Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.


Topics - Md. Anikuzzaman

Pages: [1]
1
একটি ইংরেজি দৈনিকে প্রকাশিত খবর অনুসারে বিদেশি কর্মীরা বাংলাদেশ থেকে বছরে ৫ বিলিয়ন ডলার নিয়ে যাচ্ছেন। খবরটির উৎস প্রধানত বাংলাদেশ ইনভেস্টমেন্ট ডেভেলপমেন্ট অথরিটি (বিডা)। গত আগস্ট মাসের প্রথম সপ্তাহে এ সংস্থা বিভিন্ন মন্ত্রণালয়, বিভাগ, সংস্থা ও শিল্প বণিক সমিতি বরাবর একটি চিঠি পাঠিয়েছে। চিঠিতে উল্লেখ রয়েছে, যেকোনো বিদেশি বাংলাদেশে কাজ করতে চাইলে বিডা থেকে ওয়ার্ক পারমিট নেওয়ার বাধ্যতামূলক বিধান রয়েছে। কিন্তু দেখা যাচ্ছে, বিভিন্ন বেসরকারি এমনকি কয়েকটি সরকারি প্রতিষ্ঠানে এ নিয়ম মানা হচ্ছে না। অনুসন্ধানী প্রতিবেদনে লক্ষণীয় হয় যে, এ ধরনের প্রায় ৫ লাখ বিদেশি বাংলাদেশে কাজ করছেন। অথচ বিডা থেকে অনুমতি দেওয়া হয়েছে ১ লাখ। তাঁদের আয়ের ওপর সরকার যথাযথভাবে করও পাচ্ছে না। কাউকে বেতন দেওয়া হচ্ছে বিদেশে। আবার এ দেশেও অনেককে ডলারে বেতন দেওয়া হয়। অথচ আয়কর বিবরণীতে তাঁরা এটা টাকার অঙ্কে দেখান। আর নিবন্ধনহীনরা তো কিছুই দেখান না। আরও বিস্ময়কর তথ্য পাওয়া যায় যে সরকারের বেশ কিছু উন্নয়ন প্রকল্পে বিদেশি কর্মী নিয়োগে অনেক ক্ষেত্রে বিডা থেকে অনুমতি নেওয়া হয় না। এভাবে এ দেশে কাজ করছেন ভারত, চীন, শ্রীলঙ্কা, ফিলিপাইন, যুক্তরাজ্য ও জার্মানির লোকেরা। বলা হয়, এঁরা দক্ষ কর্মী। আমাদের দেশে তাঁদের মানের কর্মী পাওয়া যায় না। সর্বাধিকসংখ্যক বিদেশি কর্মী নিয়োগ দিচ্ছে বস্ত্র ও তৈরি পোশাক খাত, এটিও প্রতিবেদনে উল্লেখ রয়েছে। নিয়োগদাতাদের মতে, বাংলাদেশে ফ্যাশন ও ডিজাইনিং, ভারী যন্ত্রপাতি পরিচালনা, বিপণন, সরবরাহ চেইন ব্যবস্থাপনা ইত্যাদি খাতে দক্ষ কর্মীর যথেষ্ট অভাব রয়েছে। এ ঘাটতি পূরণ করতে বিদেশি কর্মী নিয়োগ দিয়ে উন্নয়ন, উৎপাদন ও রপ্তানি কার্যক্রম চালু রাখতে হচ্ছে। তবে তাঁরা কি বাধ্যকরী অনুমোদনপত্র নেবেন না? দেবেন না যথাযথ আয়কর?

প্রথমে প্রয়োজনীয়তার দিকটি দেখা যাক। সে প্রতিবেদনেই উল্লেখ আছে আমাদের দেশে প্রতিবছর ২৫ হাজার তরুণ–তরুণী স্নাতক হচ্ছেন। তাঁরা কর্মসংস্থান চান। এটা ঠিক, আমরা জেনে না জেনে আমাদের শিক্ষাব্যবস্থায় বড় গলদ সৃষ্টি করেছি। যদিও মেধাবী ছেলেমেয়ে বেশ কিছু আছে, তাঁদের অনেকেই আবার বিদেশে চলে যান। তাই বর্তমান বিশ্বায়নের যুগে প্রতিযোগিতা করার শ্রমশক্তিতে আমরা পিছিয়েই আছি। ফলে বিদেশি বিশেষজ্ঞনির্ভরতা আমাদের রয়ে গেছে। কিন্তু প্রতিবেদনটিতে দেখা যায়, কয়েকটি ফ্রেইট ফরওয়ার্ডিং এজেন্সি ২০০ বিদেশি নাগরিককে নিয়োগ দিয়েছে। এ কাজটি কি কোনো উন্নত প্রযুক্তি বা ব্যবস্থাপনার আওতায় পড়ে? স্বাধীনতার পূর্বকালেও বাঙালিরা ক্লিয়ারিং ফরওয়ার্ডিংয়ের কাজ করে আসছিল। কাজের ব্যাপকতা বেড়েছে। তেমনি বাজারে সরবরাহ বেড়েছে কর্মী। ধারণা করা যায়, তাদের এ নিয়োগে বৈধ কোনো অনুমতি নেই। মনে হয় এ ধরনের কাজে আরও বিদেশি আছে।


অন্যদিকে বাংলাদেশ ইকোনমিক জোন অথরিটি (বেজা) প্রশংসনীয় সিদ্ধান্ত নিয়েছে যে বৈধ অনুমতি ছাড়া তারা তাদের আওতাধীন জোনগুলোতে কোনো বিদেশিকে কাজ করতে দেবে না। সে জন্য তাদের জোনসমূহে এযাবৎ ১ হাজার কর্মরত বিদেশির যথাযথ ওয়ার্ক পারমিট রয়েছে। এ দৃষ্টান্তটি অন্যরা অনুসরণ করবে না কেন? এটা তো কোনো দয়া বা অনুকম্পা দেখানোর বিষয় নয়। সরকারের বিধিবিধান অনুসরণ করা সবার জন্য বাধ্যকরী। অবৈধ বিদেশি শ্রমিক কমবেশি সব দেশেই আছে। তবে কোথাও কি ৮০ শতাংশ বিদেশি শ্রমিক রয়েছে! নিশ্চয়ই নয়। ধারণা করা হয়, ৫ থেকে ১০ শতাংশের মধ্যে কোনো দেশে অবৈধ বিদেশি কর্মী থাকে। এখানে উল্লেখ করতে হবে, এ অনুমতির সঙ্গে সরকারের কর্তৃত্বের পাশাপাশি স্থানীয় জনগণের কর্মসংস্থান ও বিদেশি কর্মীদের আয়কর প্রদানের বিষয়টি সংশ্লিষ্ট রয়েছে।

স্থানীয় পর্যায়ে অনেকের সহযোগিতা না থাকলে এমনটা ঘটত না। বিদেশিরা এ দেশে আসেন ভিসা নিয়েই। ওয়ার্ক পারমিট থাকলে সে ভিসার মেয়াদ হয় কাজের সঙ্গে সংগতি রেখে। নচেৎ মাল্টিপল এন্ট্রি ভিজিট ভিসাতেও একনাগাড়ে তিন মাসের অধিক কোনো বিদেশি থাকতে পারেন না। অবশ্য ইমিগ্রেশন কর্তৃপক্ষ সে সময়সীমা বাড়ানোর ক্ষমতা রাখে। এ ব্যবস্থাটির ব্যাপক অপব্যবহার বেআইনি বিদেশি কর্মীর বিপুল হারে উপস্থিতিতে অবদান রাখছে বলে ধারণা করা যায়। উদ্যোক্তা শ্রেণি ও ব্যবসায়ীরা দক্ষ লোক খুঁজবেন, খুব স্বাভাবিক। তবে বিদেশি দক্ষ কর্মী নিয়োগের পাশাপাশি দেশি কর্মীদের সে দক্ষতা অর্জনে সহায়তা করার সময়াবদ্ধ দায়িত্ব তাঁদেরই নিতে হবে। বিডার অনুমতিপত্রের শর্তে কী আছে জানা নেই। এ ধরনের বিধান থাকাই স্বাভাবিক। না থাকলে করতে হবে। আর একেবারেই অনুমতি ছাড়া কাজ করছেন, তাঁরাসহ নিয়োগদাতারা কিন্তু আইনের বিপরীতে রয়েছেন। সরকারি প্রকল্পে এমনটি কীভাবে হয়, এটা বোধগম্য হচ্ছে না। এর দায়ভার নিতে হবে প্রকল্প পরিচালক ও মন্ত্রণালয়ের সচিবকে। প্রকল্প দলিলে বিদেশি কর্মী নিয়োগের আবশ্যকতার কথা উল্লেখ থাকলেই হবে না। এ ধরনের কর্মী দেশে পাওয়া যাচ্ছে না, এ বিষয়ে বিডাকে সন্তুষ্ট হতে হবে। অবশ্য এটা নিশ্চিত করতে হবে, প্রকৃত চাহিদা যাঁদের রয়েছে, তাঁরা যেন বিডাতে কোনো ধরনের হয়রানির শিকার না হন।

