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Science Discussion Forum / What is a Tsunami
« on: April 28, 2012, 10:50:34 AM »
Tsunami is the Japanese name given to large waves that sometimes devastated the shores and ports of Japan. A tsunami is a wave in the ocean but it is very different to normal waves.

Tsunamis have very long wavelengths. Crest to crest they measure between 10 and 500 km and they travel through the ocean at more than 700 km/h. Sometimes there appears to be just one wave but often there are multiple waves travelling a few minutes apart.

Wave height [amplitude] may not appear to be great in the open ocean but unlike normal waves the tsunami is moving the entire water column, all the way to the sea floor. The water depth therefore has a major influence on the behaviour and appearance of the wave. In addition because of the wavelength, the first sign of the arrival of a tsunami may actually be the sea level falling and bays appearing to empty.

In deep open water the wave is almost impossible to see although modern instruments can detect it. However, as the wave approaches shore and the water shallows it slows down. The wave rapidly bunches up as the faster rear sections catch up with the slower front sections resulting in the wave growing
in height the closer it gets to shore. This effect is enhanced if the near-shore sea bed provides a long gradual shallowing. Many tsunamis are barely distinguishable from normal sea waves but some turn into monsters rising 30 metres above the shore line. The damage along a shore line may vary because of the influence the local shape of the sea floor has on wave behaviour.

Bays and harbours that are funnel shaped also suffer more from a tsunami because they concentrate the effects. Damage in these areas is further increased by the sloshing backwards and forwards of the water, just like in a bathtub.

As we are a developing country, a good education system keeps the foundation of prosperity and success for the country. If our country wants to be independent and economically well, then it needs to check the education system.

- There is a need for more innovation in the education system.
- More advanced technologies should be used in this sector in order to compete with other countries.
- More and more amendments should be done to make students more physically fit and mentally strong.
- Schools, colleges, universities and other institutes should focus more on the development of an individual.
- Schools, colleges, universities and other institutes with education should teach values and manners.

Work is important to do as it takes us to the next level of success. The most important question you should ask at this place is what kind of work will take you to that level, is it hard work or smart work.


- Smart work is really the need of the hour.
- Smart work saves lots of time and allows you to be more organized.
- Through smart work your goals can be reached faster.
- Doing smart work allows you to save time for other things which you might not get by doing hard work like, exercise, spending time with family etc.
- Smart work brings lots of recognition from the society and allows you to grow more in the industry you are in.


- Hard work takes lots of time just to make things correct.
- It is totally time consuming and exhausting experience, as after doing lots of work you left out with less energy to do anything else.
- Hard work doesn't allow you to fully use your brain and it pushes you for more physical work.
- In terms of determination and persistence hard work is really important but not lot can be achieved.
- Working hard is not enough as it might not bring the best result of a problem or a situation.

I would like to conclude in the end that smart work is really important as it saves time and allows you to reach your goals faster than that of a hard work.

« on: April 26, 2012, 10:34:47 PM »
we know Today’s students are tomorrow’s leaders of a country and the qualities of the student clearly determine the students bright future and carrier path. So, who is a good student? What are the qualities of a good student? Historically, the term ‘student’ referred anyone who learns something. However, the recent definition of a “student” is anyone who attends school, college, or university.

Again, what are the good qualities of a student? Based on my personal experience and research, I list down the qualities of a good student.

1. Attitude: Basically, a good student possesses the ability and willingness to learn new subjects even the subjects are not interesting.

2. Academic skills: Acquiring academic skills is the most important quality of a good student. Ability to read comprehensively, to write effectively, to speak fluently, and to communicate clearly are the key areas in which a good student must be proficient. Having a good handle in all these areas will make a student to shine in a class.

3. Ability: A good student has the ability to apply the results of his or her learning in to a creative way and achieve the goals.

4. Perceptiveness: How well a student can interpret and perceive meanings from a conversation greatly determines the quality of a good. A good student always perceives right meaning from conversations, but an average student often misunderstands the original thoughts of a speaker or writer and derives a wrong conclusion.

5. Self-Discipline: Discipline in managing the time is an important factor that every good student must possess. Often times, delaying the tasks, such as writing assignments, reading text books, etc, may negatively impact the ability of a student to achieve the goals.

6. Understanding rather than memorizing concepts: A lot of surveys suggest students must understand the concepts rather than just memorizing them. The memorized facts and theories will stay in students’ memory until they leave school, college, or university. Once out of school, the students will totally forget the core concepts that they learned. Therefore, it is essential a good student understand the concepts.

