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Messages - MD. ABDUR ROUF

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Financial Accounting / Re: Accounting as a language of Business
« on: September 17, 2018, 03:19:45 PM »

Financial Accounting / Financing Activities of Cash Flow Statement
« on: September 17, 2018, 03:18:34 PM »
Financing Activities:
   Financing activities include those transactions and events that affect long-term liabilities and equity. Examples are (i) obtaining cash from issuing debt and repaying the amounts borrowed and (ii) receiving cash from or distributing cash to owners. Incurring or repaying either short-term or long-term debt would result in a corresponding cash inflow or outflow. As a general rule, borrowing from creditors or repaying creditors as well as transactions with the company’s owners are classified as financing activities. For example- when a company borrows money by issuing a bond, the transaction is classified as financing activities.
   Changes in the current liabilities that are debts to lenders rather than obligations to suppliers, employees, or the government.
   Changes in non-current liabilities those are not included in net income.
   Changes in capital stock accounts
   Dividends.
Cash Inflows:
   From contributions by owners
   From issuing bonds and notes
   From issuing short and long-term debt
   From issuing its own equity stock
Cash Outflows:
   To pay cash dividends to shareholders
   To purchase treasury stock
   To repay cash loans
   To pay withdrawals by owners

Managerial Accounting / Canteen Costing
« on: September 17, 2018, 03:09:11 PM »
There are many undertakings which provide facilities of cheap canteen to their workers. The expenditures incurred for servicing meals of different varieties may be grouped under various heads like provisions, labor, services, consumable stores and miscellaneous items. A cost statement may also provide information about the subsidy received, if any from any agency and the revenue from sales etc. so as to show the net operating profit or loss.

Managerial Accounting / Hospital Costing
« on: September 17, 2018, 03:08:33 PM »
The main purpose of hospital costing is to ascertain the cost of providing medical services. A hospital is usually divided into a number of departments on the basis of functions performed. However, the main function of hospitals is to render medical services. Each department has a separate cost unit. The miscellaneous service departments such as, transport, dispensary, cleaning, administrations etc. are to be apportioned to the other departments on equitable basis.

Financial Accounting / Corporate governance
« on: September 09, 2018, 01:24:02 PM »
Corporate governance is the system of rules, practices and processes by which a company is directed and controlled. Corporate governance essentially involves balancing the interests of a company's many stakeholders, such as shareholders, management, customers, suppliers, financiers, government and the community.



Managerial Accounting / Re: Cost Volume Profit (CVP) Analysis
« on: July 22, 2018, 05:10:57 PM »

Elements of a product costs / Manufacturing costs:   
The cost elements of a product are direct materials, direct labor and factory overhead.
(a) Materials
Materials are the principal substances used in production that are transformed into finished goods by the addition of direct labor and factory overhead. Material costs may be divided into direct and indirect materials as follows:
(i) Direct materials
Direct materials are those materials, which can be identified with the production of a finished product, which can be easily traced to the product. For example-cloth in dress making, bricks in building a house.
 (ii) Indirect materials
Indirect materials are those, which are not directly related to the production or manufacture.

Labor is the physical or mental effort expended in the production of a product.
(i)Direct labor
Direct labors are reserved for those labor costs that can be physically and conveniently traced to individual units of product. For example-cost of machine operators
(ii)Indirect labor
Indirect labors are those labor costs that can not be physically and conveniently traced to individual units of product. For example-night security guards

(c)Factory Overhead
Factory overhead includes all costs of manufacturing except direct materials and direct labors. Such as indirect material, indirect labor, heat & light, property tax, depreciation.

Managerial Accounting / Cost and expense
« on: July 14, 2018, 06:11:15 PM »
Cost: Cost is the total value of the sacrifice mode to acquire goods or services.
Expense: Expense is the value of the sacrifice mode for usesing goods or services, measured in monetary units by the reduction of asset.
Example- purchases a furniture Tk.20,000 for 10 years. Here, cost is Tk.20,000 total value of furniture and per year depreciation is expense Tk.2000.   

Financial Accounting / Accounting as a language of Business
« on: July 14, 2018, 06:08:27 PM »
Language is a media of communication process of transmitting information from one person to another person, one person to another business, one business to another person that may take several different forms-Oral, written or nonverbal.
   Accounting is an information system of identifying, recording and communicating the economic events of a business organization to interested users.
   So easily we can say that accounting as a language of Business.

Business Administration / Stakeholder theory
« on: April 22, 2018, 09:40:54 AM »
Stakeholder theory is that an organization can enhance the interest of its stockholders without damaging the interests of its wider stakeholders. Two types of stakeholders (a) internal Stakeholders: such as owners, manager employees, customers and (b)external Stakeholders such as supplies, customers, shareholders, creditors, government, society.

Business Administration / The legitimacy theory
« on: April 22, 2018, 09:40:21 AM »
The legitimacy theory is based on the notion of a social contract that exists between the organization and society. Companies operate under the rules and limits of the societies in which they operate. Thus, the companies will have to be sure that its activities are in agreement, or are perceived as being in agreement, with the norms and values of the society, to prevent the disruption of the contract.

Business Administration / Signaling theory
« on: April 22, 2018, 09:39:19 AM »
Signaling theory transmits signals to the market about the performance of company. If the good performance of the company, Signaling theory provides good signal to the market. On the other hand, if the bad performance of the company, Signaling theory provides bad signal to the market.

Business Administration / An agency theory
« on: April 22, 2018, 09:35:15 AM »
An agency theory is relationship as “a contract under which one or more persons (the principals) engage another person (the agent) to perform some service on their behalf which involves delegating some decision making authority to the agent”.

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