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Topics - ahad.de

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Business Administration / Eccentric Economics 19
« on: March 19, 2017, 11:44:55 PM »
The world of current financial system is based on the very concept of time value of money. In simple terms, time value of money supports the method of calculating compound interest rates. If there is no interest rate, then the world of finance will not exist. That is the greatest truth. All the financial institutions come under this realm of compound interest. Factoring of compound interests has made it possible to have several subjects under the main subject matter of finance namely corporate finance, financial management, valuation etc. Financial crisis or bubble burst is just another extreme point of compounding. When the compound interest turns from basic to extreme a bubble is formed and like many other things it comes into an end through bursting.

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Business Administration / Eccentric Economics 18
« on: March 19, 2017, 11:42:36 PM »
Every country around the world is suffering from currency fluctuations these days except USA. USA is basically becoming rich at the expense of all the world's countries. Apparently, US had done two things long ago to position itself on the top of the world's financial chain namely removal of gold backed currency system which gives the unlimited freedom of printing money and convincing Saudi Prince to declare USD as the sole means for world's oil trade. So basically, whenever some country except US wants to buy oil, then that particular country needs to buy/acquire USD first. And US is basically printing out the notes without any additional costs. Hence we are giving our money to buy USD and then we involve in trade and US is becoming rich with our money. And this is how the world's financial system is running. USA is systematically and slowly poisoning the world's financial system and they are also largely liable for several crises around the world.

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Business Administration / Eccentric Economics 17
« on: March 19, 2017, 11:40:12 PM »
The world is not flat for all. This is particularly true for many students around the world who aspire to go abroad for studying. Education has become a great business all over the world. The rising tuition fees of many universities around the world prove this happily. The education sector has long been dominated by the USA and some other countries as well. Education sector has been being dominated by them by utilizing tools such as competitive exams GMAT, GRE, TOEFL and IELTS and so on. Just a cool thinking will give you the answer why no other countries have introduced such tests and what are the implications of these tests. These tests also supplement to the income sources of these countries along with the increasing tuition fees. In other sense, you are paying money to get the certification from them that you are eligible to study in those countries. The irony of this century is that we are too obvious to look at simple facts-
a. If someone doesn't know English well, then how did he/she email and understand the web-sites and other materials.
b. Every country maintains certain standards of education. Then how about the standard of that education.
c. Does scoring good in those exam really ensure a good measure of students/applicants quality? Those exams are like common exams with time-constrained factor and they are just relative measure of students/applicants performance not a actual one.
d. Another aspect of these exams is the rising fees for appearing for them. The fees are not waived most of the times. And they are barring a significant group of financially disadvantaged students from attending schools abroad. Hence, they are one of the ways to discriminate.
There are many ways through which some developed countries are systematically destroying the potential of developing or marginal countries. Education should be utilized as a tool to create enlighten world not a fixed focus one. Western economists always put emphasis on education forgetting the invisible barriers that they have created and thus giving sunlight only to a specific group of people.
Courtesy:
AHAD
Lecturer
Dept. of Entrepreneurship

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Business & Entrepreneurship / Literature Review
« on: February 09, 2017, 11:13:19 PM »
The purpose of a literature review is three-fold: (1) to survey the current state of knowledge in the area of inquiry, (2) to identify key authors, articles, theories, and findings in that area, and (3) to identify gaps in knowledge in that research area.  Literature review is commonly done today using computerized keyword searches in online databases.  Keywords can be combined using “and” and “or” operations to narrow down or expand the search results.  Once a shortlist of relevant articles is generated from the keyword search, the researcher must then manually browse through each article, or at least its abstract section, to determine the suitability of that article for a detailed review.  Literature reviews should be reasonably complete, and not restricted to a few journals, a few years, or a specific methodology.  Reviewed articles may be summarized in the form of tables, and can be further structured using organizing frameworks such as a concept matrix.  A well-conducted literature review should indicate whether the initial research questions have already been addressed in the literature (which would obviate the need to study them again), whether there are newer or more interesting research questions available, and whether the original research questions should be modified or changed in light of findings of the literature review.  The review can also provide some intuitions or potential answers to the questions of interest and/or help identify theories that have previously been used to address similar questions. 

