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Messages - Anayetur Rahaman

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1
Journalism & Mass Communication / Feminist Films
« on: July 23, 2019, 07:41:56 PM »
Representation of women in films is getting worse, new study reveals

(Independent.co.uk)

Women protagonists im film became more prominent in 2018 – but the representation of female characters got worse overall, a new study has revealed.

Male characters dominated the big screen throughout the past year, according to a study released on Tuesday by the Centre for the Study of Women in Television and Film at San Diego State University.

Only 35 per cent of films included 10 or more female speaking roles, but a staggering 82 per cent of movies had at least 10 male characters with speaking roles, according to the study, titled It’s a Man’s (Celluloid) World.

Read the article:  https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/news/women-in-film-representation-female-protagonists-2018-mans-celluloid-world-study-a8786616.html

2
Communication / Introduction to Communication
« on: July 11, 2019, 08:17:53 PM »
Introduction to Communication

This topic gives you an overview of communication and introduces you to the
main elements in the communication process. It also highlights the importance of
writing clear, positive messages and offers you some basic tips and guidelines on
this form of communication so that you may become more proficient in the kind
of writing needed at home as well as in the college and workplace. You will also
learn about some of the common pitfalls which may impede the effectiveness of
written communication.

Communication is a learned skill. However, while most people are born with the
physical ability to talk, not all can communicate well unless they make special
efforts to develop and refine this skill further. Very often, we take the ease with
which we communicate with each other for granted, so much so that we
sometimes forget how complex the communication process actually is.

Have you ever wondered why some people can communicate so well while
others fail to get their message across? What are the elements that must be
present in the communication process before it can be successful and effective?
Well, communication has been defined as the act of giving, receiving or
exchanging information, ideas and opinions so that the „message‰ is completely
understood by both parties. Look at Figure 1.1 below. The illustration shows
clearly that in a communication process, there must be a sender who speaks or
sends a message, and a receiver who listens or receives the message.

The sender sends a message with a certain intention in mind. The receiver of the
message tries to understand and interpret the message sent. He then gives
feedback to the original sender, who in turn interprets the feedback. This process,
repeated continuously, constitutes communication.
Clearly, there are several major elements in the communication process 􀄃 a
sender, message, channel, receiver, feedback, context. There is both a speakerÊs
intention to convey a message and a listenerÊs reception of what has been said.
Thus, listening skills are just as important as speaking skills in order for
communication to be effective.
This means that if you want to get your message across accurately, you need to
consider these three things:
• The message;
• The audience or receiver; and
• How the message is likely to be received.

A message is only considered successfully communicated when both the sender
and the receiver perceive and understand it in the same way. If this does not
happen, then there may be a breakdown in communication, which may
ultimately stand in the way of you realising your goals, either personally or
professionally.

As mentioned earlier, effective communication is a two-way process but there are
a number of factors which may disrupt this process and affect the overall
interpretation and understanding of what was communicated. Myriad problems
can pop up at different stages of the communication process. These can relate to
any of the elements involved 􀄃 the sender, message, channel, receiver, feedback
and context. It is therefore important to understand some of the factors that affect
communication so that you can try to get your message across with minimal
misunderstanding and confusion.

Please find the pdf file for further details about the topic.


3
Communication / Mass Communication
« on: July 03, 2019, 04:41:09 PM »
Mass Communication: An Overview

You’re sitting in a classroom checking twitter while listening to your favorite music when the clock hits the top of the hour. You take out your headphones and put the phone down when you hear the instructor begin talking. She is referring to a web page projected on the screen in front of class. She welcomes everyone to the start of the school year, but stops to wait for the guy next to you to put down his phone that he’s reading. She explains that she will only provide an electronic version of the syllabus, pointing to the course web page. Everyone in the class is to go online and read the syllabus before the next class meeting. She explains that, besides lecture and discussion, you will need to watch CNN, read the Wall Street Journal, and watch several clips she’s listed on YouTube to demonstrate and learn key concepts. Suddenly, from the back of the class a cell phone begins ringing. The instructor stops mid-sentence and explains the class policy about turning off cell phones during class. Your classmate never answers the phone but reaches into his pocket and looks at the phone screen. The instructor explains that you will need to read chapter one of the textbook by next week. Included with your textbook is a pass-code that allows you to connect to an online database so you can access articles for your semester project. After she answers student questions, class is over.

