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The key difference between traditional grammar and modern linguistics is that the traditional grammar is prescriptive whereas the modern linguistics is descriptive.

Traditional grammar and modern linguistics are two branches of language studies. Traditional grammar is the oldest of the two, and its origin runs back to the 15th century. Linguistics is a relatively new branch of language study. Furthermore, it is also important to note that traditional grammar mainly focuses on the written language while modern linguistics consider speech as the basic form of language.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

Speaking Skill / 4 Basic Types of Speeches
« on: July 14, 2018, 02:42:49 PM »
The four basic types of speeches are: to inform, to instruct, to entertain, and to persuade. These are not mutually exclusive of one another. You may have several purposes in mind when giving your presentation. For example, you may try to inform in an entertaining style. Another speaker might inform the audience and try to persuade them to act on the information.
However, the principle purpose of a speech will generally fall into one of four basic types:

1.   Informative – This speech serves to provide interesting and useful information to your audience. Some examples of informative speeches:
o   A teacher telling students about earthquakes
o   A student talking about her research
o   A travelogue about the Tower of London
o   A computer programmer speaking about new software
An informative speech is very similar to a demonstrative speech, but it doesn’t include a demonstration. When you make an informative speech, you explain something to your audience and help them understand the concept. Your main goal is to teach people something that they don’t already know. Some examples include:
•   A computer programmer telling people about a new app
•   A tour guide telling people about the city they are visiting
•   AA teacher speaking about historical events

2.   Demonstrative Speeches – This has many similarities with an informative speech. A demonstrative speech also teaches you something. The main difference lies in including a demonstration of how to do the thing you’re teaching. Some examples of demonstrative speeches:
o   How to start your own blog
o   How to bake a cake
o   How to write a speech
o   How to… just about anything
A demonstrative speech should educate the audience. It usually includes a demonstration of how to do the things you are teaching. For example, you can show people how to start a blog, make money online, prepare a cake, or write a cover letter. The best way to prepare this type of speech is to ask yourself how and why questions. Visual aids are essential for your presentation.

3.   Persuasive – A persuasive speech works to convince people to change in some way: they think, the way they do something, or to start doing something that they are not currently doing. Some examples of persuasive speeches:
o   Become an organ donor
o   Improve your health through better eating
o   Television violence is negatively influencing our children
o   Become a volunteer and change the world
In a persuasive speech, you provide information and share your opinion on that topic. This type of speech aims to persuade the audience that your opinion is correct. The message should be adjusted to people’s interest, values, knowledge, and beliefs. Public speakers should guard themselves from the use of deception or manipulation. Persuasive speeches are usually given by people who support specific causes.

4.   Entertaining — The after-dinner speech is a typical example of an entertaining speech. The speaker provides pleasure and enjoyment that make the audiences laugh or identify with anecdotal information. Some examples of entertaining speeches:
o   Excuses for any occasion
o   Explaining cricket to an American
o   How to buy a condom discreetly
o   Things you wouldn’t know without the movies
Effective preparation requires identifying the purpose of your speech. Once you’ve identified your purpose, you can move on to the objective of your speech (coming next week).
Wedding speeches, after-dinner speeches, and comic monologues are good examples of entertaining speeches. This type of speech aims to amuse people through humor, stories, or illustrations. It’s usually short and uses an informal tone. The speaker provides pleasure and enjoyment.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

Speaking Skill / 10 Tips to stay focused in an interview
« on: July 14, 2018, 02:38:26 PM »
1. Before you enter

The minutes before an interview are the toughest. One is never quite sure of what to do – social networking, a chat with a friend or flip through a magazine? Anything that shifts your single-mindedness is a bad idea. Get your thoughts in sync with your goal. Why are you here? How important is this job to you? Asking yourself these questions can help you realign.

2. Focus on your skills

In order to concentrate during the interview, think of one or two things that you would like your interviewer to remember you for. Is it your knowledge, communication skills or project management achievements? Zeroing in on a few things will keep your brain alert and fixated.

3. Review your notes

You have already done your research and rehearsals. Review your notes mentally before you face the interviewing panel. Recall the keywords in the job listing, your major achievements and your strengths. But don’t fret if you can’t mentally rehearse everything. You need to be confident, not nervous.

4. Think happy thoughts

You may find this clichéd but good thoughts will relax your mind and release happy hormones. A calm and happy employee is always a welcome addition to any team and company.