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Business & Entrepreneurship / Scientific Research
« on: February 09, 2017, 11:11:03 PM »
Given that theories and observations are the two pillars of science, scientific research operates at two levels: a theoretical level and an empirical level.  The theoretical level is concerned with developing abstract concepts about a natural or social phenomenon and relationships between those concepts (i.e., build “theories”), while the empirical level is concerned with testing the theoretical concepts and relationships to see how well they reflect our observations of reality, with the goal of ultimately building better theories.  Over time, a theory becomes more and more refined (i.e., fits the observed reality better), and the science gains maturity.  Scientific research involves continually moving back and forth between theory and observations.  Both theory and observations are essential components of scientific research.  For instance, relying solely on observations for making inferences and ignoring theory is not considered valid scientific research.
Depending on a researcher’s training and interest, scientific inquiry may take one of two possible forms: inductive or deductive.  In inductive research, the goal of a researcher is to infer theoretical concepts and patterns from observed data.  In deductive research, the goal of the researcher is to test concepts and patterns known from theory using new empirical data.  Hence, inductive research is also called theory-building research, and deductive research is theory-testing research.

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Business & Entrepreneurship / What is Science?
« on: February 09, 2017, 11:09:27 PM »
What is science?  To some, science refers to difficult high school or college-level courses such as physics, chemistry, and biology meant only for the brightest students.  To others, science is a craft practiced by scientists in white coats using specialized equipment in their laboratories.  Etymologically, the word “science” is derived from the Latin word scientia meaning knowledge.  Science refers to a systematic and organized body of knowledge in any area of inquiry that is acquired using “the scientific method” (the scientific method is described further below).  Science can be grouped into two broad categories: natural science and social science.  Natural science is the science of naturally occurring objects or phenomena, such as light, objects, matter, earth, celestial bodies, or the human body.  Natural sciences can be further classified into physical sciences, earth sciences, life sciences, and others.  Physical sciences consist of disciplines such as physics (the science of physical objects), chemistry (the science of matter), and astronomy (the science of celestial objects).  Earth sciences consist of disciplines such as geology (the science of the earth).  Life sciences include disciplines such as biology (the science of human bodies) and botany (the science of plants).  In contrast, social science is the science of people or collections of people, such as groups, firms, societies, or economies, and their individual or collective behaviors.  Social sciences can be classified into disciplines such as psychology (the science of human behaviors), sociology (the science of social groups), and economics (the science of firms, markets, and economies).
The natural sciences are different from the social sciences in several respects.  The natural sciences are very precise, accurate, deterministic, and independent of the person making the scientific observations.  For instance, a scientific experiment in physics, such as measuring the speed of sound through a certain media or the refractive index of water, should always yield the exact same results, irrespective of the time or place of the experiment, or the person conducting the experiment.  If two students conducting the same physics experiment obtain two different values of these physical properties, then it generally means that one or both of those students must be in error.  However, the same cannot be said for the social sciences, which tend to be less accurate, deterministic, or unambiguous.  For instance, if you measure a person’s happiness using a hypothetical instrument, you may find that the same person is more happy or less happy (or sad) on different days and sometimes, at different times on the same day.  One’s happiness may vary depending on the news that person received that day or on the events that transpired earlier during that day.  Furthermore, there is not a single instrument or metric that can accurately measure a person’s happiness.  Hence, one instrument may calibrate a person as being “more happy” while a second instrument may find that the same person is “less happy” at the same instant in time.  In other words, there is a high degree of measurement error in the social sciences and there is considerable uncertainty and little agreement on social science policy decisions.