As you head out the door you hear music coming from the building sound system playing the student-run FM radio station. You walk to the student union to grab lunch and watch whatever they’re playing on the large screen television. On your drive home, you turn on the radio to listen to the broadcast of your favorite baseball team. While driving, you notice the new billboard advertising Ford trucks. When you get home, you sit down in front of your computer. You check a class web page to see if you have homework, check the day’s current events and sporting scores, then check your email. You read several messages, delete the spam, and get irritated at the pop-up advertisements that keep jumping on your screen. After shutting down your computer you sit on the couch to watch a movie streaming through Netflix. As you lean back on the couch, you clear away a stack of magazines to set down your drink.

The above example is representative of the amount of mass communication we are exposed to daily. In the U.S. we witness and understand a great deal of our world through mass communication. Remember that in the early part of the 20th century, communication scholars began to ask questions about the impact of media as more and more mass communication outlets were developed. Questions then and now include: To what degree does mass communication affect us? How do we use or access mass communication? How does each medium influence how we interpret messages? Do we play an active or passive role when we interact with media? This chapter explores these questions by examining the concept of mass communication, its evolution, its functions, its theories, and its place in society.

Defining Mass Communication

Littlejohn and Foss define mass communication as “the process whereby media organizations produce and transmit messages to large publics and the process by which those messages are sought, used, understood, and influenced by audience” (333). McQuail states that mass communication is, “only one of the processes of communication operating at the society-wide level, readily identified by its institutional characteristics” (7). Simply put, mass communication is the public transfer of messages through media or technology-driven channels to a large number of recipients from an entity, usually involving some type of cost or fee (advertising) for the user. “The sender often is a person in some large media organization, the messages are public, and the audience tends to be large and varied” (Berger 121). However, with the advent of outlets like YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, and text messaging, these definitions do not account for the increased opportunities individuals now have to send messages to large audiences through mediated channels.

Nevertheless, most mass communication comes from large organizations that influence culture on a large scale. Schramm refers to this as a “working group organizer” (115). Today the working groups that control most mass communication are large conglomerates such as Viacom, NewsCorp, Disney, ComCast, Time Warner, and CBS. In 2012, these conglomerates controlled 90% of American Media and mergers continue to consolidate ownership even more. An example of an attempt at such a takeover of power occurred throughout 2014 with Comcast and Time Warner pursuing a merger for $45 billion. If successful, this will be one of the biggest mergers in history.

Remember our definition of communication study: “who says what, through what channels (media) of communication, to whom, [and] what will be the results” (Smith, Lasswell & Casey 121)? When examining mass communication, we are interested in who has control over what content, for what audience, using what medium, and what are the results? Media critic Robert McChesney said we should be worried about the increasingly concentrated control of mass communication that results when just a handful of large organizations control most mass communication, “The implications for political democracy, by any standard, are troubling” (23). When interviewed, Ben Bagdikian, media critic and former Dean of the Graduate School of Journalism, University of California, Berkeley, cautiously pointed out that over the past two decades, major media outlets went from being owned by 50 corporations to just five (WGBH/Frontline). Both McChesney and Bagdikian warn about the implications of having so few organizations controlling the majority of our information and communication. Perhaps this is the reason new media outlets like Instagram, YouTube, and Facebook have consistently grown in popularity as they offer alternative voices to the large corporations that control most mass communication.