5. Stay calm

An interview room can be intimidating for the person being interviewed. But stress can inhibit your ability to think clearly. Ensure you remain calm and collected. This will help you to listen better and best answer questions.

6. Sit up straight

An upright and alert posture will keep your mind sharp. Slouching or leaning on the chair not only makes you feel lethargic but also makes a poor impression on the interviewer.

7. Switch off the cell phone

Make sure you switch off your cell phone in order to avoid any distraction. Constant pinging sounds or a phone call will derail your thoughts and you won’t be able to focus.

8. Participate in the conversation

If the interview is one-sided, it indicates that you’ve lost your way. The interviewer will appreciate you if you are able to have a conversation and make your point clearly. Remember, that apart from hard skills, the interviewer is also looking for soft skills.

9. Don’t lose patience

Realize that the interviewer may use tactics to put you in an uncomfortable position or trick you by looking unhappy or dissatisfied with your answers. Don’t lose patience. Try controlled breathing and remind yourself why you are in that room.

10. Make up for a mistake

If you feel you messed up - either you mumbled or went off track – try and revive the situation. If you need more time, ask the interviewer a question so that you can gather your thoughts.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / Folklore - Cultural Heritage Through Countless Generations
« on: July 01, 2018, 03:35:27 PM »
Folklore consists of tales, songs, legends, proverbs, myths, riddles, superstitions and traditions that are passed on from generation to generation. Bangladeshi folklore can give great insight into the country's social and ethnic background as well as people's perceptions and beliefs. Bengali folklore also tells us much about inhabitants of the past such as their principles, customs and reasoning on matters.

Bangladesh has a strong folkloric and cultural heritage. Bangladesh's folklore has been largely influenced by various ethnic groups that have resided in the land throughout the years. A diversity of elements can therefore be clearly seen in the folklore of Bangladesh. Puthis, a type of ancient manuscript, are in fact books of folk tales and religious stories created in rural Bangladesh. These books were read to the community by educated individuals, both as a form of entertainment and as education. The Puthis were written by Munshis in Bangla and Songskrito. This demonstrates the great importance of folklore in Bangladesh.

A well known Bangla epic is entitled Manasamangal. This tale was written to give glory and honor to Manasa, a Hindu goddess. However, it has become renowned for the love story between Behula (the heroine) and Lakhindar (her husband). The epic tells how the father of Lakhindar upsets the goddess Manasa. She then makes a snake bite Lakhindar on his wedding night. Behula takes her husband's lifeless body on a boat and sails off. After appeasing the goddess, Lakhindar is brought back to life. Behula is often said to represent the essence of Bengali women, who demonstrate extreme courage and love.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / A Bengali Folktale
« on: July 01, 2018, 03:33:32 PM »
“The Naughty Tiger”

In every country around the world, mothers and grandmothers tell their children stories. Bangladesh is no exception. I remember each evening we children would surround our grandmother, and she would tell us tales. Sometimes she would tell tiger or bear stories; at other times, she would tell stories about a clever jackal. These stories are told in every home in Bangladesh. So sit back now and enjoy the story of the naughty tiger:

Long ago, in a country not far away, a famous maharaja lived. He was famous because of his strange hobbies; he gathered and raised unusual breeds of animals. Then one day, he decided on another project: He now wanted these animals to talk.

He called for his government minister. “Issue an invitation to the wisest men in the world. I want them to come teach these animals to speak.”

The minister shook with fear, yet answered, “Maharaj, how is such a feat possible?”

But the king brushed aside his misgivings. “I don’t wish to hear your doubts. Just call the experts.”

The government minister sent messengers to countries far and wide, and indeed ten experts came. After intense training, they taught five animals to speak. The maharaja was thrilled. He lavishly rewarded the experts and then invited kings from around the world to see the marvel. As the celebration began, the king placed the talking tiger in a golden cage at the gate of his palace.

Everyone who approached the palace was greeted by the tiger. “Nomoskar!” the tiger would welcome them. “Please open the door of this cage a bit.” Visitors were naturally amazed, but out of fear, no one was willing to open the door.

Then a simple, worthy Brahmin came to the celebration. He was truly a good man, and the tiger acknowledged it by repeatedly bowing as the Brahmin walked up the path.

Again, the tiger spoke, “Dear Grandfather, please open the door of this cage a bit. I have been in this cage for so many days now. Let me go play in the field for a while.” The Brahmin was such a nice man, he thought that indeed the tiger had endured a lot being caged like this. So he quickly opened the cage door.