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Business & Entrepreneurship / Statistical Analysis
« on: February 09, 2017, 11:04:28 PM »
Perhaps you are currently taking a statistics course or you struggled through a statistics course in the past and the concepts you once knew are a bit fuzzy. In this review, we remind you of the issues that typically motivate the use of statistical data analysis and illustrate the types of analyses that are most commonly used to describe data or make a decision based on observed data.
Most analyses can be categorized into one of these types:
• Description • Comparison • Association/correlation


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Business & Entrepreneurship / We Are Human Above All
« on: February 09, 2017, 10:57:43 PM »
People may come from different cultures and background. But at the end, we are people of same blood color. Our believes might differ, but all long for a peaceful life. We all need to look at the picture of another side when we tend to think about someone. This video sends a message which has appeal to all.

[youtube][/youtube]
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hAhxYXrHrSE

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Business & Entrepreneurship / Marketing to Women
« on: January 23, 2017, 08:01:13 PM »
The mistake marketers make time and again is speaking to women as though they’re all the same. Falling into gender stereotypes is a common pitfall when marketers speak to women in a single, unilateral way – perpetuating the belief that all women want things to be pink, for example. We need to change the conversation from talking “at” her to talking “with” her. When determining how to reach out to women, we look at two key elements to help define our target – the role she plays (Is she a student? A mom?), and her interests (Does she work out? Love to travel, cook, shop?). 
The true secret is that it’s more about behavior than gender.  So, do the research – look at the data, segment the market, figure out your target’s interests.
 Listen and learn before you Launch: Before you reach out to her, understand her lifestyle and learn about what drives her. Next, don’t come to her just to chat – make sure to share a meaningful point of view or solution.
 Tap into her emotional quotient: Yes, she has feelings. But unlike conventional wisdom, they don’t cloud her judgment – they sharpen it. Make her feel something about what your product or service is doing for her, for her family and for the world.
 Give her what she wants and needs: It’s good for her to get something because she wants it and it’s practical when she needs it – but if marketers can marry the “want and need,” or bring it back to the want at the end, it makes the process much more fun for her.
 Reach her where she already is: Marketers should seek her out where she already is rather than always trying to bring her somewhere else. This can be done by targeting the titles she reads, pitching the social media platforms and channels she follows, partnering with like-minded influencers and brands she admires, etc.
STATISTICS
 
 Women account for 85% of all consumer purchases including everything from autos to health care:
   91% of New Homes    66% PCs    92% Vacations    80% Healthcare    65% New Cars    89% Bank Accounts    93% Food    93 % OTC Pharmaceuticals American women spend about $5 trillion annually… Over half the U.S. GDP  Women represent the majority of the online market
 Digital Divas By The Numbers
• 22% shop online at least once a day
• 92% pass along information about deals or finds to others
• 171: average number of contacts in their e-mail or mobile lists
• 76% want to be part of a special or select panel
• 58% would toss a TV if they had to get rid of one digital device (only 11% would ditch their laptops)
• 51% are moms Source: Mindshare/Ogilvy & Mather
 
 Women process information and make purchasing decisions differently than men:
   59% of women feel misunderstood by food marketers;
   66% feel misunderstood by health care marketers;
   74% feel misunderstood by automotive marketers;
   84% feel misunderstood by investment marketers
   91% of women in one survey said that advertisers don’t understand them
   70% of new businesses are started by women
   The average black woman spends 3 times as much on beauty products compared with the average woman
   Women influence $90 billion dollars worth of consumer electronic purchases in 2007
   61% of women influence household consumer electronic buying decisions
   Nearly 50% of women say they want more green choices
 
   37% are more likely to pay attention to brands that are committed to environmental causes.
   25% of all products in a woman’s shopping cart nowadays are environmentally friendly.When women are aware you support women owned businesses
 
   79% would try your product or service
   80% would solidify their brand loyalty
   51% would give a company a second chance if a product or service missed the mark the first time
   Women make more than 80% of all consumer purchasing decisions

Courtesy :
Md. Nur-Al-Ahad
MBA (UPM, Malaysia), Visiting Scholar (UoM, Japan), BBA (University of Dhaka, Bangladesh).