7. A good student must be a good listener and good manared. His/her attitude and behaviour with others must be good. 

Science Discussion Forum / The Metonic Cycle
« on: April 25, 2012, 10:26:33 PM »
The Metonic Cycle is the Moon’s 19-year cycle where the Moon returns to exactly the same place (at the same longitude and against the same constellation) in the sky with the same phase. The Metonic Cycle is a period of about 6939.6 days, the approximate length of both 235 consecutive lunations and 19 solar years. Knowledge of this cycle is important in determining when to assign intercalate months to lunisolar calendars. Meton, an Athenian who lived in the middle of the fifth century B. C. is the cycle's namesake. Meton himself referred to it in a publication as the nineteen-year cycle. There is some question as to whether Meton discovered it on his own or whether he learned of it from Babylonian sources, because it was discovered there about fifty years before Meton's time. Lunisolar calendars have twelve lunar cycles in their common years. That's about eleven days short of a solar year. Each month starts on the day of a new Moon, or on the day a new lunar crescent is first sighted. Without intercalation, months start eleven days later in relation to seasons each successive year. An ordinary calendar is a solar (Sun) calendar. It keeps the dates in sync with the Sun. For instance, the Sun is at its highest point as we view it around the 21st of June – the summer solstice. The solar cycle (a year) takes 365 and a quarter days to complete. Every four years is a leap year when an extra day is added to the year. This accounts for the quarter day and keeps the date nearly in sync with the seasons. The cycle is not quite 365 and a quarter days. The error is 3 days in 400 years. A lunar (Moon) calendar keeps the lunar dates in sync with the Moon. For example, the 1st of the month could be on the new Moon. Then the 7th of the month would fall at the waxing half Moon. The dates vary for different types of lunar calendars, Muslim, Chinese, Buddhist, Jewish etc. Some have the 1st on the full Moon. However, all follow the Metonic Cycle that keeps the lunar dates in sync with the Moon.

# Tropical Lunar Month: The Moon returns to the same spot in the sky (against the backdrop of the same constellation) every 27.322 days, which is called the Tropical Lunar month. However, the Moon's phase is not the same for two days.

# Synodic Lunar Month: The Moon returns to the same phase every 29.5306 days and is called the Synodic Lunar month. There are 12 synodic months and 13 tropical months (returns) in one year. Therefore, it takes 19 years (or 6939 days) for the Moon to return to the same spot in the sky at same phase. This can be seen as: 19 tropical years - 365.24 days x 19 = 6939.56 days, 
235 synodic months = 29.5306 days x 235 = 6939.691 days,
254 tropical months = 27.322 days x 254 = 6939.788 days.

# Lunar Leap Year (LLY): To keep the Moon's cycles as close to the Sun's cycle, an extra synodic month and an extra tropical month are added. So instead of 12 synodic months and 13 tropical months in a year, it is 13 synodic months and 14 tropical months.

Science Discussion Forum / The Tide Generating Force
« on: April 25, 2012, 09:56:53 PM »
The tidal force or tide generating force is a secondary effect of the force of gravity and is responsible for the tides. In other words, the forces that cause the tides are called the tide-generating forces. It arises because the gravitational acceleration experienced by a large body is not constant across its diameter. One side of the body has greater acceleration than its center of mass, and the other side of the body has lesser acceleration. The Moon's (or Sun's) gravity differential field at the surface of the Earth is known as the tide generating force. When a body (body 1) is acted on by the gravity of another body (body 2), the field can vary significantly on body 1 between the side of the body facing body 2 and the side facing away from body 2. This causes strains on both bodies and may distort them or even, in extreme cases, break one or the other apart. These strains would not occur if the gravitational field is uniform, since a uniform field only causes the entire body to accelerate together in the same direction and at the same rate. The Moon's (or Sun's)  force of gravity caused by an object gets weaker as one move farther away from that object. The Earth is pulling the Moon, and the Moon is pulling the Earth. The Moon pulls more strongly on the side of the Earth facing the Moon than on the side facing away from the Moon. Because the gravitational force on one side of the planet is different from that on the other side, it is called a tidal force. Because planets are not perfectly rigid, they deform when subjected to such tidal forces. They deform as if they are being pushed from the top and bottom, and a bulge forms on either side of the planet. These two bulges are called tides. On Earth, near the ocean, these tides can actually be seen. The ocean water rises high along the beach, twice each day. If a body is very rigid or is not held together well, instead of getting pushed and pulled out of shape, the tidal forces can actually tear the body in half. This is the primary mechanism that drives tidal action and explains two tidal equipotential bulges, accounting for two high tides per day.

