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Topics - mir

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1
Business and Economics / Social Business
« on: March 20, 2016, 03:33:09 PM »
A social business is a non-loss, non-dividend company designed to address a social problem.

The profits are used to expand the company’s reach and improve the products and/or services

A social Business is a business, that follows the 7 Principles!

2
Very recently I have completed the workshop on ‘Joyous Teaching Techniques’ by Mr. Robert Selby. Although it was a two days long program, I joined three days indeed. At the first day, out of curiosity, I joined Robert's training, had a bitter debate and I had a mixed feeling for few reasons. I didn’t get his tone as I was a Bangladeshi prototype. Later on, considering the innovativeness of his thoughts, I tried to adapt myself with his delivery and found it really interesting. Specially, the concluding remarks made by him today afternoon, was something to marvel at! He took us to the land of positive thinking and let us allowed to think on our own; and I loved that style. At preliminary stage, I thought him semi-structured as well as a bit stubborn. Even I was unhappy when he took long time talking on other issues rather landing instantly on the topic related to joyous learning. True that, during the training in the last couple of days, he didn't try to cover lot of issues related to joyous teaching methodology, but the issues he raised was discussed in detail and comprehensive way by him. It really meant for an innovative way of explaining things to me which touched our heart. I knew the reaction of some other participants when he was found eager to raise cultural, political and religious issues, but later on I could convince myself when I got the flavor of his presentation style. And I must say I admired that. This was another learning of mine that things are not always the same as we expect those to be. I expected him as a trainer of my own set standard. I was not ready to change the way of my thinking. Initially I was unhappy when he tried to explain things in an American way that we are not used to.

Actually, during this workshop, I had enormous scope to renovate my thinking and learning when he put many aspects of teaching in an innovative way. He didn't give the solution of all problems but attracted out thoughts to find a way out. This was the approach I loved most. I must say, I am more proud of what I am doing now than I was before the training.

Now I am happy to share that when we wrote on our favorite teachers, like others, he praised me at least four times. He said, “let me tell you that you have a very good hand of writing, you write from your heart". I was really honored and melted when I was praised such a way by a Native American who is an English Literature graduate even. I felt more excited when he agreed to send my write-up to my favorite teacher. He went to the courier service office with me, wrote a note explaining how much my teacher is meant to me, and congratulated him for being a successful teacher. My professor presently has been fighting cancer at Square Hospital. Afterwords, my professor called me up from the hospital and told me that he was blessed to be the teacher of such students! What an output from an ordinary workshop!!

Today we had a discussion on the following topics at the second half which was interesting for me:

Seating arrangement:
   
1. # of students
2. Shape of rooms
3.Access to students
4. Use of space
5. Nature of the subject

Activities

1. Lecture
2. Projects
3. Presentations
4. Students planned curriculum
5. Group assignment
6. Research
7. Displays
8. Internships

Learning Style:

1. Visual
2. Aural
3. Oral
4. Contemplative
   
Evaluation

1.Writing+ speaking
2. Participation
3. Activities



I am sure that after this training, I shall think in an innovative way, I shall be much down to earth for my students, feel more pride of my profession, will change my attitude and of course, as Robert say, will raise tomorrow's Bangladeshis. All I have learned from the workshop are to accept changes, to adapt with situations, be more flexible, creative and innovative. I thank the personnel related to teachers training at DIU. This is of paramount importance I believe.

3
Very recently I have completed the workshop on ‘Joyous Teaching Techniques’ by Mr. Robert Selby. Although it was a two days long program, I joined three days indeed. At the first day, out of curiosity, I joined Robert's training, had a bitter debate and I had a mixed feeling for few reasons. I didn’t get his tone as I was a Bangladeshi prototype. Later on, considering the innovativeness of his thoughts, I tried to adapt myself with his delivery and found it really interesting. Specially, the concluding remarks made by him today afternoon, was something to marvel at! He took us to the land of positive thinking and let us allowed to think on our own; and I loved that style. At preliminary stage, I thought him semi-structured as well as a bit stubborn. Even I was unhappy when he took long time talking on other issues rather landing instantly on the topic related to joyous learning. True that, during the training in the last couple of days, he didn't try to cover lot of issues related to joyous teaching methodology, but the issues he raised was discussed in detail and comprehensive way by him. It really meant for an innovative way of explaining things to me which touched our heart. I knew the reaction of some other participants when he was found eager to raise cultural, political and religious issues, but later on I could convince myself when I got the flavor of his presentation style. And I must say I admired that. This was another learning of mine that things are not always the same as we expect those to be. I expected him as a trainer of my own set standard. I was not ready to change the way of my thinking. Initially I was unhappy when he tried to explain things in an American way that we are not used to.