বিদেশিদের শ্রমমূল্য হিসেবে আমাদের দেশ থেকে ৫ বিলিয়ন ডলার প্রতিবছর যায়। ঠিক তেমনি আমাদের প্রবাসী কর্মীরাও পাঠান বৈদেশিক মুদ্রা। তার পরিমাণ ছিল ২০১৮ সালে সাড়ে ১৫ বিলিয়ন ডলার। কিছু প্রণোদনা দেওয়ায় এ বছরে এটা কিছু বাড়বে বলে লক্ষণীয় হচ্ছে। ঢাকা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ের রিফিউজি অ্যান্ড মাইগ্রেন্ট মুভমেন্টস রিসার্চ ইউনিটের (রামরু) একটি তথ্যমতে, ১৯৭৬ থেকে ২০১৮ পর্যন্ত আমরা ১ কোটি ২১ লাখ ৯৯ হাজার লোককে সৌদি আরব, উপসাগরীয় দেশসমূহ, মালয়েশিয়াসহ অন্যান্য দেশে পাঠিয়েছি। তাঁরা সবাই অস্থায়ী অধিবাসী। সময়ান্তরে স্বাভাবিকভাবেই ফিরে এসেছেন অনেকেই। তাঁদের ঠিক কত লোক এখন কার্যরত আছেন, এর সঠিক পরিসংখ্যান পাওয়া যায় না। তবে যুক্তরাষ্ট্র, যুক্তরাজ্যসহ ২১টি দেশে ২৪ লাখ বাংলাদেশি স্থায়ীভাবে বসবাসরত আছেন বলে অর্থনৈতিক সম্পর্ক বিভাগের ২০১৮ সালের একটি প্রতিবেদনে দেখা যায়। যৌক্তিকভাবেই ধারণা করা যায়, স্থায়ী–অস্থায়ী সব মিলিয়ে প্রায় ১ কোটি বাংলাদেশি প্রবাসে আছেন।

প্রবাসী আয় বিবেচনায় বাংলাদেশের অবস্থান দক্ষিণ এশিয়ায় তৃতীয় এবং বিশ্বে একাদশ। আর এ আয়ের প্রায় এক-তৃতীয়াংশ নিয়ে যাচ্ছেন মাত্র ৫ লাখ বিদেশি কর্মী। অন্যদিকে তাঁদের শতকরা ৮০ জনের এ দেশে কাজ করার বৈধতা নেই। দিচ্ছেন না আয়কর। বৈধরাও ফাঁকি দিয়ে চলছেন অনেকে। এ ব্যাপারটিকে নিয়ন্ত্রণে নেওয়ার সুযোগ নেই—এমনটা মনে হয় না। সরকারের সব সংস্থাই তো কার্যকর রয়েছে বলে দাবি করা হয়। শিল্প–বাণিজ্য ও উন্নয়ন কার্যক্রমে আতঙ্ক সৃষ্টি করা অযাচিত। এতে বিরূপ প্রতিক্রিয়া হতে পারে। তবে দৃঢ়তার সঙ্গে ধীরে ধীরে আইন কার্যকর করাকে আতঙ্ক সৃষ্টি বলা যাবে না। ব্যবসায়ী–শিল্পপতিদের নিয়ে বৈঠক করতে হবে। আইনের বিধানে কোনো বিচ্যুতি থাকলে, তা–ও সংশোধন করা প্রয়োজন। বিনা অনুমতিতে বিদেশি কর্মী কাজ করলে সে কর্মী ও তাঁর নিয়োগদাতা দুজনকেই আইনের আওতায় আনা হবে বলে একটি কার্যকর বার্তা দেওয়া যায়। একটি সময়ের পর সে বার্তাটি যে অর্থবহ, তা বোঝাতে শুরু করতে হবে। ভিজিট ভিসায় আসা লোকদের ভিসা নবায়নে যথেষ্ট পরীক্ষা–নিরীক্ষা প্রয়োজন। নচেৎ আমাদের বিভিন্ন ধরনের দুর্বলতার সুযোগে বিদেশি কর্মী ও তাঁদের প্রেরিত আয় নিজ দেশে পাঠানোর পরিমাণ বাড়তেই থাকবে। আমাদের প্রবাসী কর্মীদের হাড়ভাঙা খাটুনির টাকার একটি বড় অংশ নেবেন তাঁরাই। লাভের গুড় খাবে পিঁপড়ায়।

আলী ইমাম মজুমদার: সাবেক মন্ত্রিপরিষদ সচিব
majumderali1950@gmail.com

News Source: https://www.prothomalo.com/opinion/article/1619991/%E0%A6%AC%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%82%E0%A6%B2%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%A6%E0%A7%87%E0%A6%B6%E0%A7%87-%E0%A6%8F%E0%A6%A4-%E0%A6%AC%E0%A6%BF%E0%A6%A6%E0%A7%87%E0%A6%B6%E0%A6%BF-%E0%A6%95%E0%A6%B0%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%AE%E0%A7%80-%E0%A6%95%E0%A7%87%E0%A6%A8

2
চেক ডিজঅনার মামলায় অপরাধ প্রমাণে যা জানা দরকার



মো: রায়হান ওয়াজেদ চৌধুরী

দৈনন্দিন জীবনে বিভিন্ন প্রয়োজনে দায় অথবা ঋণ পরিশোধের নিমিত্তে চেক এর ব্যবহার হয়ে থাকে। কিন্তু অনেক সময়ে চেকে উল্লিখিত অংকের টাকা চেক প্রদানকারীর একাউন্টে না থাকলে সংশ্লিষ্ট ব্যাংকের পক্ষে চেক গ্রহণকারীকে টাকা দেয়া সম্ভব হয় না। অপর্যাপ্ত তহবিলের কারণে ব্যাংক কর্তৃক চেক প্রত্যাখ্যান করা হয়। যা চেক ডিজঅনার নামে পরিচিত। পর্যাপ্ত টাকা না থাকার কারণে চেক ডিজঅনার হলে চেক প্রদানকারী অ্যাকাউন্টধারীর বিরুদ্ধে মামলা করা যাবে। কারন, অপর্যাপ্ততার কারণে ব্যাংকের চেক প্রত্যাখ্যাত আইনে শাস্তিযোগ্য অপরাধ। তহবিল অপর্যাপ্ততায় কোন চেক প্রত্যাখ্যাত বা ডিজঅনার হলে সেইসব অপরাধের প্রতিকারের সুরক্ষা বিধান করা হয়েছে নেগোসিয়েবল ইনস্ট্রুমেন্ট অ্যাক্টের (এনআই অ্যাক্ট) ১৩৮, ১৪০ ও ১৪১ ধারায়।

দেশের আদালতসমূহে প্রচুর এনআই অ্যাক্টের অধীনে মামলা চলমান আছে। এই আইনে প্রতিদিন নতুন মামলা দায়েরও হচ্ছে। এসব দেখে সহজে অনুমান করা যায় দৈনন্দিন আর্থিক কর্মকান্ডে চেক এর অপব্যবহার কি পরিমান হচ্ছে। চেক ডিজঅনারের মামলা অন্যান্য সাধারণ আইনের চেয়ে ব্যাতিক্রম। যার কারণে এই আইন সম্পর্কে জানার পাশাপাশি মামলায় অপরাধ প্রমাণ করতে বেশ কিছু সতর্কতা শুরু থেকে শেষ পর্যন্ত নিতে হয়। নির্দিষ্ট সময় এবং নিয়ম মেনে মামলা করে রায় নিতে হয়। এই আইন সম্পর্কে অবহেলা বা অজ্ঞতা কিংবা অজানার কারণে অনেকেই বিভিন্ন সমস্যার সম্মুখীন ও ক্ষতিগ্রস্থ হন। সমস্যা গুলোর কারনে মামলা খারিজ হয় কিংবা বিচারে অপরাধ প্রমাণে ব্যার্থ হন। যার ফলে বাদীর আর ঐ টাকা পাওয়া হয় না। মামলা মোকদ্দমা করতে তার অনেক টাকা খরচ হয়ে যায়। সামাজিকভাবে তিনি হেয় প্রতিপন্ন হন। মূলত এসব বিবেচনায় এই লেখায় প্রয়োজনীয় কিছু আইনগত বিষয়ে আলোচনা করব যা চেক ডিজঅনার সংক্রান্ত মামলায় অপরাধ প্রমান করতে সহায়ক হবে আশাকরি।