Science Discussion Forum / What is Tide
« on: April 25, 2012, 09:45:34 PM »
Tides are periodic rises and falls of large bodies of water. Tides are caused by the gravitational interaction between the Earth and the Moon. The gravitational attraction of the Moon causes the oceans to bulge out in the direction of the Moon. Another bulge occurs on the opposite side. Sir Isaac Newton (1642 -1727) was the first person to explain tides scientifically. In 1687, Newton explained that ocean tides result from the gravitational attraction of the Sun and Moon on the oceans of the Earth (Sumich, 1996). There are two types of tide, namely, lunar tide and solar tide. Generally the Tide which is created by the Moon is called lunar tide and the Tide which is created by the Sun is called solar tide.

The terms gravity and gravitation are often used to explain the same thing, but there is a definite difference between the two. Gravitation is the attractive force existing between any two objects that have mass. The force of gravitation pulls objects together. Gravity is the gravitational force that occurs between the Earth and other bodies. Gravity is the force acting to pull objects toward the Earth. Since gravitational force is happening to all objects in the universe, from the largest galaxies down to the smallest atoms, it is often called universal gravitation. Gravitation is actually a very weak force. The pull is too weak to be felt between two people and it is not even strong enough to pull together two lumps of lead placed right next to each other. It is only when one of the masses is the size of a planet that we can feel the force of gravity. The huge gravitational force of our nearest star, the Sun, holds together the eight planets of our Solar System. The planets move through space at speeds that just balance the Sun’s gravitational pull, so they are locked into a permanent orbit around the Sun. Moons orbit planets, and satellites and spacecraft orbit the Earth, in the same way. Satellites are not defying gravity in circling endlessly around the Earth, it is just that they are moving so fast around the Earth that gravity never brings them any closer. The force holding objects to the Earth's surface depends not only on the Earth's gravitational field but also on other factors, such as the Earth's rotation. The Earth’s gravitational pull extends out into space in all directions. The further we move away from the centre of the Earth the weaker the force become. The measure of the force of gravity on object is the weight of that object. The weight of an object changes depending on its location in the universe.

Common Forum / At a Glance "De Morgan"
« on: April 25, 2012, 10:55:31 AM »
De Morgan, Augustus (du môr'gun), 1806–71, English mathematician and logician, b. India. A noted teacher, he was professor of mathematics (1828–31, 1836–66) at University College (now part of the Univ. of London) and a founder and first president (1865) of the London Mathematical Society. Known as a reformer of logic, he developed a new logic of relations that he summarized in Syllabus of a Proposed System of Logic (1860). His works include An Essay on Probabilities (1838), Formal Logic (1847), Trigonometry and Double Algebra (1849), and A Budget of Paradoxes (1872).

Read more: Augustus De Morgan —

Speech / George Washington
« on: April 25, 2012, 10:52:28 AM »
George Washington's First Inaugural Address
Given in New York, on Thursday, April 30, 1789

Fellow-Citizens of the Senate and of the House of Representatives:

Among the vicissitudes incident to life no event could have filled me with greater anxieties than that of which the notification was transmitted by your order, and received on the 14th day of the present month.

On the one hand, I was summoned by my country, whose voice I can never hear but with veneration and love, from a retreat which I had chosen with the fondest predilection, and, in my flattering hopes, with an immutable decision, as the asylum of my declining years—a retreat which was rendered every day more necessary as well as more dear to me by the addition of habit to inclination, and of frequent interruptions in my health to the gradual waste committed on it by time.

On the other hand, the magnitude and difficulty of the trust to which the voice of my country called me, being sufficient to awaken in the wisest and most experienced of her citizens a distrustful scrutiny into his qualifications, could not but overwhelm with despondence one who (inheriting inferior endowments from nature and unpracticed in the duties of civil administration) ought to be peculiarly conscious of his own deficiencies. In this conflict of emotions all I dare aver is that it has been my faithful study to collect my duty from a just appreciation of every circumstance by which it might be affected. All I dare hope is that if, in executing this task, I have been too much swayed by a grateful remembrance of former instances, or by an affectionate sensibility to this transcendent proof of the confidence of my fellow-citizens, and have thence too little consulted my incapacity as well as disinclination for the weighty and untried cares before me, my error will be palliated by the motives which mislead me, and its consequences be judged by my country with some share of the partiality in which they originated.

