজোসকে বিশ্বের শীর্ষ ধনী ব্যক্তিতে পরিণত করেছে। কীভাবে আমাজন এত সফল? উত্তরটা হলো পিৎজা!

আমাজনের শুরুর দিকে জেফ বেজোস একটি নিয়ম চালু করেন। নাম দেন ‘টু পিৎজা রুল’ বা দুই পিৎজা তত্ত্ব। মূল বিষয় হলো আমাজনের প্রতিটি অভ্যন্তরীণ দল এতটাই ছোট হতে হবে, যেন দুটি পিৎজার মাধ্যমে গোটা দলের উদরপূর্তি করানো যায়। জেফ বেজোসের এই নিয়ম চালুর পেছনের উদ্দেশ্য খাবারের খরচ কমানো নয়। বেজোস মূলত দুটি উদ্দেশ্যে এই সিদ্ধান্ত নিয়েছিলেন-কার্যকারিতা ও কর্মপরিধি।

প্রথমত, ছোট দল যেকোনো কাজ সম্পাদনে অনেক কম সময় নিয়ে থাকে। একটি ছোট দল পরিচালনা করাও অনেক সহজ এবং খুব সহজেই দলের সদস্যদের যেকোনো নির্দেশনা ও তথ্য সম্পর্কে হালনাগাদ রাখা যায়। এতে দলের সদস্যরাও কাজে বেশি সময় ধরে মনোনিবেশ করতে পারেন।

তবে বেজোসের দ্বিতীয় উদ্দেশ্যটিই আমাজনের সফলতার পেছনে সবচেয়ে বেশি ভূমিকা রেখেছে বলে ধারণা করা হয়। কারণ, ছোট ছোট দল তৈরি করার পেছনে বেজোসের দ্বিতীয় উদ্দেশ্যটি ছিল যেন সব দলের সদস্য একসঙ্গে বসে কাজ করতে পারেন এবং তাঁদের বড় বড় লক্ষ্য অর্জন করার জন্য প্রতিষ্ঠানের যেকোনো সম্পদ একসঙ্গে সবাই ব্যবহার করতে পারেন। আর এই টু-পিৎজা নিয়মটি প্রবর্তনের ফলেই আমাজন আজ বিশ্বের এক নম্বর ই-কমার্স প্ল্যাটফর্মে পরিণত হয়েছে। সূত্র: দ্য গার্ডিয়ান


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