Please read more at https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-introductiontocommunication/chapter/chapter-8-overview/





4
Journalism / 'Fake News' is a Fake Notion
« on: June 13, 2019, 01:27:09 PM »
“Fake News” is a Fake Notion

Clarence W Thomas*
Associate Professor, School of Mass Communications, Virginia Commonwealth University, U
SA

As a journalism Professor I often discuss the meaning and
purpose of journalism with my students. Recently, the notion of “Fake
News” has managed to sneak into our conversations as students have
sought clarification. Many students seem puzzled and confused when
discussing the term. They want to know what such a term is supposed
to mean in light of their study and practice of journalism. In addition
to my own students, I recently taught a group of journalism students
from China. They were also concerned by the term and wondered how
controls on journalism in their country could dare be questioned by
Americans when we have “Fake News” in our country.
As I tell my students, wake up! “Fake News” is a FAKE notion.
The notion of “Fake News” was forced on America and the world
by a presidential candidate (now President) who used and uses it as a
verbal preemptive device designed to lessen and even diminish facts/
truth, which he considers to be detrimental to himself and/or his cause.
Under such a notion, truth and facts are supposed to wither away and
become replaced by “alternative fact.” Under this notion, flip/flop then
flop/flip are standard practices. Right is wrong and wrong is right. Yes is
no, then no is yes, then no again.
Some say that journalism is the first draft of history.
Journalism (like history) is supposed to seek truth, nothing else.
Journalism, at least in America, is supposed to seek truth and
provide that truth to society. Journalism in America is also supposed
to be a watchdog for society, which keeps check of government, big
business, etc. In turn, the truth provided by journalism should facilitate
a better society.
The founding fathers of the United States understood the value
of the press as a facilitator of a free society. Therefore, they made
freedom of the press a prominent part of the First Amendment of the
Constitution. They understood that the press, in an attempt to seek and
provide truth, might be unpopular at times, but nonetheless needed.
According to President George Washington, “Our liberty depends
on the freedom of the press, and that cannot be limited without being
lost.”
Benjamin Franklin noted, “If all printers were determined not to
print anything till they were sure it would offend nobody, there would
be very little printed.”
President Thomas Jefferson commented, “When the press is free
and every man able to read, all is safe.” He also noted, “The basis of
our government being the opinion of the people, the very first object
should be to keep that right; and were it left to me to decide whether we
should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without
a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter. But I
should mean that every man should receive those papers and be capable
of reading them.” Jefferson believed, “The press is the best instrument
for enlightening the mind of man, and improving him as a rational,
moral and social being.”
The United States now faces a President who belittles and demonizes
the press (journalism) through his use of the fake term called “Fake
News.”
As the story goes, if you knowingly let a snake into your house, and
it bites and kills your family, you have no one to blame but yourself.
Wake up America! Wake up journalists! “Fake News” is a FAKE notion.

(Published in Journal of Mass Communication and Journalism)

5
Journalism / Freedom of Press
« on: May 12, 2019, 01:56:19 PM »

The value of fake news
Josh Freidman

On a trip to Ethiopia in the 1990s, I met with Prime Minister Meles Zenawi to try to persuade him to stop jailing journalists. Since Meles’s guerillas had ousted a repressive Soviet-backed dictatorship a few years before, there had been an explosion of exuberant and sometimes wildly inaccurate little newspapers, many of them attacking Meles. So, he had cracked down, introducing laws criminalising what he called “insults” to the government and fining and imprisoning journalists for inaccuracies. Ethiopia quickly became one of the world’s top jailors of journalists. Continue the reading at: https://www.thedailystar.net/opinion/global-affairs/news/the-value-fake-news-1742002

6
Journalism / Guidelines on Reporting Children
« on: April 25, 2019, 06:47:37 PM »
                                      Reporting Children: What Journalists Should Do

 
Reporting on children and young people has its special challenges.  In some instances the act of reporting on children places them or other children at risk of retribution or stigimatization.
Unicef has developed principles to assist journalists as they report on issues affecting children.  They are offered as guidelines that Unicef believes will help media to cover children in an age-appropriate and sensitive manner.  The guidelines are meant to support the best intentions of ethical reporters: serving the public interest without compromising the rights of children.