Such being the impressions under which I have, in obedience to the public summons, repaired to the present station, it would be peculiarly improper to omit in this first official act my fervent supplications to that Almighty Being who rules over the universe, who presides in the councils of nations, and whose providential aids can supply every human defect, that His benediction may consecrate to the liberties and happiness of the people of the United States a Government instituted by themselves for these essential purposes, and may enable every instrument employed in its administration to execute with success the functions allotted to his charge. In tendering this homage to the Great Author of every public and private good, I assure myself that it expresses your sentiments not less than my own, nor those of my fellow-citizens at large less than either. No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore the Invisible Hand which conducts the affairs of men more than those of the United States. Every step by which they have advanced to the character of an independent nation seems to have been distinguished by some token of providential agency; and in the important revolution just accomplished in the system of their united government the tranquil deliberations and voluntary consent of so many distinct communities from which the event has resulted can not be compared with the means by which most governments have been established without some return of pious gratitude, along with an humble anticipation of the future blessings which the past seem to presage. These reflections, arising out of the present crisis, have forced themselves too strongly on my mind to be suppressed. You will join with me, I trust, in thinking that there are none under the influence of which the proceedings of a new and free government can more auspiciously commence.

By the article establishing the executive department it is made the duty of the President “to recommend to your consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” The circumstances under which I now meet you will acquit me from entering into that subject further than to refer to the great constitutional charter under which you are assembled, and which, in defining your powers, designates the objects to which your attention is to be given. It will be more consistent with those circumstances, and far more congenial with the feelings which actuate me, to substitute, in place of a recommendation of particular measures, the tribute that is due to the talents, the rectitude, and the patriotism which adorn the characters selected to devise and adopt them. In these honorable qualifications I behold the surest pledges that as on one side no local prejudices or attachments, no separate views nor party animosities, will misdirect the comprehensive and equal eye which ought to watch over this great assemblage of communities and interests, so, on another, that the foundation of our national policy will be laid in the pure and immutable principles of private morality, and the preeminence of free government be exemplified by all the attributes which can win the affections of its citizens and command the respect of the world. I dwell on this prospect with every satisfaction which an ardent love for my country can inspire, since there is no truth more thoroughly established than that there exists in the economy and course of nature an indissoluble union between virtue and happiness; between duty and advantage; between the genuine maxims of an honest and magnanimous policy and the solid rewards of public prosperity and felicity; since we ought to be no less persuaded that the propitious smiles of Heaven can never be expected on a nation that disregards the eternal rules of order and right which Heaven itself has ordained; and since the preservation of the sacred fire of liberty and the destiny of the republican model of government are justly considered, perhaps, as 'deeply', as 'finally', staked on the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people.

Besides the ordinary objects submitted to your care, it will remain with your judgment to decide how far an exercise of the occasional power delegated by the fifth article of the Constitution is rendered expedient at the present juncture by the nature of objections which have been urged against the system, or by the degree of inquietude which has given birth to them. Instead of undertaking particular recommendations on this subject, in which I could be guided by no lights derived from official opportunities, I shall again give way to my entire confidence in your discernment and pursuit of the public good; for I assure myself that whilst you carefully avoid every alteration which might endanger the benefits of an united and effective government, or which ought to await the future lessons of experience, a reverence for the characteristic rights of freemen and a regard for the public harmony will sufficiently influence your deliberations on the question how far the former can be impregnably fortified or the latter be safely and advantageously promoted.

To the foregoing observations I have one to add, which will be most properly addressed to the House of Representatives. It concerns myself, and will therefore be as brief as possible. When I was first honored with a call into the service of my country, then on the eve of an arduous struggle for its liberties, the light in which I contemplated my duty required that I should renounce every pecuniary compensation. From this resolution I have in no instance departed; and being still under the impressions which produced it, I must decline as inapplicable to myself any share in the personal emoluments which may be indispensably included in a permanent provision for the executive department, and must accordingly pray that the pecuniary estimates for the station in which I am placed may during my continuance in it be limited to such actual expenditures as the public good may be thought to require.

Having thus imparted to you my sentiments as they have been awakened by the occasion which brings us together, I shall take my present leave; but not without resorting once more to the benign Parent of the Human Race in humble supplication that, since He has been pleased to favor the American people with opportunities for deliberating in perfect tranquillity, and dispositions for deciding with unparalleled unanimity on a form of government for the security of their union and the advancement of their happiness, so His divine blessing may be equally 'conspicuous' in the enlarged views, the temperate consultations, and the wise measures on which the success of this Government must depend.