প্রথম কথা হচ্ছে এই আইনে মামলা দায়ের করতে হলে কোন দায় অথবা ঋণ পরিশোধের নিমিত্তে চেক এর ব্যবহারটা হবে। উক্ত স্বাক্ষরিত চেকটি প্রদানকারী কর্তৃক ইস্যুর তারিখ থেকে ৬ মাস সময়ের মধ্যে নগদায়নের জন্য সংশ্লিষ্ট ব্যাংকে উপস্থাপন করতে হবে চেক গ্রহণকারীকে। সংশ্লিষ্ট ব্যাংক কর্তৃক চেকটি অপরিশোধিত অবস্থায় ফেরত আসার অর্থাৎ ডিজঅনার হওয়ার ৩০ দিনের মধ্যে একাউন্টধারীকে চেক ডিজঅনার হওয়ার বিষয়টি জানিয়ে চেকে উল্লিখিত অংকের টাকা প্রদানের দাবি জানাতে হবে। চেক ইস্যুকারীকে তিনভাবে উপরোক্ত দাবী জানানো যায়; চেক প্রদানকারী অর্থাৎ নোটিশ গ্রহীতার হাতে সরাসরি নোটিশ প্রদান করে অথবা প্রাপ্তি স্বীকারপত্রসহ রেজিস্টার্ড ডাকযোগে চেক প্রদানকারীর জ্ঞাত ঠিকানায় অর্থাৎ সর্বশেষ বসবাসের ঠিকানা কিংবা বাংলাদেশে তার ব্যবসায়িক ঠিকানা বরাবর নোটিশ প্রেরণ করে অথবা বহুল প্রচারিত কোনো জাতীয় বাংলা দৈনিকে নোটিশটি বিজ্ঞপ্তি আকারে প্রকাশ করে। আইনে প্রতিটা ক্ষেত্রেই ‘অথবা’ বলা হয়েছে। অর্থাৎ যে কোন একটা পদ্ধতি অনুসরণ করলে হবে। কোনোভাবেই নোটিশ প্রেরণ না করে সরাসরি মামলা করা যাবে না। চেক প্রদানকারী নোটিশ প্রাপ্তির পর চেকের প্রাপক বরাবরে চেকে উল্লেখিত অংকের টাকা পরিশোধ ব্যর্থ হলে পরবর্তী ৩০ দিনের মধ্যে মামলা করতে হবে। মামলা করার ক্ষেত্রে বর্ণিত সময় অত্যন্ত গুরুত্বপূর্ন। যে ব্যক্তি বা প্রতিষ্ঠানকে চেক দেওয়া হয়েছে কেবল তিনিই মামলা করতে পারে। ব্যাংকের এলাকা যে আদালতের এখতিয়ারের মধ্যে অবস্থিত সেই আদালতে করতে হবে। যে ব্যক্তি বা প্রতিষ্ঠানকে চেক দেওয়া হয়েছে তিনিই মামলা করতে পারেন। অভিযোগ নালিশি মামলা বা সিআর মামলা হিসেবে প্রথম শ্রেণীর ম্যাজিস্ট্রেট আদালতে করতে হবে। মামলা করার সময় আদালতে মূল চেক, ডিজঅনারের রসিদ, আইনি নোটিশ বা বিজ্ঞপ্তির কপি, পোস্টাল রসিদ, প্রাপ্তি রসিদ আদালতে প্রদর্শন করতে হবে। এসবের ফটোকপি ফিরিস্তি আকারে মামলার আবেদনের সঙ্গে দাখিল করতে হবে।

মামলার আরজিতে চেক প্রদানকারীর নাম, প্রদানের তারিখ, ডিজঅনার হওয়ার তারিখ, ব্যাংক ও শাখার নাম, হিসাব নম্বর, চেক নম্বর ও টাকার পরিমাণ এবং কোম্পানি বা প্রতিষ্ঠানের পক্ষ থেকে চেক দেওয়া হয়ে থাকলে ইস্যুকারী কর্মকর্তার নাম, পদবি ও প্রতিষ্ঠানের নাম উল্লেখ করতে হবে। কোনো প্রতিষ্ঠানের মাধ্যমে প্রতারণার শিকার হলে এই আইনের ১৩৮ ধারার পাশাপাশি ১৪০ ধারা উল্লেখ করতে হবে। মামলা দায়ের করার পর সমন এবং ওয়ারেন্ট দ্রুত জারির জন্য স্পেশাল তদবির করতে হবে যাতে আসামী হাজির হয়। ম্যাজিস্ট্রেট কোর্টে মামলা দায়ের করলেও অপরাধের মূল বিচার হয় দায়রা আদালতে। দায়রা আদালত ইচ্ছা করলে যুগ্ম দায়রা আদালতে মামলাটি বিচারের জন্য পাঠাতে পারেন। বিচার শেষে অপরাধের শাস্তি হিসাবে আইনানুসারে আদালত এক বছরের কারাদন্ড অথবা চেকে বর্ণিত অর্থের তিনগুণ পর্যন্ত পরিমাণ অর্থদন্ড অথবা উভয় দন্ডে দন্ডিত করতে পারেন।

এ ক্ষেত্রে আপিলের সুযোগ আছে। তবে আপিল করার পূর্বশর্ত হচ্ছে, চেকে উল্লেখিত টাকার কমপক্ষে ৫০ শতাংশ টাকা যে আদালত দণ্ড প্রদান করেছেন সেই আদালতে জমা দিতে হবে একাউন্টধারীকে।

চেকে উল্লেখিত টাকার যতটুকু জরিমানা হিসেবে আদায় হবে তা চেকের বাহক বা ধারককে প্রদান করা হয়। অনেক সময়ে দেখা যায় আসামীরা সাজা খেটেই বেরিয়ে যান। টাকা আর পরিশোধ করেন না। বিজ্ঞ বিচারিক আদালত চেকের মামলায় জরিমানার টাকা আদায়ে জেলা কালেক্টর বা জেলা প্রশাসকের মাধ্যমে সরকারী কৌশলী মারফত দেওয়ানী আদালতে জারী মামলা দায়ের করতে হয়। যদি কোন কারণে নির্ধারিত সময়ের মধ্যে নেগোশিয়েবল ইনস্ট্রুমেন্ট অ্যাক্টের অধীনে মামলা করা না যায় তাহরে দন্ডবিধি ৪০৬ ও ৪২০ ধারা অনুসারে ফৌজদারি মামলা করা যায়। কিন্তু এসব মামলার ক্ষেত্রে টাকা ফেরত পাওয়ার সুযোগ নেই। দোষী সাব্যস্ত হলে সাত বছর পর্যন্ত কারাদন্ড ও জরিমানা হতে পারে। মোটামুটি উপরোক্ত পদক্ষেপ গ্রহনের মাধ্যমে চেক সংক্রান্ত অপরাধের বিরুদ্ধে আইনি ব্যবস্থা গ্রহন করতে হয়।

লেখক : আইনজীবী, চট্টগ্রাম জজ কোর্ট। ইমেইল : ll.braihan@gmail.com

Source:  https://lawyersclubbangladesh.com/2018/05/12/%E0%A6%9A%E0%A7%87%E0%A6%95-%E0%A6%A1%E0%A6%BF%E0%A6%9C%E0%A6%85%E0%A6%A8%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%B0-%E0%A6%AE%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%AE%E0%A6%B2%E0%A6%BE%E0%A7%9F-%E0%A6%85%E0%A6%AA%E0%A6%B0%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%A7/


3


Doug Lindsay was 21 and starting his senior year at Rockhurst University, a Jesuit college in Kansas City, Missouri, when his world imploded. After his first day of classes, the biology major collapsed at home on the dining room table, the room spinning around him. It was 1999. The symptoms soon became intense and untreatable. His heart would race, he felt weak and he frequently got dizzy. Lindsay could walk only about 50 feet at a time and couldn't stand for more than a few minutes. "Even lying on the floor didn't feel like it was low enough," he said. The former high school track athlete had dreamed of becoming a biochemistry professor or maybe a writer for "The Simpsons." Instead, he would spend the next 11 years mostly confined to a hospital bed in his living room in St. Louis, hamstrung by a mysterious ailment. Doctors were baffled. Treatments didn't help. And Lindsay eventually realized that if he wanted his life back, he would have to do it himself. His journey since has amazed medical professionals. "He did something extraordinary," said John Novack, spokesman for Inspire, a healthcare social network for rare and chronic-disease patients. When people hear Lindsay's story, Novack said, they often say, "I can do something similar for my kid."

His mother was a living prophecy

Whatever was wrong with him ran in the family. By the time Lindsay was 18 months old, his mother was so weak she could no longer pick him up. By the time he was 4, she could no longer walk. She did manage to pick him up one more time that year when he was choking on a jawbreaker. She saved his life. Otherwise, she was too frail. She lived for decades, mostly bedridden with the same condition that stole her son's twenties. After years of tests, she determined her condition was related to her thyroid, but she was too sick to travel to the Mayo Clinic to get more specialized care, Lindsay said. Lindsay's aunt also developed the same ailment, growing so feeble she couldn't tie her own shoes. As a teenager, watching his family members sidelined from life, Lindsay wondered whether his body was a ticking time bomb, too. Finally, that day in 1999, the alarm went off. "When I called my mom that night to tell her I needed to drop out (of college), we both knew," he said. The family curse had struck.