Actually, during this workshop, I had enormous scope to renovate my thinking and learning when he put many aspects of teaching in an innovative way. He didn't give the solution of all problems but attracted out thoughts to find a way out. This was the approach I loved most. I must say, I am more proud of what I am doing now than I was before the training.

Now I am happy to share that when we wrote on our favorite teachers, like others, he praised me at least four times. He said, “let me tell you that you have a very good hand of writing, you write from your heart". I was really honored and melted when I was praised such a way by a Native American who is an English Literature graduate even. I felt more excited when he agreed to send my write-up to my favorite teacher. He went to the courier service office with me, wrote a note explaining how much my teacher is meant to me, and congratulated him for being a successful teacher. My professor presently has been fighting cancer at Square Hospital. Afterwords, my professor called me up from the hospital and told me that he was blessed to be the teacher of such students! What an output from an ordinary workshop!!

Today we had a discussion on the following topics at the second half which was interesting for me:

Seating arrangement:
   
1. # of students
2. Shape of rooms
3.Access to students
4. Use of space
5. Nature of the subject

Activities

1. Lecture
2. Projects
3. Presentations
4. Students planned curriculum
5. Group assignment
6. Research
7. Displays
8. Internships

Learning Style:

1. Visual
2. Aural
3. Oral
4. Contemplative
   
Evaluation

1.Writing+ speaking
2. Participation
3. Activities



I am sure that after this training, I shall think in an innovative way, I shall be much down to earth for my students, feel more pride of my profession, will change my attitude and of course, as Robert say, will raise tomorrow's Bangladeshis. All I have learned from the workshop are to accept changes, to adapt with situations, be more flexible, creative and innovative. I thank the personnel related to teachers training at DIU. This is of paramount importance I believe.

4
Real Estate / World Housing Day
« on: September 20, 2010, 05:54:40 PM »
Dear All,

We are planning to observe World Housing Day on 4th October 2010 in collaboration with a UN organization. As such, all teachers and students of the Department of Real Estate will sit together on 27 September at 10:00 am Room No-702. Please join it and help make it a success. Already some of our students have put their idea to the department in this regard. This will be a great opportunity for all of us to explore the opportunity of BRE to the community. We are also looking for media partners as well as company partners for this program. We have close collaboration with CDC and Raju sir has been giving his full support for this purpose. Please do not miss the meeting as well as our joint endeavour. Hope all the best for our journey together!!

Cheers,

Masud Ibn Rahman

5
Use of Forum / All Forum users, please note....
« on: September 15, 2010, 05:47:08 PM »
It’s amazing to see that our forum finally has got its momentum and has become successful to create a wave among not only in our DIU community but also among many others. DIU Forum has become enriched by continuous information uploads with versatile issues/subjects by teachers, students, officials and others.

I have been keeping an Eagle’s eye on the development and expansion of our beloved forum science its inception. With the joining of new members, the more power it has gained, the more excitement was enjoyed by many of us. The forum users have been trying to explore new ideas/issues everyday. In this regard, I think the time has come to note:

1.   Please try to write more from your own views and ideas preferably using our own language.

2.   Interesting, informative, relevant and necessary posting from other sites/sources are also welcome but please do not forget to mention the source or acknowledge the original writer.

3.   If you get something from some other website or search engine, please mention it at the bottom of your posting.

4.   We believe, we are maintaining international standard; as such, we need to be more careful while we have been posting something from other sources or some other articles/write-ups, partly or fully.

5.   Proper reference should be considered as Forum Posting Ethics to keep ourselves more transparent and decent in the virtual world.