Immediately the tiger leaped out, bowed before the old Brahmin and snarled, “Well, Grandfather, now I get to eat you!”

Shocked, the Brahmin replied, “What are you thinking?! I just was kind to you and set you free from your cage and yet you say you are going to eat me? This behavior is absolutely wrong.”

“Why is that?” the tiger scoffed. “Everyone acts like this.”

“Impossible!” the Brahmin said. “It cannot be! Ask two witnesses and see what they say.”

“Alright,” the tiger conceded. “If the witnesses agree with you, I will let you go. But if they agree with me, I will certainly eat you up!”

The Brahmin and the tiger walked into the field. A huge banyan tree stood in the center of the field.

Tree“That tree will be my first witness,” the Brahmin said.

“Fine,” the tiger agreed. “Ask the tree.”

“Brother Banyan,” the Brahmin asked, “if I do good to someone, can he harm me?”

The banyan sighed. “That happens, Grandfather. Look at me. I am the only tree in this field. In times of intense sunlight, I offer shade to people. I shelter them from the heat. In response, they cut my branches and steal my leaves to feed to their cows and goats.”

Laughing, the tiger licked his chops. “Grandfather, listen carefully to your witness.”

“But I will ask another witness,” the Brahmin said. In the tree, a songbird chirped.

“Ask him,” the tiger said.

The Brahmin called up into the tree, “Oh Brother Bird, if I do good to someone, can he harm me?”

The bird nodded his head. “That happens, Grandfather. Look at me. I sing lovely songs all day long and cheer people. At the end of the monsoons, think of all the pesky bugs I eat. I rescue people from so many troubles. Yet they will kill me.”

By now, the tiger was extremely pleased. He chuckled, “Grandfather, what do you say now?”

The Brahmin pleaded,, “Let me ask one last witness.”

Confidently, the tiger agreed. “Certainly, ask whomever you want.”

Just then, a jackal came strolling down the road. The Brahmin stepped forward. “There! He’s my final witness.”
He called to Uncle Jackal. “Oh wise Jackal, you are my witness. Please tell us: If I do good to someone, can he harm me?”

The jackal turned quizzical eyes on the Brahmin. “What is that, Grandfather? Speak more clearly. Explain what you are talking about. If you do not, I will not understand you.”

The Brahmin carefully rehearsed the event. “I was walking into the palace lawns and this tiger was trapped in a golden cage. He asked…”

Hearing the story, the jackal said, “I think this is a extremely difficult matter. If I do not see the palace road and cage, I really cannot say.”

So the three of them returned to the cage. “Oh,” the jackal exclaimed. “Now, seeing it all, I will be able to understand. Tell me again, what happened?”

The Brahmin repeated, “I was approaching the maharaja’s palace, and the tiger was in the cage.”

The jackal smiled with assurance. “Ah yes, this time I understand. You were in the cage, and Uncle Tiger sat on the path. Then…”

The tiger jumped up in disgust. “Uncle Jackal, you are incredibly stupid! I was in the cage.”

The jackal said, “No, no, Uncle Tiger. This is such a tough case, that the facts are not entering my head easily.”

The tiger angrily shouted, “What a problem! I did not realize just how stupid you are! This is a simple matter, and you cannot understand it. Look where I was.” The tiger stalked into the cage. And at that moment, the jackal slammed the cage door shut.

“Ah, yes,” the jackal said. “Grandfather, this time I understand it all. The tiger’s words were correct. If you help a bad person, he will harm you. Grandfather, you are a good man and wise. Be careful of naughty people like Uncle Tiger. In this world there are many like him, and they can harm you.”

Then the wise jackal turned to the tiger. “So Uncle Tiger, I am stupid, but what are you?” And laughing, he strolled away.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

My students of last semester developed paragraphs in groups outside the classroom and uploaded their work for peer-assessment in google class at the first stage.At the second stage,they had to revise their work keeping those suggestions in mind and upload them for final score.Most of the group discussion happened outside the class where they consult me frequently whenever needed.They were unaware of this type of peer-assessment earlier but found the feedback effective and helpful along with my feedback.The comments they made included two points;firstly they started with a positive feedback and later on moved towards a critical one.Although this was totally new to them,they tried hard to do their best.I also found that this peer-feedback not only help them to develop better understanding of a certain topic but also they discussed a lot before writing something for their friends.This change in assessment is definitely a new one to me and to them also where they had huge group discussion to get a particular score.I think this helped them develop communication skills where they tried to help each other with several issues.I will try to continue this in future as well where the students will have innovative ways to share and exchange ideas both inside and outside the class and hence develop communication and leadership skills.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