He found answers in discarded medical textbooks

From the fall of 1999 onward, Lindsay was bedridden about 22 hours a day. "If I was up, it was because I was eating or going to the bathroom," he said. Lindsay immersed himself in medical research, determined to find a way out. He saw specialists from endocrinology, neurology, internal medicine and other specialties. When one doctor was out of ideas, he referred Lindsay to a psychiatrist. That's when Lindsay he realized he'd have to figure his predicament out on his own. While in college he had picked up a 2,200-page endocrinology textbook near a garbage can, hoping to use it to figure out what condition his mom had. In it, he found an important passage discussing how adrenal disorders could mirror thyroid disorders. He zeroed in on his adrenal glands, which sit atop the kidneys on either side of the lower abdomen. Using a stash of aging medical textbooks, Lindsay hypothesized that a whole class of autonomic nervous-system disorders could exist beyond the established categories of what most endocrinologists or neurologists knew about. He cobbled together cash for a computer, had an old college roommate bring it over, and got to work. Lindsay soon stumbled on the website for the National Dysautonomic Research Foundation, delighted that an entire organization was dedicated to researching the type of disorder plaguing him and his family. He asked the foundation to send him literature about emerging research in the field. None of the diseases the foundation was examining fit Lindsay's pattern of symptoms. But he was getting closer.

He convinced a researcher who believed in him

Lindsay soon decided he needed a partner -- not just a physician but a scientist curious enough to take on a rare case and spend long hours with him parsing it out. The best place to find that person, he reasoned, was at the American Autonomic Society's annual conference, attended by scientists from around the world who focused on nervous system disorders. In 2002, he give a presentation about his disease at the group's meeting in Hilton Head, South Carolina. To get there, Lindsay bought a row of airline tickets so that, with the help of friends, he could lay across several seats during the flight. Lindsay arrived at the conference in a wheelchair, wearing a suit and tie, and presented himself as a Jesuit-trained scientist. He tried to comport himself like a grad student or a junior colleague to the scholars in the audience, not like a patient. He was just a scientist living an experiment in his own body. During his talk, Lindsay argued that a certain drug might help him. Several of the scientists disagreed with Lindsay's hypotheses about his ailment. But that wasn't unexpected. He didn't even have a bachelor's degree and he was telling doctors from Harvard University, the National Institutes of Health and the Cleveland Clinic something their medical training told them was impossible. "They didn't patronize me. They treated me like a scientist," Lindsay said. "I was entering into a world of science I couldn't participate in because I was at home and couldn't be a grad student." Dr. H. Cecil Coghlan, a medical professor at the University of Alabama-Birmingham, approached Lindsay after his presentation. Coghlan said he thought Lindsay was on to something. At last, Lindsay had a medical ally.

His first innovation was repurposing a drug

In early 2004, one of Lindsay's friends rented an SUV, loaded a mattress in the back and drove him, lying flat, 500 miles to Birmingham.
Lindsay suspected his body was producing too much adrenaline. He knew of a drug called Levophed, which is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to raise blood pressure in some critically ill patients. Levophed is basically an injection of noradrenaline, which counters the symptoms created by excess adrenaline. It hadn't been done before, but Lindsay convinced Coghlan to repurpose the drug so he could live on a 24/7 noradrenaline drip for the next six years. Lindsay spent "every second of every day" hooked up to an IV. It stabilized his condition and allowed him to be active for short periods of time around the house. "I was no longer at risk of losing everything," Lindsay said. Still, other than doctors' visits, a high school reunion and a few weddings, Lindsay's autonomic dysfunction kept him mostly confined to the house he grew up in well beyond his twenties. Why was he so sick, he wondered? Something was dumping way too much adrenaline into his blood. Coghlan told him he might have an adrenal tumor. But three scans of his adrenal glands all came back negative. Discouraged but not deterred, Lindsay did the only thing he could do: He dove back into the medical literature. And he came up with a treasure.

Later he diagnosed a disorder doctors didn't believe could exist

Lindsay suspected there might be something in his adrenal gland that acted as a tumor but wasn't one. The fourth scan in 2006 showed his adrenals "glowing brightly," Lindsay said, an abnormality consistent with his new theory. Coghlan called Lindsay and said, "We found it!" The diagnosis: bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia. In layman's terms, it means the medullas, or inner regions, of his adrenal glands, were enlarged and acting like tumors. His adrenal glands were producing way too much adrenaline. Experts in the field doubted the diagnosis. But Coghlan put his professional reputation on the line to back it. As Lindsay delved into the more medical literature, he found only 32 recorded cases of bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia. And he fixed on what seemed like a simple solution: If he could cut out the medullas of his adrenal glands -- sort of like slicing into a hard-boiled egg and removing the yolk -- his health would improve. Dr. Chris Bauer, Lindsay's personal physician, calls his ailment an "atypical presentation of a rare disease." "They don't really write textbooks based on that," Bauer said. "We were all learning with Doug as we went along."

Then he pioneered a new surgery

Lindsay finally came to a bold conclusion. "If there isn't a surgery," he decided, "I'm going to make one." His first big lead came in 2008. He found a 1980 study from a scientist at Georgia State University, which he summed up as: "You slice the rat's adrenal gland with a razor blade and squeeze it so the medulla pops out like a pimple." Then he found that another version of the adrenal medulla extraction had been done at Harvard. Renowned professor Walter Bradford Cannon had performed the surgery on cats in 1926. Lindsay found records of the surgery being done on dogs as well. He built a 363-page PDF which proposed a first-ever human adrenal medullectomy. Then he spent the next 18 months working to find a surgeon who would oversee the unorthodox procedure. With a little help from his friends, Lindsay was able to travel to the University of Pennsylvania for a meeting of the Society for Amateur Scientists in 2002. With a little help from his friends, Lindsay was able to travel to the University of Pennsylvania for a meeting of the Society for Amateur Scientists in 2002. Pioneering a new surgery is a high-wire act for ethical and financial reasons as well. Surgeons could risk losing their license by performing an unproven operation, especially if complications arose. And insurance companies tend to not reimburse patients for non-standard procedures. Because many of the doctors in that specialized field knew each other, Lindsay was careful where he pitched the idea that might save his life. Eventually, he recruited a surgeon from the University of Alabama-Birmingham. In September 2010 Lindsay went to the university hospital, where the doctor successfully extracted one of his adrenal medullas. Three weeks after the procedure, Lindsay could sit upright for three hours. By Christmas Eve, he had the strength to walk a mile to church. As he stood in the back of the church during midnight Mass, it finally felt like hope was winning. But progress was slow. In 2012, he underwent a second surgery at Washington University in St. Louis to remove the medulla from his remaining adrenal gland. A year later, he was well enough to fly with friends to the Bahamas. It was the first time in his life the Midwesterner had seen the ocean. By early 2014, he was coming off some of his meds. Coghlan, his champion, lived just long enough to see Lindsay's remarkable recovery. He died in 2015.

Now he's helping other rare-disease patients

Against the odds, Lindsay had found a way to save himself. But his mother was too delicate to be moved to another facility, let alone endure the surgery her son pioneered. She died in 2016. She didn't get to see him walk across the stage to graduate that year from Rockhurst University with a bachelor's degree in biology, 16 years after he originally expected to begin his career. Lindsay is now 41 years old. Many of the friends with whom he planned to graduate are now married, with kids in grade school. "You can't recapture the past," Lindsay said. Today he still lives in his childhood home in St. Louis. He needs to take nine medications per day, and his health is far from perfect, but he has his life back. He's not exactly the biology professor he dreamed of being at 21, but he's not far off the mark. He's leveraging his experience into a new career as a medical consultant. "I couldn't be an assistant manager at Trader Joe's. I don't have the physical ability for that," Lindsay said. "But I can travel and give speeches and go for walks. And I can try to change the world." Doctors are turning to him to help them identify and treat rare diseases like his own. "I'm a full professor at Stanford, and I don't know these answers," said Dr. Lawrence Chu, who found himself leaning on Lindsay when a rare disease patient came to him. "Doug was the expert consultant." Lindsay has spoken at medical schools, including Stanford and Harvard, and at a growing list of medical conferences. And he's working on a case study to be published in the British Medical Journal. With his gift for solving intractable problems, he hopes to help steer other patients with hard-to-treat diseases on a path toward wholeness. "I got help from people," he said, "and now I have to help people."