6.   Avoid unnecessary interaction and repetition which will not add much value to the Forum archive.

I, therefore, request to every forum users firstly, to develop own writing skill by writing more and more, and secondly, to acknowledge properly or citing the sources either.

Masud Ibn Rahman
Assistnt Professor and Head
Department of Real Estate

6
Faculty Forum / All Forum users, please note....
« on: September 15, 2010, 05:45:38 PM »
It’s amazing to see that our forum finally has got its momentum and has become successful to create a wave among not only in our DIU community but also among many others. DIU Forum has become enriched by continuous information uploads with versatile issues/subjects by teachers, students, officials and others.

I have been keeping an Eagle’s eye on the development and expansion of our beloved forum science its inception. With the joining of new members, the more power it has gained, the more excitement was enjoyed by many of us. The forum users have been trying to explore new ideas/issues everyday. In this regard, I think the time has come to note:

1.   Please try to write more from your own views and ideas preferably using our own language.

2.   Interesting, informative, relevant and necessary posting from other sites/sources are also welcome but please do not forget to mention the source or acknowledge the original writer.

3.   If you get something from some other website or search engine, please mention it at the bottom of your posting.

4.   We believe, we are maintaining international standard; as such, we need to be more careful while we have been posting something from other sources or some other articles/write-ups, partly or fully.

5.   Proper reference should be considered as Forum Posting Ethics to keep ourselves more transparent and decent in the virtual world.

6.   Avoid unnecessary interaction and repetition which will not add much value to the Forum archive.

I, therefore, request to every forum users firstly, to develop own writing skill by writing more and more, and secondly, to acknowledge properly or citing the sources either.

Masud Ibn Rahman
Assistnt Professor and Head
Department of Real Estate

7
Common Forum / All Forum users, please note....
« on: September 15, 2010, 05:44:22 PM »
It’s amazing to see that our forum finally has got its momentum and has become successful to create a wave among not only in our DIU community but also among many others. DIU Forum has become enriched by continuous information uploads with versatile issues/subjects by teachers, students, officials and others.

I have been keeping an Eagle’s eye on the development and expansion of our beloved forum science its inception. With the joining of new members, the more power it has gained, the more excitement was enjoyed by many of us. The forum users have been trying to explore new ideas/issues everyday. In this regard, I think the time has come to note:

1.   Please try to write more from your own views and ideas preferably using our own language.

2.   Interesting, informative, relevant and necessary posting from other sites/sources are also welcome but please do not forget to mention the source or acknowledge the original writer.

3.   If you get something from some other website or search engine, please mention it at the bottom of your posting.

4.   We believe, we are maintaining international standard; as such, we need to be more careful while we have been posting something from other sources or some other articles/write-ups, partly or fully.

5.   Proper reference should be considered as Forum Posting Ethics to keep ourselves more transparent and decent in the virtual world.

6.   Avoid unnecessary interaction and repetition which will not add much value to the Forum archive.

I, therefore, request to every forum users firstly, to develop own writing skill by writing more and more, and secondly, to acknowledge properly or citing the sources either.

Masud Ibn Rahman
Assistnt Professor and Head
Department of Real Estate

8
English Language Lab / All Forum users, please note....
« on: September 15, 2010, 05:43:52 PM »
It’s amazing to see that our forum finally has got its momentum and has become successful to create a wave among not only in our DIU community but also among many others. DIU Forum has become enriched by continuous information uploads with versatile issues/subjects by teachers, students, officials and others.

I have been keeping an Eagle’s eye on the development and expansion of our beloved forum science its inception. With the joining of new members, the more power it has gained, the more excitement was enjoyed by many of us. The forum users have been trying to explore new ideas/issues everyday. In this regard, I think the time has come to note:

1.   Please try to write more from your own views and ideas preferably using our own language.

2.   Interesting, informative, relevant and necessary posting from other sites/sources are also welcome but please do not forget to mention the source or acknowledge the original writer.

3.   If you get something from some other website or search engine, please mention it at the bottom of your posting.

4.   We believe, we are maintaining international standard; as such, we need to be more careful while we have been posting something from other sources or some other articles/write-ups, partly or fully.