Lecturer

Department of Entrepreneurship

Daffodil International University

Daffodil Business Incubator Building

105 Shukrabad

Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh

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Business & Entrepreneurship / Digital Marketing
« on: January 23, 2017, 07:47:23 PM »
Digital Marketing
Digital marketing is the promotion of products or brands via one or more forms of electronic media and differs from traditional marketing in that it involves the use of channels and methods that enable an organization to analyze marketing campaigns and understand what is working and what isn’t – typically in real time.
Digital marketers monitor things like what is being viewed, how often and for how long, sales conversions, what content works and doesn’t work, etc. While the Internet is, perhaps, the channel most closely associated with digital marketing, others include wireless text messaging, mobile instant messaging, mobile apps, podcasts, electronic billboards, digital television and radio channels, etc.
Why Digital Marketing Is Important
Digital media is so pervasive that consumers have access to information any time and any place they want it. Gone are the days when the messages people got about your products or services came from you and consisted of only what you wanted them to know. Digital media is an ever-growing source of entertainment, news, shopping and social interaction, and consumers are now exposed not just to what your company says about your brand, but what the media, friends, relatives, peers, etc., are saying as well. And they are more likely to
believe them than you. People want brands they can trust, companies that know them, communications that are personalized and relevant, and offers tailored to their needs and preferences.

Courtesy :
Md. Nur-Al-Ahad
MBA (UPM, Malaysia), Visiting Scholar (UoM, Japan), BBA (University of Dhaka, Bangladesh).

Lecturer

Department of Entrepreneurship

Daffodil International University

Daffodil Business Incubator Building

105 Shukrabad

Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1207, Banglade

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Business & Entrepreneurship / Guerrilla Marketing for Startups
« on: January 23, 2017, 07:41:04 PM »
Guerrilla Marketing is an advertising strategy that focuses on low-cost unconventional marketing tactics that yield maximum results.
The original term was coined by Jay Conrad Levinson in his 1984 book ‘Guerrilla Advertising’. The term guerrilla marketing was inspired by guerrilla warfare which is a form of irregular warfare and relates to the small tactic strategies used by armed civilians. Many of these tactics includes ambushes, sabotage, raids and elements of surprise. Much like guerrilla warfare, guerrilla marketing uses the same sort of tactics in the marketing industry.
This alternative advertising style relies heavily on unconventional marketing strategy, high energy and imagination. Guerrilla marketing is about taking the consumer by surprise, make an indelible impression and create copious amounts of social buzz. Guerrilla marketing is said to make a far more valuable impression with consumers in comparison to more traditional forms of advertising and marketing. This is due to the fact that most guerrilla marketing campaigns aim to strike the consumer at a more personal and memorable level.
The need for guerrilla marketing can be seen in the light of three facts:
Because of big business downsizing, decentralization, relaxation of government regulations, affordable technology, and a revolution in consciousness, people around the world are gravitating to small business in record numbers.
Small business failures are also establishing record numbers and one of the main reasons for the failures is a failure to understand marketing.
Guerrilla marketing has been proven in action to work for small businesses around the world. It works because it’s simple to understand, easy to implement and outrageously inexpensive.
Guerrilla marketing is needed because it gives small businesses a delightfully unfair advantage: certainty in an uncertain world, economy in a high-priced world, simplicity in a complicated world, marketing awareness in a clueless world.
The need for guerrilla marketing can be seen in the light of three facts:
Because of big business downsizing, decentralization, relaxation of government regulations, affordable technology, and a revolution in consciousness, people around the world are gravitating to small business in record numbers.
Small business failures are also establishing record numbers and one of the main reasons for the failures is a failure to understand marketing.
Guerrilla marketing has been proven in action to work for small businesses around the world. It works because it’s simple to understand, easy to implement and outrageously inexpensive.
Guerrilla marketing is needed because it gives small businesses a delightfully unfair advantage: certainty in an uncertain world, economy in a high-priced world, simplicity in a complicated world, marketing awareness in a clueless world.
How Can a Startup Get, Well, Started?
Successful startup marketing needs to be clever. It’s all well and good to pass out flyers and get a quick spot on the local radio, but try to be innovative about the way you use these resources.
Think about the product or service you are offering to people, and consider what the most important part of that is. Is it beer? Is it the chance for a great meal? Is it a way to keep your favorite music downloads despite computer failure? If so, then tell people. And better yet, show them.
The point of guerrilla marketing is to take that one special thing you can offer customers and present it in a fun, in-your-face way that will be remembered. For startups, marketers can be disheartened by the lack of a million dollar budget; but really, this is just the chance to come up with an unforgettable campaign.
For example, let’s say you are selling a new line of bottled drinks, and your key marketing point is the fact that the plastic bottles are completely biodegradable. A clever guerrilla marketing tactic would be to design the label to reflect that characteristic.