Source: https://edition.cnn.com/2019/07/27/health/doug-lindsay-invented-surgery-trnd/index.html

4
Law / Forensic Laws in Bangladesh
« on: April 16, 2018, 11:06:37 AM »

There are several laws are used in forensic science. Most of them are very much helpful to find out the evidences in a better & easy way. Those laws are mainly tie the forensics with the criminal justice system because everything is under the law. So, those laws are given below:

•   Penal Code 1860 (Section 29)
•   Code of Criminal Procedure 1898 (Section 174, 176, 509, 509-A, 510)
•   Information and Communication Technology Act 2006 (Section 87)
•   The Pornography Control Act, 2012 (Section 6, 7, 8)
•   Evidence Act 1872
•   Identification of Prisoners Act, 1920
•   Formalin Control Act, 2015

5
Law / Manipulation of Forensic Evidence
« on: April 16, 2018, 11:05:58 AM »

Forensics is made of scientific theory & we know that theories can be changed or manipulated. That’s the vital problem of forensics. A slight mistake of evidence or examination can make the whole result upside down. Now, the question is how that kind of mistakes can be happened? Well, there are many chances of that happening. Let’s discuss about it:

Internal Corruption
The forensics reports are easily changeable if there are internal corruption grows in a higher scale. A post mortem report, finger print test, blood group test, ballistics etc those are the vital point of the evidence & if those are manipulated then the real criminal can never be punished & that’s happening most of the cases in Bangladesh only because the whole authority is the responsible for the corruption an if the whole authority is corrupted then no one can do anything against them and justice will be denied.

Lack of Professionalism
Sometimes doctors or specialists are made mistakes in their work or duty. They don’t complete their work according to the exact professionalism. Their slight mistake or lack of responsibility can change the whole forensic report and that affects a case very severely. Sometimes, in the hand of inexperienced doctor and specialist the report can be changed because of their wrong examination and decision.

Wasted Crime Scene
Crime scene is the mother of all forensics evidences but in most of the cases crime scene is wasted in a way, the real evidence is hardly found from there. That’s how evidences are destroyed & the consequence of this result is injustice. Sometimes it is happened intentionally and sometimes by mistake and by lack of knowledge. Mainly in our country most of the law enforcement officer and forensics office don’t know how to protect a crime scene and how to collect evidence from a crime scene without damaging it. That’s why most of the evidences are wasted in the crime scene while collecting them.

Changing Reports
Change of forensic report is the most happening corruption in our country. In our system a forensic report is easily changed. Victims are suffered more for this kind of offence. Sometimes doctors are responsible for this and they do this for bribe and for threat. If the system is corrupted then this kind of offence is happened.

Those problems are regularly happened in our country. Now-a-days corruption spreads in a way that criminals are never been caught or punished because of this forensics manipulation & that’s the common scenario of the justice system this country. The failure of forensic department can start a dark chapter of the criminal justice system of Bangladesh.


6
Law / Scientific Evidence
« on: April 16, 2018, 10:59:18 AM »
What is Forensics?
If we want to discuss about the forensic science then at first we have to know what forensics is:
Forensics or forensic science is the use of scientific principles in issues of law.
Forensic science is the use of science in a legal setting. Forensic scientists can not only aid in investigations into a crime, but also help determine who the victim and suspect are, what crime was actually committed, and if the suspect is able to stand trial.

What is Scientific Evidence?
Scientific evidence is the main part of the forensics. Without scientific evidence there is no value of forensics. Everything is based on this scientific evidence as we know that law speaks only by evidence so scientific evidence is that kinds of evidence that is come from various kinds of scientific theories. Mainly there are lots of theories in this world but not all of them is scientifically approved. Only the approved theory by the proper authority is recognized all over the world and the scientific evidence will be mainly based on those scientific theories. If we explain it in another term,

Scientific evidence is based on knowledge that has been developed by using the scientific method. This means that the basis for the evidence has been hypothesized and tested and is generally accepted within the scientific community. This could mean that the theory on which the scientific evidence is based has been published in scientific journals and has been subjected to peer review within the scientific community. Most forensic evidence, including genetic evidence, is scientific evidence.

Where Scientific Evidence can be found?
Scientific evidences are basically found in the crime scene. Crime scene means the place where a crime has happened like murder, suicide etc. In this place there are lots of unnoticeable things can be found which can’t be caught in the naked eye but only using technology those things are found and by analyzing those a huge amount of possible information and evidence can be found about the victim, nature of crime and even the identity of the killer. Basically scientific evidences are found in some specific criteria such as ballistics, blood, DNA, fingerprint etc. those things are the basic elements to solve a crime. If in a crime scene those things are found then those are collected very carefully in the forensic lab and in the lab there are all kinds of technology to analyze them. So, when they are analyzed successfully then lots of evidences can be found. Now that’s the part of the forensics, to find out the proper evidence. In the next step police or investigation team will investigate or arrest people according to those evidences and submit all of them in the court.

Utility of Scientific Evidence:
There are some utility of scientific evidences that’s why this sector is very much useful in criminal justice system. Those utilities are:

1.   Witness evidence is not always helpful:
Physical evidences are not always safe. There are lots of threat, cost, fearfulness around there and all the witnesses have to face them. It’s a matter of regret that authority is failed to ensure the proper safety to them. So, in this case forensic evidence is very much safe and easy to deliver.

2.   Poor Figure:
With the presence of physical witness criminal trial success rate is 9.6%. There are lots of problems and corruption behind it. The success rate can be increased into 100% only by the proper use of forensic evidences.

3.   Reliability:
Forensic evidence is more reliable than physical evidence. Physical evidence can be manipulated, forgotten, erased etc. besides, there are also a question of genuineness of physical evidence. But forensic evidence has no such type of problems and corruptions.

4.   Evidence extraction methods may lead to human rights violation:
The process of collecting physical evidence is not always lawful. There are a lots of complain about extra-judicial killing, remand, torture etc. those are very much violation of the human rights. That leads a lot of controversy. But forensic evidence has no such type of problems.

7
Law / Ballistics
« on: April 15, 2018, 05:38:56 PM »

What is Ballistics?
Ballistics is the area of Forensic Science that deals with firearms; how they are used, why they are used and why they are used frequently in the practice of murder.
What many people do not realise is that when a person is shot the wound and the condition of the victim can tell a lot about the nature of the weapon that has been used. Indeed if the weapon has been left at the scene of the crime - which sometimes happens when the perpetrator panics - the weapon itself can go a long way to providing valuable information as to the kind of person who has committed the offence.

What Ballistics Does
Ballistics involves the analysis of bullets and bullet impacts to determine information of use to a court or other part of a legal system. Forensic firearms examiners are trained to examine and analyze weapons, bullets, ballistics and how a bullet has behaved after being fired from a gun. Ballistics investigators often have to :
•   analyze firearms, ammunition, and tool mark evidence in order to establish whether a certain firearm or tool was used in the commission of a crime.
•   analyze bullets and shell casings found at a crime scene to determine what kind of weapon fired them
•   match a particular bullet or shell casing to a specific weapon or linking bullets or casing from multiple crimes scenes back to a single weapon
•   reconstruct crime scenes by estimating the distance between the gun muzzle and the person that was shot, and determining the angle or trajectory of the bullets fired

Branches of Ballistics
Ballistics, the science that deals with the motion of projectiles such as bullets, shells, rockets, and aerial bombs. It is important to police officers who investigate crimes involving shooting, to artillerymen and naval gunnery officers, and to engineers who design firearms, missiles, bombsights, and fire-control systems.
Ballistics has three branches:
•   Interior ballistics deals with the behavior of a projectile within a gun barrel.
•   Exterior ballistics is concerned with the motion of a projectile in flight.
•   Terminal ballistics deals with the effect of the projectile on its target.

Interior Ballistics
A firearm such as a rifle, pistol, or artillery piece fires a projectile as a result of the burning of its propellant, which usually is smokeless powder. When the powder is ignited, large quantities of gases are produced. These gases force the projectile through the barrel in much the same way that children blow peas from a pea-shooter. If the gas pressure is too small, the bullet or shell will not reach its target. If the pressure is too great the gun may blow up. Also, if the pressure changes with each shot, the velocity of the projectile will change and accuracy will be poor. How to regulate this pressure is one of the most important problems in interior ballistics.
Almost all types of firearms (except for shotguns and rocket launchers) have spiral grooves on the inside of their barrels. These grooves are called rifling. The depth, diameter, and number of turns vary in different weapons and differ slightly with each separate weapon of the same type. When a pistol or rifle is fired, the bullet's metal fills into the grooves. Irregularities, some visible only through a microscope, leave markings on the bullet. These markings help ballistic experts determine which weapon fired a given bullet, since all bullets from the same gun have similar markings. This type of investigation is useful in police work.