Principles

1. The dignity and rights of every child are to be respected in every circumstance.
2. In interviewing and reporting on children, special attention is to be paid to each child's right to privacy and confidentiality, to have their opinions heard, to participate in decisions affecting them and to be protected from harm and retribution, including the potential of harm and retribution.
3. The best interests of each child are to be protected over any other consideration, including over advocacy for children's issues and the promotion of child rights.
4. When trying to determine the best interests of a child, the child's right to have their views taken into account are to be given due weight in accordance with their age and maturity.
5. Those closest to the child's situation and best able to assess it are to be consulted about the political, social and cultural ramifications of any reportage.
6. Do not publish a story or an image which might put the child, siblings or peers at risk even when identities are changed, obscured or not used.

Guidelines for interviewing children

1. Do no harm to any child; avoid questions, attitudes or comments that are judgmental, insensitive to cultural values, that place a child in danger or expose a child to humiliation, or that reactivate a child's pain and grief from traumatic events.
2. Do not discriminate in choosing children to interview because of sex, race, age, religion, status, educational background or physical abilities.
3. No staging: Do not ask children to tell a story or take an action that is not part of their own history.
4. Ensure that the child or guardian knows they are talking with a reporter. Explain the purpose of the interview and its intended use.
5. Obtain permission from the child and his or her guardian for all interviews, videotaping and, when possible, for documentary photographs. When possible and appropriate, this permission should be in writing. Permission must be obtained in circumstances that ensure that the child and guardian are not coerced in any way and that they understand that they are part of a story that might be disseminated locally and globally. This is usually only ensured if the permission is obtained in the child's language and if the decision is made in consultation with an adult the child trusts.
6. Pay attention to where and how the child is interviewed. Limit the number of interviewers and photographers. Try to make certain that children are comfortable and able to tell their story without outside pressure, including from the interviewer. In film, video and radio interviews, consider what the choice of visual or audio background might imply about the child and her or his life and story. Ensure that the child would not be endangered or adversely affected by showing their home, community or general whereabouts.

Guidelines for reporting on children
1. Do not further stigmatize any child; avoid categorisations or descriptions that expose a child to negative reprisals - including additional physical or psychological harm, or to lifelong abuse, discrimination or rejection by their local communities.
2. Always provide an accurate context for the child's story or image.
3. Always change the name and obscure the visual identity of any child who is identified as:
a. A victim of sexual abuse or exploitation,
b. A perpetrator of physical or sexual abuse,
c. HIV positive, or living with AIDS, unless the child, a parent or a guardian gives fully informed consent,
d. Charged or convicted of a crime.
4. In certain circumstances of risk or potential risk of harm or retribution, change the name and obscure the visual identity of any child who is identified as:
a. A current or former child combatant
b. An asylum seeker, a refugee or an internal displaced person
5. In certain cases, using a child's identity - their name and/or recognizable image - is in the child's best interests. However, when the child's identity is used, they must still be protected against harm and supported through any stigmatization or reprisals.
Some examples of these special cases are:
a. When a child initiates contact with the reporter, wanting to exercise their right to freedom of expression and their right to have their opinion heard.
b. When a child is part of a sustained programme of activism or social mobilization and wants to be so identified.
c. When a child is engaged in a psychosocial programme and claiming their name and identity is part of their healthy development.
6. Confirm the accuracy of what the child has to say, either with other children or an adult, preferably with both.
7. When in doubt about whether a child is at risk, report on the general situation for children rather than on an individual child, no matter how newsworthy the story.

References:
1. Unicef
2. International Federation of Journalists (IFJ)

7
Journalism / Courageous Journalism
« on: April 16, 2019, 07:59:04 PM »
Brave journalism wins Pulitzer. Reporting on Rohingya earns Reuters Pulitzer

Awarding the prize to Reuters, the Pulitzer committee recognized the team for "expertly exposing the military units and Buddhist villagers responsible for the systematic expulsion and murder of Rohingya Muslims from Myanmar, courageous coverage that landed its reporters in prison."