Courtesy :
Md. Nur-Al-Ahad
MBA (UPM, Malaysia), Visiting Scholar (UoM, Japan), BBA (University of Dhaka, Bangladesh).

Lecturer

Department of Entrepreneurship

Daffodil International University

Daffodil Business Incubator Building

105 Shukrabad

Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh


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Business & Entrepreneurship / Pharmaceutical Marketing
« on: January 23, 2017, 07:13:41 PM »
Medico-Marketing/Pharmaceutical Marketing
According to Work Sure, Medico-Marketing involves promotion of pharmaceutical products. It facilitates to continuously update physicians, nurses and pharmacists regarding the safe and effective use of medicines. Medico marketing encompasses activities by medicos or organizations to actualize markets for pharmaceutical care.
WHO defines pharmaceutical promotion as “all information and persuasive activities executed by pharmaceutical manufacturers and distributors, attempting to affect the prescription, supply, purchase, and/or use of medical drugs”.
Why Pharmaceutical markets are different?
First of all, unlike other markets, pharma products cannot be advertised directly to the consumers and are highly regulated. In this market, ultimate consumer (patients) differs from decision maker (doctors), influencer (chemist/payer) and payer (insurance and/or customer).
Secondly, price of the products are usually regulated.
And thirdly, for generic business, high competition and availability of different grades of raw materials and ethical and/or unethical practices market becomes more complicated.
Copyright:
Md. Nur-Al-Ahad
MBA (UPM, Malaysia), Visiting Scholar (UoM, Japan), BBA (University of Dhaka, Bangladesh).