Exterior Ballistics
When a bullet or artillery shell leaves a gun, it spins like a top because of the spiral rifling. This spinning motion gives the projectile stability of flight. Some rocket missiles are made to spin by metal fins or by small auxiliary rocket engines. While in the air, the projectile is subject to various forces, such as gravity, air resistance, wind, and drift" caused by the spin. The effect of these forces must be considered when aiming a weapon to achieve accurate shooting.

Terminal Ballistics
The penetration of tank armor by armor-piercing ammunition is an important concern of terminal ballistics. Another is the damage done to the target by the blast effect and flying fragments of a shell or bomb. With nuclear weapons there is also damage from intense heat and radiation. The study of terminal ballistics helps scientists to develop more effective weapons and to devise means of defense against enemy weapons.

Types of Firearms
Firearm means any portable barrelled weapon that expels or is designed to expel or may be readily converted to expel a shot, bullet or projectile by the action of an explosive.
A firearm is a dynamic system for delivering maximum destructive energy to a target, in the form of a high-velocity bullet, with minimum delivery of energy to the shooter.
There are various types of firearms:
   Rifle
   Shotgun
   Machine gun
   Sub-machine gun
   Pistol
   Revolver

Rifle
A relatively long-barreled firearm, fired from the shoulder, having a series of spiral grooves cut inside the barrel (a process called ‘rifling’) imparting a rapid spin to a single projectile.

Shotgun
A shoulder-fired long gun with no rifling in the barrel, designed to shoot a large number of small projectiles (“shot”) rather than a single large projectile (“a bullet”).

Machine Gun
A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm. This means the weapon will continue to load and fire ammunition until the trigger, or other activating device, is released, the ammunition is exhausted, or the firearm is jammed.

Sub-machine Gun
A hand-held, lightweight machine gun consisting of relatively low-energy handguntype cartridges and fired from the hand, hip, or shoulder

Revolver
A revolver is a firearm that has a cylinder with a number of chambers. These chambers are designed to be manually loaded with cartridges of the appropriate caliber and then, as the cylinder rotates into position under the hammer, the trigger can be pulled, releasing the hammer causing the cartridge to be fired.

Pistol
Pistols are firearms designed for a more automatic operation. Cartridges are loaded into an ammunition magazine which is inserted into the firearm. As long as cartridges are present in the ammunition magazine and the firearm is functioning properly, the action of the firearm is responsible for the feeding and chambering of the cartridge and the extraction and ejection of the cartridge case once the cartridge is fired. They can be designed to fire semi-automatically or fully automatic.
Semi-automatic operation requires a pull of the trigger to fire each cartridge. Fully automatic operation allows for multiple cartridges to be fired with a single trigger pull for as long as ammunition is available to be fired.

Craft Weapons
Ccraft production of small arms refers principally to weapons and ammunition that are fabricated largely by hand in relatively small quantities. Craftproduced small arms range from rudimentary pistols and shotguns to more advanced assault rifles. The homemade guns are included in this category. Homemade guns are crude firearms roughly made from basic, household materials.

Classes of Firearms
All firearms, whether military assault rifles or civilian pistols, are classified into three broad categories:
•   fully automatic;
•   semiautomatic; and
•   other.
The groupings are based on how the weapon fires and loads bullets into its chamber for the next firing.

Automatic Weapons
Automatic weapons are manufactured for the battlefield to fire a continuous stream of bullets from attached magazines or drums as long as the gun's trigger is depressed. The escaping gas of each bullet fired is mechanically used to prepare and fire the next bullet and to eject spent shells.
These weapons are often called machine guns and have been federally banned for civilian sale and ownership, with few exceptions, since the mid-1930's.

Semiautomatic Weapons
Semiautomatic weapons fire one bullet with each pull of the trigger but can fire dozens of bullets from a magazine without reloading.
 
Other firearms
Other firearms, including revolvers, breach-loaded and pump-action guns, fire one bullet with each pull of the trigger. But they are not considered semiautomatic because they do not reload automatically. They use a variety of methods to prepare up to eight bullets for firing before reloading.

Ammunition
Modern ammunition takes the form of integrated, self-contained cartridges,
integrating three key elements in one unit:
•   a bullet, the actual projectile that is expelled from the firearm’s barrel;
•   propellant, which generates the force and pressure needed to put the bullet in motion and into flight; and
•   a primer, which in modern usage is a volatile and pressure-sensitive chemical mixture that is responsible for igniting the propellant.

Primer
The use of a chemical primer to ignite the propellant dates back to the development of the percussion cap in the early 1800s, when it was discovered that striking a cap containing fulminate of mercury created a flame that could then move into the main charge of powder.
Today, the exact chemical composition of primer mixtures can vary and remains proprietary.
Lead styphnate is the main ingredient, generally, although individual primers may also include some of the following:
   trinitrotoluene (TNT)
   lead or copper sulphocyanide, lead peroxide,
   sulfur, tetryl
   barium peroxide, and barium nitrate.
Ground glass may also be added as a “sensitizer,” to create friction when impacted by the firing pin.
A primer mixture is a high explosive; working with it and placing the primer in the case are extremely sensitive parts of the ammunition manufacture process.

Rimfire vs. Centerfire
Rimfire cartridges were first developed in the 1800s, and rimfire ammunition remains in heavy usage in .22 caliber cartridges. As the name implies, the primer composition is spun into the rim of the cartridge case, putting it in immediate contact with the powder propellant.

By comparison, centerfire ammunition has a cylindrical cap seated in the cartridge head that contains the primer mixture. The cap consists of a cup-and-anvil combination and a pellet of primer mixture. During firing, the firing pin compresses the primer composition between the cup and anvil, causing a flame that passes through a hole or vent to ignite the propellant charge. Practically, the development of the centerfire system was the great milestone in weapon and ammunition development; with it, only the primer cup needed to be soft enough to be crushed by the firing pin, freeing the main body of the cartridge case to be harder, providing a gas seal for much higher pressures than could be obtained with rimfire ammunition.

Centerfire cartridges also developed, in part, due to the desire to reuse the most expensive part of the cartridge, the case; the centerfire configuration permits new primer assemblies to be inserted into expended casings.

Firearms Identification
Firearms identification is similar to fingerprint examination only to the extent that both processes involve the comparison of known items with unknown items from the crime scene. Otherwise these are two entirely different fields of endeavor. For that reason two different  individuals generally carry out firearms examinations and fingerprint examinations.

The term firearms identification is often used in conjunction with the term tool mark identification. In reality, much of firearms identification entails a specific area of tool mark identification. By definition a tool mark results from the contact of one surface with another, the harder of which is the “tool.” Thus, in the case of a firearm and a bullet, the firearm (for instance the interior of the barrel) is the tool that produces tool marks on the surface of the bullet as it moves through the barrel upon discharge of the firearm. Likewise, the examination of firing pin impressions, magazine marks, extractor marks, ejector marks, breech face marks, and chamber marks on fired cartridge cases all constitute tool mark examinations.

The fact that firearms identification also involves examinations other than tool marks accounts for the distinction between the two areas.
The analysis of gunpowder patterns on clothing, the determination of cartridge case ejection patterns, and the measurement of trigger pull or establishing bullet trajectory are examples.
Likewise, weapons function testing, shot pellet pattern testing, and serial number restoration are additional non–tool mark comparison aspects of firearms identification.

The Beltway Sniper Case
   In 2002 a sniper murdered a series of people who were refueling their vehicles at gas stations and convenience stores in the Washington, D.C., area, gripping area residents in fear for weeks. Members of the firearms identification unit of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) came to the scenes of the various shootings in an effort to determine where the shots were fired from and to see if any other evidence could be found at the scenes.
   The firearms analysts were able to conclude that a 223-caliber rifle was involved and that one weapon was responsible. They reached this conclusion by examining markings left on the bullets recovered from the victims. Once the weapon was recovered, it was positively identified using these same markings.
   The “Beltway Sniper” was actually two men, John Muhammad and Lee Malvo, who fired a rifle from the trunk of their car. Malvo was implicated as a shooter through a fingerprint found on the weapon and a fingerprint found on a cartridge case near one of the scenes. Finding identifiable fingerprints on weapons and fired cartridge cases is pretty uncommon, making this a stroke of good luck for investigators. Muhammad and Malvo received the first of their convictions in 2004.

   Firearms examiners use a variety of demonstrative exhibits, including photographs, diagrams, scale models, and computerized animation.
   These exhibits assist in both explaining the examinations conducted and presenting the theory of reconstruction of the shooting. Television and movies have caused jurors to come to expect a high-tech presentation and it is up to the expert to rise to the occasion.

Grooves and Rifling
Handguns and long guns, with the exception of most shotguns, have spiral grooves cut or formed into the interior surface of the barrel. These grooves, called rifling, are designed to impart a spin to the bullet as it moves down the barrel upon discharge of the weapon. This spin stabilizes the bullet in flight to improve accuracy and increase the effective range. The areas between the barrel grooves are known as “lands.” There are an equal number of lands and grooves in a gun barrel and typically ranges from two to 16.