Fair and Events / Literary Festivals of India
« on: May 20, 2018, 12:17:10 PM »
Apeejay Kolkata Literary Festival

Held in January every year, the Apeejay Kolkata Lit Fest was held from 11-15th Jan 2018, this year. This fest brings out the rich cultural and literary heritage of the City of Joy. This fest not only features writers but also facilitates workshops for prospective writers, music and dance performances and other entertaining activities. Renowned personalities like Shashi Tharoor, Ramachandra Guha, Devdutt Pattanaik and Bon Okri amongst others, have been speakers at this literary festival.

Delhi Literature Festival

Usually held in February, this festival showcases a perfect combination of the cultural diversity in the capital of India and is a development of the same on the intellect and academic front on a single stage. The festival holds various informative discussions and sessions with prominent personalities like Madhu Trehan, Vikas Swarup, Barkha Dutt, Jeet Thayil, Anuja Chauhan, etc.

Lucknow Literary Festival

Usually held in November, the Lucknow Literatary Fest is held in the state of Uttar Pradesh that has given India some of its greatest poets and authors like Amir Khusru, Meer Taqi Meer, Asad Ullah Khan Ghalib, Mir Anees, Mirza Hadi Ruswa, Abdul Halim Sharar and a lot more. The Lucknow Lit Fest tries to bring about multiplicity of languages like Hindi, Urdu, Awadhi and English on a common stage. Organized by an NGO, the Lucknow Society which aims at the conservation and promotion of the culture and heritage of Lucknow.

Times Lit Fest

Held in Mumbai every year in the month of December, this fest has emerged as one of the best in the country. The concept of this lit fest was conceived by journalists Bachi Karkaria and Namita Devidayal, this fest is a three-day long event that brings some of the best speakers and writers like Devdutt Pattanaik, Arianna Huffington, Rajdeep Sardesai, Aatish Taseer, Thomas Piketty, Anuja Chauhan, and Ruskin Bon, all at one place. The festival features the opulence of literature, cinema, and music all over the country, in addition to having captivating discussions and debates.

Khushwant Singh Literature Festival Kasauli

Held at the beautiful Kasauli Club, every year, the Khushwant Singh Literature Festival binds personalities to the likes of Dr Rakhshanda Jalil, Shobhaa De, Anupam Kher, Coomi Kapoor, Cdr Dilip Donde, Bishen Singh Bedi, Bachi Karkaria, amongst many more. The concept or theme of KS Lit Fest changes every year however it is one literature festival you must not miss coz talking about books, book writing and literature amidst beautiful ambience of Kasauli is a marvel on its own.

Bangalore Literature Festival (BLF)
7th Edition
27-28 October 2018
Kerala Literature Festival

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

Project-Based Teaching Learning / My group-based learning
« on: May 20, 2018, 12:10:42 PM »
In my courses,I always try to encourage my students regarding group work which I believe helps them develop as professionals.This also enhances their leadership ability and mentality to help each other.My students usually visit historical places,museums,prepare posters and more importantly join free Spoken English Sessions in groups at the EMK Center.This leads them to communicate with students from other campuses as well.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

My students prepared innovative and beautiful posters last semester from the newspaper 'The Daily Star' and displayed them in the department.They were supposed to select news from the daily and summarize the ideas on their own in groups.They worked hard for 3/4 days and finally presented them as part of their 'Assignment' exam.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

This time I am planning to use Moodle to develop my students' reading and writing skills in a different way.Firstly,they will be provided with a group task which they will upload on Moodle for significant feedback from other groups.Later on,they will revise their work according to the received feedback for score.Finally,I will provide score with some suggestions for each group. In terms of providing feedback,they will start with a positive note and later will be critical if needed.They will maintain particular guidelines throughout, as discussing with group members before submitting anything on the forum.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / Top 10 Classic Short Stories
« on: May 15, 2018, 02:21:36 PM »
Please find the link of some classic short stories below which can be used in some courses.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / Why a motivated teacher is key to the classroom?
« on: May 15, 2018, 02:18:12 PM »
Why is motivation important?