IT Forum / Experience
« on: April 25, 2012, 10:45:12 AM »
Hushmail is a web-based email service offering PGP-encrypted e-mail, file storage, vanity domain service, and instant messaging (Hush Messenger). Hushmail uses OpenPGP standards and the source is available for download. Additional security features include hidden IP addresses in e-mail headers. A free e-mail account has a storage limit of 25MB, and no IMAP or Post Office Protocol (POP3) service.[citation needed]

If a user does not use a free account for three consecutive weeks, Hushmail deactivates the account. Customers attempting to reactivate a disabled account are required to pay for a Hushmail subscription. Paid accounts provide 1–10GB of storage, as well as IMAP and POP3 service.
If public encryption keys are available to both recipient and sender (either both are Hushmail users or have uploaded PGP keys to the Hush keyserver), Hushmail can convey authenticated, encrypted messages in both directions. For recipients for whom no public key is available, Hushmail will allow a message to be encrypted by a password (with a password hint) and stored for pickup by the recipient, or the message can be sent in cleartext.
Hushmail was founded by Cliff Baltzley in 1999 after leaving Ultimate Privacy, and is based in Vancouver. The servers are in Vancouver, and there are also offices in Dublin, Ireland; Delaware, United States; and Anguilla.


Voltage Pictures, the production studio behind the Oscar-winning film The Hurt Locker, has filed a new lawsuit in a federal court in Florida, according to TorrentFreak. The studio’s latest complaint targets at least 2,514 alleged BitTorrent users, whom Voltage Pictures claims pirated the film and cost the studio millions. The company last year filed a joint lawsuit against more than 30,000 alleged BitTorrent users who illegally downloaded the film. The case closed this past December, with Voltage Pictures collecting an undisclosed number of settlements. The studio’s latest suit looks to obtain a subpoena that will order ISPs to reveal the identities of the defendants. The alleged pirates will then be offered a settlement of about $3,000, the report claims. All of the defendants allegedly downloaded the film in 2010 and are Charter Communications subscribers.


Common Forum / Be a Computer Genius
« on: April 25, 2012, 10:21:04 AM »
We all think that we know every thing about the computer but this isn't right why we will tell you because the computer is an open source technology and how we want to know every thing a bout it we will tell you here.

1. Work on the computer and figure out what does what. Such as on a Mac computer what happen when you hit a picture with two fingers on the trackpad. If you have a friend who likes fiddling with machines, feel free to ask him/her for tips or explanations on certain components on the computer you are wondering about, such as how they work.

2. Go to the Internet and type in something on Google like "computers for beginners" or go to a store and buy the book "Computers for Dummies".

3. Experiment with what you know and thus learn what you don't know.

4. Study computer languages such as C++ and Python. These languages will help you making programs and websites.

5. Go to a computer institute and sign in to learn things that will help you such as the ISDL and other great things.


# Don't use the computer for a long, long time. Some computers can shut down if you have them on
too long or if they get too hot.

# Use the computer after you finish your homework and work on studying programming.
# Take a break from time to time.
# Download an antivirus program to secure your computer from viruses.


Daffodil International University received “Amity Global Academic Award” recently by Amity University – India’s No.1 ranked private university.

As a part of the extensive research on how to become more effective through appropriate cross cultural values, attitudes leadership and self awareness, Amity University has meticulously studied the progress of renowned institutions across various sectors.

On the basis of study of various academic and research institutes in Bangladesh, the core committee of Amity International Business School has unanimously taken the decision to honor Daffodil International University with their most prestigious award the “Amity Global Academic Excellence Award”.

The Award was given on 22nd February 2012 during the Inaugural Function of 14th International Business Horizon-INBUSH 2012 held from 22nd-24th February 2012. Prof. Dr. M. Lutfar Rahman, Vice Chancellor, Daffodil International University received the Award on behalf of Daffodil International University in a ceremony held at Noida, India.

Caption: Prof. Dr. M. Lutfar Rahman, Vice Chancellor, Daffodil International University receiving the Award at the inaugural function of 14th International Business Horizon-INBUSH 2012 held at Noida, India.


Common Forum / Be Nice to Your Family
« on: April 25, 2012, 10:15:14 AM »
You feel that your family deserve some respect and happiness. Well, now you know how?

1. Don't raise your voice.    This will only anger your other family members. Even if you are an adult, keep in mind that when you raise your voice, it usually ends in an argument.

2. Help your family out by doing small chores around the house. If you are a kid or teen, make sure you do all of your chores and complete them thoroughly.

3. Earn Winky Points.          Buy someone a gift to show how much you care about them, Not necessarily just to get them to be nice to you.

4. Be open.                       Share your ideas and opinions. With that there would be better communication resulting to a more harmonious relationship. Talk. When you have good, long conversations with family members, it shows them that you care and are interested in their lives. But when you talk, talk in a kind and unselfish way.

5. Be respectful.                When you are respectful, you earn respect of others, and when there is respect, there are no arguments.

6. Be loving.

7. Don't be violent.            Punching and kicking siblings will make them mad at you.

8. Always be nice. Don't be overly nice or you will look transparent.

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