Pathological Range of Fire
Crime scene and police agencies need to ascertain several key points during the investigation of deaths involving firearms. These points include:
•   The type of weapon involved (rifled or smooth bore)
•   The type and caliber of ammunition used
•   The number of shots fired
•   The direction/angle of the shots

The pathologist, while also actively involved in determining the above, is further expected to supply accurate information in his report pertaining to:
1. The range of fire
2. Confirmation of the direction of fire
3. Internal organ damage
4. A comment of capability of defense or response on behalf of the victim

The forensic pathologist is more or less bound to categorize the range of fire based on a set of predetermined parameters. The presence or absence of certain features of the gunshot wound either include or exclude it from one of the three categories that follow. The most workable classifications for injuries caused by rifled weapons are:
•   Contact (hard contact, contact, and near contact)
•   Intermediate
•   Distant

Contact Range
Contact range implies that the muzzle of the gun is placed against, or very near to, the skin of the victim at the instant of discharge. If the muzzle is placed sufficiently firmly against the skin surface as to impart an indentation or bruise/abrasion (muzzle imprint), then the term hard contact is used. As the muzzle effectively seals the bore of the gun against the skin, little, if any, gas escapes externally.

Hard contact range discharge

Hard contact discharge against tethered skin
A classic stellate splitting radial complex of lacerations is demonstrated.
This is due to rapid gas expansion and tearing of soft tissues away from the skull at the instant of discharge.
Once reconstructed, the faithful representation of the muzzle imprint is seen. Note blackening of the wound edges — .38 Special.

Near contact and contact range discharge
This photograph demonstrates a near contact (left) and contact (right) entry wound to the temple. The contact wound shows circumferential blackening approximating the diameter of the muzzle — no distinct muzzle imprint is seen.
The near contact entry wound shows a perfectly circular but wider sooty area, representing a distinct but short distance from muzzle to skin .38 Special revolver.

Written by:
Mr Quazi MH Supan
Associate Professor
University of Dhaka

8


Forensic science is a very important part of not only the trial system but also the beginning of a case because without this method no criminal case can be solved. This is totally impossible to run a case without any forensics. It can’t be replaced by any penal code or any other codified law because it is totally scientific method where some special principles are only used. There are some process which are related to the criminal justice system because they are very much part of investigations. Let’s discuss about it, and then we can understand why forensics is so important in this sector.

Fingerprint Database
In almost every foreign country there is fingerprint database where every fingerprint of all the citizens are stored in the restricted database which access in the hand of the law enforcement agency. That’s why if any fingerprint is found in any crime scene then by analyzing those fingerprints they easily match it with their database and find out the person who is the owner of that fingerprint. It reduces more time and pressure to solve a crime. It’s a matter of regret that in our country this system is not introduced yet. With the presence of this system it would be so much easy to catch a criminal or find out the possible suspect.

DNA Database
Just like the fingerprint database there is also DNA database in almost every foreign country. That’s an advance technology. Every citizen’s DNA is stored in the record in this system that’s why if any dead body is found after a long time than by collecting the DNA of that body and matching the DNA with the database that person’s identity can be found easily. Besides, in any crime scene if any dead body is beyond recognizable than by this process his/her identity can also be found. DNA database is also useful to find out the actual criminal or possible suspect if there is any extra DNA is found in the crime scene, then that can help the investigation team to reach decision.

Reconstructing a Crime Scene
Not every crime scene is complete. There will be always something missing in the scene that can lead an investigator to a possible suspect. By the technology and knowledge of forensic science that gap can be filled easily. This is like a jigsaw puzzle game where a gamer has to find out all the pieces and add all of them to reconstruct a perfect figure. In foreign country sometime in front of the court they remake a crime scene by all the possible elements so that the judge and the court can understand what was happened in that moment. It’s all are only possible by the help of forensics.

Identify Suspects
To identify a suspect is the most important and the main job of the investigation. And to do this thing there is no alternative of forensics. In a crime scene there are many clues are left behind by the criminal that can only be recovered by the forensics technology and knowledge, just like above discussed fingerprint, DNA materials. There are also lots more advance process to identify a suspect which are discussed in the branches of forensics but these two are the main basic element that can a maximum number of case in the primary stage besides, in the trial proceeding those evidence can also be presented to find the fact.

Postmortem Report
Postmortem report is a vital element of investigation and this is a one of the most important part of forensics. After autopsy of a dead body of victim, there can be many things, clues and report recovered. Basically to know the cause of death, autopsy is very much important and sometimes by autopsy the nature and identity of killer can also be found. All of that information is included in the postmortem report which can be submitted in the court to the judge and sometime a postmortem report can change the direction of a case by including any new clue or a judge can come to a decision on the basis of this report if the criminal is identified.



9
Law / Branches of Forensics
« on: April 15, 2018, 05:17:39 PM »
There are several kinds of branches of Forensics. Let's discuss about all of them.

Forensic Chemistry
•   Trace evidence found at crime scenes.
•   Fingerprints.
•   Urine, blood and other body fluids analysis for poisons and drugs.
•   Calibrating Breathalyzer.
•   Food adulteration.
•   Gas/poison attacks.
•   Radioactivity.
•   Drugs and narcotics.
•   DNA

Forensic chemists use their expertise to help law enforcement by analyzing trace evidence found at crime scenes. This evidence can include fingerprints taken from the scene and compared with the prints of suspects; and urine and blood, which are analyzed for poisons and drugs. Forensic chemists also calibrate breathalyzer machines and testify in drunken driving cases about the devices' accuracy.

Forensic Biology/Pathology
•   Diseases and how they affect the body.
•   Autopsies, cause, time and manner of someone's death.

Forensic biology, or pathology, deals with diseases and how they affect the body. Forensic pathologists help law enforcement through autopsies, where scientists determine the cause and manner of someone's death by examining organs, blood and urine. Based on this information, the police are able to decide if they should pursue a killer or close the case because someone actually died of natural causes.

Forensic pathologists, also referred to as medical examiners, are medical doctors focused on pathology that help investigate the death of a person. Forensic pathologists determine cause of death and may also examine wounds, injuries and tissue that are relevant to the investigation. While they are able to perform a great deal of the work conducted by other areas of forensic science, they often work closely with the specialists from the other fields.

Forensic Dentistry/Odontology
•   identify unknown victims and age.
•   analyze bite marks to link a suspect to a victim.
•   malpractice or personal injury.

Forensic dentists, also known as odontologists, use their training to work in criminal and civil cases. In criminal cases, they may identify unknown victims by comparing remains to dental records, or analyze bite marks that can help link a suspect to a victim. Forensic dentists also work in civil cases that deal with malpractice or personal injury.

Forensic odontologists apply their knowledge of teeth to legal investigations; they can help to identify victims based on dental records. If complete records are not available, they can use the teeth they do have to identify age and other identifying markers that can contribute to finding out who a victim is. They can also analyze bite marks left behind on a victim, both living and deceased, to determine the guilty party.

Forensic Behavioral Sciences (e.g. Forensic Psychiatry)
•   Mental state.
•   Ability to stand trial.
•   Motive.
•   Criminal profiling.
•   Mentally disordered offenders. (paraphilia, pedophilia, psychotic behavior, psychopathy, etc.)

This branch of Forensic Science deals with the psychological side of criminals.
Forensic psychologists and psychiatrists can work in criminal cases where issues like a defendant's fitness to stand trial, testify or decline representation are in dispute. They are also called to render opinions in civil cases that deal with patients' rights. These types of cases can revolve around issues such as involuntary hospitalization, whether a patient can refuse treatment and disability claims.
In addition, forensic psychologists and psychiatrists can act as experts in family law cases such as those involving domestic violence, the custody of children and juvenile delinquency.

Forensic Entomology
•   It applies the study of insects to legal investigations.
•   It focuses on the insects that feed on human remains; these particular insects can be used to determine time and location of death.

Forensic entomology is the study of insects and bugs in criminal cases. Although typically used to study death, it can also be used to detect drugs or decipher the exact time wounds were sustained. One of the most common cases in entomology (as frequently seen on forensic science show Forensic Files) is examining maggots on a body and determining the time of death based on those maggots - scientists know how long it takes for a maggot to complete each life stage, so the current state of the maggots is studied. Blow flies, cheese flies, house flies, and the grossly named flesh flies all behave and reproduce differently from one another. The same goes for the many species of beetles, moths, mites, bees, and ants. That's a lot of potential evidence, especially since bugs and insects are virtually everywhere. Forensic scientists had to find ways of gathering additional research on forensic entomology without losing time by only studying current criminal cases. As a solution, pig carcasses were studied in various environments because of their similarities to the human body. Forensic entomology is even popular in films, such as in the moth pupa autopsy scene from Silence of the Lambs. Going back to the Casey Anthony trial, an entomologist was called in to testify about the presence of 'late colonizers' in Anthony's trunk, or insects which are only present in a decomposing body after it's been dead three to four days. 