To read the article, please click here: https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/reuters-wins-pulitzer-prizes-for-international-reporting-and-breaking-news-photography-300832399.html

8
Language for Journalists / News Writing
« on: April 04, 2019, 05:52:51 PM »
The first thing to do is stop and think. Do not start writing until you have a plan


You've gathered the information, done the reporting. You've interviewed all the people involved, the eye witnesses to the explosion, the police, etc, etc. And now you have to write the story. You have pages in your notebook of facts, observations, quotes. You may have some agency copy, some material from other media. The first thing to do is stop and think. Do not start writing until you have a plan. Read through all your notes, marking the most important pieces of information and the quotes you want to use. The information you have gathered will not have entered your notebook in order of importance. You need to decide what is more important, what is less important, to establish a hierarchy of pieces of information. And this is where you must think about your audience. Not necessarily what interests you most, but what will interest them. It may not be the same thing, and this is where knowing, having a feeling for, understanding your audience is so important. As you stare at the blank screen try to imagine the reader.

To read more: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2008/sep/25/writing.journalism.news

9
Journalism & Mass Communication / English Tips for Budding Journalists
« on: March 28, 2019, 01:14:19 PM »

For many journalists today, English is the primary language used for news reporting on radio, television, online, and in print. If you’re an aspiring journalist you’ll be expected to have a firm grasp of the English language and its grammar rules. Please find the link for details:

https://englishlive.ef.com/blog/career-english/english-tips-budding-journalists/

10

In this chapter, we give guidance on how to write sentences for maximum understanding and why care over language is important. In the three following chapters we show how to avoid some common language problems, we suggest some rules for news writing style and we give advice on translating news from one language to another.

https://www.thenewsmanual.net/Manuals%20Volume%201/volume1_10.htm

11
News Editing / Functions of Headline
« on: March 28, 2019, 12:59:05 PM »
The headline is the text which gives readers a complete idea about the article. It comes on top of the story. Headline has several important functions. They are discussed below:

The Functions of an Effective Headline
1.   To grab the readers’ attention.
2.   Summarizes  the story
3.   To pre-screen or select your readers.
4.   Draw a reader into the story.
5.   Set the tone of the newspaper
6.   Provides typographic relief

For details, please see the attachment.

12
News Editing / News Editing
« on: March 28, 2019, 12:57:12 PM »
Of all the copyeditor’s duties, editing for accuracy is probably the most important. A newspaper that is inaccurate soon loses its credibility. The copyeditor’s responsibilities during editing a copy include:
1.   Ensuring accuracy
2.   Trimming unnecessary words
3.   Protecting and polishing the language
4.   Correcting inconsistencies
5.   Making the story conform to style
6.   Eliminating libelous statement
7.   Eliminating passage in poor state
8.   Making certain the story is readable and complete.

For details, please see attachment.

13
Journalism / Decline of newspapers circulation
« on: March 28, 2019, 12:41:59 PM »
Newspapers have been dying in slow motion for two decades now. In Canada, this talk has transcended the hypothetical; the government commissioned a report that speculates on what Canada’s democracy might look like in a post-newspaper world. In Britain, too, Prime Minister Theresa May has warned that the closure of newspaper after newspaper is a “danger to democracy;” Britain has nearly 200 fewer regional and local newspapers now than in 2005. The picture is similar in the U.S. A once unimaginable scenario has lately become grimly conceivable.
To read more: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/theworldpost/wp/2018/03/21/newspapers/?utm_term=.27e9bfb3fe05

15
Journalism / History of Journalism in Bengal
« on: July 11, 2018, 02:24:56 PM »
Newspapers and Periodicals emerged first in Bengal from the last quarter of the 18th century. At official level, there were systems to collect information of the kingdom from the very ancient time. According to Kautilya, government employees of a certain category were assigned to report to the royal court all news collected from the country. Historians also mentioned about newsletters, royal notifications and other modes of communication during the Mughal period. There was at least one Wakia Nabis in each district whose responsibility was to send details and compilations of important events in the area to the royal court.

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