A motivated teacher is crucial to a successful classroom. They will look at teaching through a different lens, and, in doing so, motivate their students in their learning too. Motivation helps to energise, direct and sustain positive behaviour over a long period of time. It involves working towards goals and tailoring activities to achieving this purpose. It also helps to drive creativity and curiosity, sparking the desire needed for students to want to learn more.

It isn’t just a case of getting pupils interested in learning in the moment, but also in growing the underlying goals and aspirations pushing their entire academic studies. It is about motivating them beyond the initial task or feeling of accomplishment and appreciating how ‘deferred gratification’ plays into the role of education in order for them to work towards a greater, larger goal. This is known as ‘intrinsic motivation’ and research has found it to be of key importance.

How to introduce motivation into the classroom?

Part of being a motivated teacher comes through your general behaviour and attitude. There’s a lot to be said for people that regularly smile, offer a happy and cheery outlook on life and generally come across as upbeat and pleasant to be around – regardless of how they’re actually feeling. Making your classroom a warm, colourful and stimulating environment is also key to creating a positive space.

It’s also important that you reward your students for good work as you go along. It doesn’t have to be all the time, as then it will come to be expected and will hold less value when you do praise them. But recognising hard work and offering praise will ensure your students stay encouraged and feeling as though their work is on the right track forwards and that you’re noticing their efforts.

Mixing things up is also key. If you’re doing the same thing all the time, it’ll start to become boring and repetitive. Look at the materials you’re teaching and think about how you can put a new spin on them. Perhaps you turn something into an acting activity or maybe you can turn facts or figures into a song that will help to make it more memorable. Perhaps you can get students working together on a group activity – this is a great way of helping students motivate each other. Be creative – use posters, offer visual aids and diagrams, show movies and play games.

Additionally, working in a different environment will help to keep students on their toes. Research has found that when we move around in various spaces while learning, we are able to recall more information better than if we had just stayed in one space. This is due to the associations the brain makes. The more you encourage movement in learning, the more the information is absorbed. Perhaps you do some work in the playground, some in the classroom and some off the school grounds. Maybe you look at taking your students on a field trip that will add a real-life dimension to their studies.

Setting expectations in the classroom is key and gives your students a standard to work towards. However, when you find your students need a nudge forwards, offering small incentives can help make learning fun. Encouraging a competitive energy can help fuel students and push them further – this could range from offering a special privilege to having a class pizza party if they all achieve a certain grade. There’s a reason sales companies offer staff bonuses – it always motivates!

Finally, showing students how information they’re learning is useful to real-life scenarios will help them to see the practical application that it holds. Often students will switch off when they don’t see how it will ever benefit them, but if you can connect it to life outside the classroom, it will give it new importance and motivate them to listen more attentively.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

English / Motivating teachers
« on: May 15, 2018, 02:14:44 PM »
The following article reveals ways of motivating teachers.Do we need these?

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

MCT / Drama in ELT
« on: June 14, 2017, 12:29:03 PM »
Most ELT teachers nowadays advocate some elements of a ‘Communicative Approach’ and therefore recognise and appreciate the value of Drama in ELT. Drama can be defined as activity involving people in a social context and there is no doubt that effective communication in social situations involves other forms of communication that go beyond language competence and includes the use of gesture, body posture, intonation and other prosodic features. However the inclusion of drama based activities is not so evident in current ELT course books, resource books, supplementary materials and teacher training courses. Teachers clearly need practical step by step guidance on how to incorporate drama more comprehensively and cohesively into their teaching.

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

This paper, Language Documentation, Revitalization, and Reclamation: Supporting Young Learners and Their Communities, addresses the relationship between language documentation and language revitalization and reclamation (LR), and focuses on the associated impacts on young children and their communities. The paper was produced by the Child Language Research and Revitalization Working Group, comprised of academic, professional, and community experts from a wide variety of disciplines and backgrounds. The work was generously supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1500720.

In this paper, the writers explore the impact of language documentation on LR, and consider how these activities not only promote language (re)learning, but also influence social, emotional and physical well-being among young children and their families and communities. They discuss existing research and practice, and recommend next steps to support Indigenous communities’ actions to maintain, restore, and reclaim their languages. Through this overview of existing knowledge, they aim to lay a foundation for future research in order to share and enhance the outcomes and benefits of language documentation and LR practice.

Please follow the link below:

Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU

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