Forensic entomologists apply the study of insects to legal investigations. The most oft-used discipline in their field is referred to as medicological, and it focuses on the insects that feed on human remains; these particular insects can be used to determine time and location of death. Forensic entomology can also be helpful in cases in which the victim is still living; studies conducted by forensic entomologists have found cases of parents purposely stinging their children with bees and wasps as punishment.

Forensic Toxicology
•   Toxic substances (alcohol, drugs, etc.) that are found in victims of crime can be used to help determine cause, location and other factors of death, injury.

Forensic toxicologists work on investigations where toxic substances are present. Alcohol, drugs and other substances that are found in victims of crime can be used to help determine cause of death. In other circumstances, drug and alcohol use can help to determine and narrow down potential suspects. Forensic scientists can also chemicals present at the time of death to help determine cause, location and other factors.

Ballistics
•   Ballistics is the science of mechanics that deals with the flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, gravity bombs, rockets, or the like.
•   ballistics is applied in the determination of legal evidence esp. as concerned with the identification of firearms, ammunition, bullets, and cartridge cases.

Forensic Anthropology
•   It is concerned with identifying human remains based on the skeleton and other remains. (terrorist attacks, plane crashes and natural disasters)
•   Determines the gender, race and size of a victim, cause and time of death, which helps police narrow down that person's identity.
•   Uses skulls to reconstruct the face of a victim.

Forensic anthropologists work in cases that involve tragedies such as terrorist attacks, plane crashes and natural disasters when remains need to be identified. Through their examinations, forensic anthropologists can determine the gender, race and size of a victim, which helps police narrow down that person's identity. In some cases, forensic anthropologists will use skulls to reconstruct the face of a victim, and the rendering is released to the public to generate leads.

For the most part, forensic anthropology is concerned with identifying human remains based on the skeleton; forensic anthropologists can also be of assistance when decomposed remains and cartilage are present. By studying remains, forensic anthropologists are able to provide identifying markers such as age, gender, ancestry and unique features of the deceased. Skeletal remains can also help to determine cause and time of death and whether foul play was involved.
Forensic anthropology involves analyzing the remains of natural disasters, terrorist attacks and plane crashes.

Bomb and Explosive
•   Examinations of evidence associated with explosions and bombings.
•   Forensic examinations of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), incendiary devices, and their respective remains.
•   Nature of explosives used.

GSR
•   Gunshot residue (GSR) is principally composed of burnt and unburnt particles from the explosive primer, the propellant, as well as components from the bullet, the cartridge case and the firearm used.
•   It can link a person to a specific fire arm.

Fire and Arson
•   Determines the origin and cause of fire.
•   Determines whether it is accidental or intentional by finding an accelerant at the scene of a fire.

Forensic Podiatry
Forensic podiatry investigates the feet of suspects of victims and footprints at the crime scene. This branch can determine the estimated weight and even sex of people who entered or left a crime scene. It can also determine what type of footwear a suspect was wearing, allowing investigators to narrow down the suspect pool. They can also often tell how far a victim travelled and over what terrain by studying their feet. In many cases, a forensic podiatrist can also determine which direction a suspect came from, and in which direction they went after the crime was committed.

Forensic Engineering
This branch of forensics typically investigates personal injury or product liability cases. It focuses on materials, products and buildings, determining how the item in question was meant to function and how it actually does function. While it is mostly a part of civil law, it can be used in criminal law cases to help determine whether a crime was an accident, especially in concern to vehicular crimes. In many cases, forensic engineering will also investigate patent cases, determining whether two items are similar enough to warrant a civil suit.

Digital Forensics
This branch of forensic science investigates material found on digital devices, especially computer crimes. While its primary focus is on computers, it can and does include any device that stores digital data, including mobile devices, databases and networks. The type of investigations done by digital forensics varies, though they typically include evidence needed in criminal courts that is obtained from a computer, evidence derived from the internet, or investigations into network intrusions. This science can be used to identify a crime, identify culprits, confirm statements and even prove the authenticity of documents. Digital forensics is one of the largest and most complex parts of forensic science.

Forensic Botany
A forensic botanist knows that there is such thing as a gruesome plant. Forensic science developed forensic botany to cleverly research the nature of a crime using the plants found on or around the victim's body. If the body lies in the park but contains plant matter only found across town by the river, forensic botanists can conclude that the body has been moved. According to Contact Traces (Marriner, 1991), a criminal always takes or leaves something from the scene of the crime - and they aren't the only ones with fingerprints. Plants have 'fingerprints' as well, and trace evidence of those fingerprints can sometimes link a criminal to the victim. The first instance of forensic botany to be used in trial was during the infamous Lindbergh trial, when the discovery of a piece of wood in the criminal's attic was examined. The wood grain exactly matched that of a ladder at the scene of the crime. Forensic science even utilized botany in the recent Casey Anthony; forensic botanist Jane Bock testified that Caylee Anthony's, grown through with roots and leaves, could have been sitting in the woods for as little as two weeks - significantly less than prosecutors had believed. Unfortunately, Casey Anthony went free despite obviously having a hand in her child's death. Forensic science can't solve everything. 

Forensic Limnology
Similar to forensic botany and entomology, the forensic science of limnology utilizes the environment around a crime scene to discover clues. Specifically, limnology studies freshwater sources around the crime scene, and is particularly useful in drowning cases. A drowning victim may decompose significantly in only a short period of time if he or she is immersed in water after death, which can significantly decrease the amount of evidence found in or on the victim's body. Limnology studies diatoms, or algae, to discover whether the person died from drowning or not. A drowning victim will retain diatoms within the lungs and all throughout other internal organs as well, having inhaled water before death. Limnology can also help locate where and when the person was killed, both using the freshwater flora inside the body and studying the development of that flora

Forensic Geophysics
Fred West was a cruel British serial killer who, along with the help of his equally demented wife, murdered as many as 13 young girls. The recovery of multiple bodies buried on his property was sparked after he filmed himself raping two of his own daughters, and the girls told people at school who consequently told the police. Once West began confessing, a technique called forensic geophysics was utilized to uncover the bodies and prosecute West for as many crimes as possible. The forensic geophysics branch of forensic science uses Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to send electromagnetic waves into the ground, which bounce back with a length dependent upon what objects are beneath the ground's surface. Initially invented as a mine detector, GPR was a huge advance in the 90s, but definitely had its flaws. Looking for a small object (such as a shoebox) was nearly impossible, as GPR works better when detecting bulkier objects. 

Forensic Metereology
Forensic science's branch of meteorology utilizes witness accounts, weather reports, and satellite images to determine the weather conditions at the time/scene of a crime. The most frequent usages for forensic meteorology are in murder or insurance fraud investigations. 

Forensic Astronomy
Another relatively mild field of forensic science is forensic astronomy, which studies celestial objects to decipher past celestial constellations. In turn, these constellations can be compared to the past to figure out details about historical events or classic works of art. Forensic astronomy is not often used in trial, but one example of its usefulness in solving crimes can be in photography. Two pictures taken at the same event of the same person can be studied by looking at the shadows within the pictures. The difference between the shadows and the time of day can tell forensic astronomers much about the photograph. 

Forensic Archaeology
Forensic archaeologists combine forensic science and archaeological principles to aid investigators in uncovering and processing evidence. They can uncover evidence such as items buried with a victim, safely uncover buried victims so as not to tamper with the evidence and reconstruct events that took place prior to the occurrence of a crime. This science is also useful in processing the items that may have covered a victim, such as leaves or fallen walls, providing the investigation with information concerning the crime itself and its timing. They can also aid in uncovering mass graves, as well as providing information for civil court cases concerning boundary disputes. This branch of archaeology provides priceless information to the investigation concerning the way in which a victim died, how they were killed and under what circumstances they were buried.

Forensic Artists & Sculptors
Forensic artists can draw a likeness of a person based solely on eyewitness accounts. Modern techniques of computer animation are increasingly used in the process. Forensic sculptors can reconstruct faces, usually in modeling clay or on a computer from skulls or other fragments. The expertise may enable the police to find out who a person was when no other clues are available. This technique was found extremely useful in Mumbai blasts investigation where the face of the suspect who was allegedly killed in the blast was also reconstructed with the help of this technology.

Forensic Geology
Forensic geologists can determine such things as where the suspect or victim walked by examining soil samples taken from their shoes or feet.

Forensic Serology
Forensic serology is the study of blood groups, blood, and other bodily fluids for identification purposes following a crime. Forensic serologists also carry out DNA fingerprinting, which offers the possibility of positive identification of an individual from samples of blood or semen.

Written by:
Mr Quazi MH Supan
Associate professor
University of Dhaka

Pages: [1]