Lecturer

Department of Entrepreneurship

Daffodil International University

Daffodil Business Incubator Building

105 Shukrabad

Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh

13
Business & Entrepreneurship / Green Marketing Efforts for a Greener World
« on: January 23, 2017, 12:19:19 AM »
Green marketing is a term that has number of explanations and various synonyms. It first present in the late 1980s since after, different classifications has been stated. Green marketing is explained as the meeting the consumer`s wants and needs and managing to cause no or least harm to the environment at the same time (Stanton & Futrell, 1987).
The most common terms that customers perceive when stating green marketing are “Reduce, Reuse and Recycling”. All these terms navigates consumers to green life style, “Reducing” here refers to impact toward environment by reduction of consumption, “Reusing here refers to producing the most, out of product before disposal, and the lastly “Recycle” refers to developing a new product from an old product (Polonsky, 1994).
Definition of green marketing has three fundamental principles; first one is social responsibility which means that business has a responsibility to see the happiness of the society (Peattie, 1995). Second one is holistic approach which means that a business cannot be accomplished as an individual task but rather as an integrated function. And the last principle is pursuit of sustainability, in which companies should be sure to produce products that do not have the negative impact on the environments (Peattie, 1995). Green marketing can be solely defined as the production, promotion and distribution of a product or service which does not cause any harm to environments (Grove, Picken, & Kangun, 1996). According to Charter & Polonsky, (1999), Green Marketing could be defined as the act in which a product could be promoted under environmental principles. Though, Fuller, (1999) considered green marketing as the product impact on environment, throughout the production and distribution stage. Green marketing is not just about marketing products and services but also the marketing pro environmental activities. Green marketing greatest enemy is “Greenwashing” which is defined as companies which claiming conducting environmental friendly process but in reality their products are not environmental friendly and they do not conduct business in an environmental friendly manner. When this occurs consumers will not trust the product or the companies that produce the product, therefore the product will not sell in the market (Ramus, C, A & Montiel, I, 2005). It is crucial for companies when manufacturing green products, not only obliged to manufacture green products but they should also consider quality as well as consumer needs and requirements (Ottman, 2006).  According to Grant, (2007) Green Marketing is intended to educate consumers on changing their lives into the more pro-environmental life style. Knowing these terms guide consumers towards a greener life. In spite of the fact that green marketing has been available for many years, not much shift can be realized in consumer’s behavior, there are many explanations for why green products have not been receive by consumers. According to (Grant, 2007) consumers consider green products as more costly and less operative than conventional products. Companies in order to stay competitive need to modify their business exercises to comply with the consumer’s existing needs and wants. This is the main reason the companies adopt a new strategy and conducting green marketing mix.

Courtesy:
Md. Nur-Al-Ahad
MBA (UPM, Malaysia), Visiting Scholar (UoM, Japan), BBA (University of Dhaka, Bangladesh).

Lecturer in Finance

Department of Entrepreneurship

Daffodil International University

Daffodil Business Incubator Building

105 Shukrabad

Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh

14
Business & Entrepreneurship / Eccentric Economics 07
« on: January 23, 2017, 12:15:31 AM »
Towards the world people use various measures to show development more specifically economic development. Many a time we hear terms like GDP, Per Capita Income, Government Revenue and so on. Are those really show the real condition of an economy? Economy exists for the people. People do not exist for economy.
If people die unnecessarily, then there is no economic progress.
If bright people are sided in a corner, then economic progress is hampered.
For an economy to be sustainable, then basic thing to achieve is enough production of food and food items. Then comes the build up of infrastructure. Recently there was a huge fire accident in a market in Dhaka city. Sadly the losses could be minimized to a greater extent with the usage of sophisticated fire extinguishing tools. But the tools are not made available here. All the economic activities are for the betterment of the people. No improvement, no economic development. Rather than using traditional economic indicators, we need to use something breakthrough. Citizen Lifetime Value can be introduced to realize the human potential of a country's citizens and improve quality of life.

Copyright:
Md. Nur-Al-Ahad
MBA (UPM, Malaysia), Visiting Scholar (UoM, Japan), BBA (University of Dhaka, Bangladesh).

Lecturer in Finance

Department of Entrepreneurship

Daffodil International University

Daffodil Business Incubator Building

105 Shukrabad

Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh

15
Business & Entrepreneurship / Eccentric Economics 06
« on: January 23, 2017, 12:14:06 AM »
Long Wave Theory - Kondratieff Wave
A long-term cycle present in capitalist economies that represents long-term, high-growth and low-growth economic periods. This theory was founded by Russian Economist Nikolai D. Kondratieff (also spelled "Kondratiev"). He noticed an approximately 50-year cycle in European agricultural commodity prices and copper prices. Kondratieff believed that these long cycles were a feature of the economic activity of capitalist nations, and that they involved periods of evolution and self-correction. So far we have gotten five of those waves. The period of 2017-2020 will produce the 6th wave with the whole new world structure.

Courtesy by:
Md. Nur-Al-Ahad
MBA (UPM, Malaysia), Visiting Scholar (UoM, Japan), BBA (University of Dhaka, Bangladesh).

Lecturer in Finance

Department of Entrepreneurship

Daffodil International University

Daffodil Business Incubator Building

105 Shukrabad

Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh

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