5.   Proper reference should be considered as Forum Posting Ethics to keep ourselves more transparent and decent in the virtual world.

6.   Avoid unnecessary interaction and repetition which will not add much value to the Forum archive.

I, therefore, request to every forum users firstly, to develop own writing skill by writing more and more, and secondly, to acknowledge properly or citing the sources either.

Masud Ibn Rahman
Assistnt Professor and Head
Department of Real Estate

9
Textile science, events, trade and issues / All Forum users, please note....
« on: September 15, 2010, 05:43:09 PM »
It’s amazing to see that our forum finally has got its momentum and has become successful to create a wave among not only in our DIU community but also among many others. DIU Forum has become enriched by continuous information uploads with versatile issues/subjects by teachers, students, officials and others.

I have been keeping an Eagle’s eye on the development and expansion of our beloved forum science its inception. With the joining of new members, the more power it has gained, the more excitement was enjoyed by many of us. The forum users have been trying to explore new ideas/issues everyday. In this regard, I think the time has come to note:

1.   Please try to write more from your own views and ideas preferably using our own language.

2.   Interesting, informative, relevant and necessary posting from other sites/sources are also welcome but please do not forget to mention the source or acknowledge the original writer.

3.   If you get something from some other website or search engine, please mention it at the bottom of your posting.

4.   We believe, we are maintaining international standard; as such, we need to be more careful while we have been posting something from other sources or some other articles/write-ups, partly or fully.

5.   Proper reference should be considered as Forum Posting Ethics to keep ourselves more transparent and decent in the virtual world.

6.   Avoid unnecessary interaction and repetition which will not add much value to the Forum archive.

I, therefore, request to every forum users firstly, to develop own writing skill by writing more and more, and secondly, to acknowledge properly or citing the sources either.

Masud Ibn Rahman
Assistnt Professor and Head
Department of Real Estate

10
BBA Discussion Forum / All Forum users, please note....
« on: September 15, 2010, 05:42:33 PM »
It’s amazing to see that our forum finally has got its momentum and has become successful to create a wave among not only in our DIU community but also among many others. DIU Forum has become enriched by continuous information uploads with versatile issues/subjects by teachers, students, officials and others.

I have been keeping an Eagle’s eye on the development and expansion of our beloved forum science its inception. With the joining of new members, the more power it has gained, the more excitement was enjoyed by many of us. The forum users have been trying to explore new ideas/issues everyday. In this regard, I think the time has come to note:

1.   Please try to write more from your own views and ideas preferably using our own language.

2.   Interesting, informative, relevant and necessary posting from other sites/sources are also welcome but please do not forget to mention the source or acknowledge the original writer.

3.   If you get something from some other website or search engine, please mention it at the bottom of your posting.

4.   We believe, we are maintaining international standard; as such, we need to be more careful while we have been posting something from other sources or some other articles/write-ups, partly or fully.

5.   Proper reference should be considered as Forum Posting Ethics to keep ourselves more transparent and decent in the virtual world.

6.   Avoid unnecessary interaction and repetition which will not add much value to the Forum archive.

I, therefore, request to every forum users firstly, to develop own writing skill by writing more and more, and secondly, to acknowledge properly or citing the sources either.

Masud Ibn Rahman
Assistnt Professor and Head
Department of Real Estate

11
Real Estate / All Forum users, please note....
« on: September 15, 2010, 05:41:56 PM »
It’s amazing to see that our forum finally has got its momentum and has become successful to create a wave among not only in our DIU community but also among many others. DIU Forum has become enriched by continuous information uploads with versatile issues/subjects by teachers, students, officials and others.

I have been keeping an Eagle’s eye on the development and expansion of our beloved forum science its inception. With the joining of new members, the more power it has gained, the more excitement was enjoyed by many of us. The forum users have been trying to explore new ideas/issues everyday. In this regard, I think the time has come to note:

1.   Please try to write more from your own views and ideas preferably using our own language.

2.   Interesting, informative, relevant and necessary posting from other sites/sources are also welcome but please do not forget to mention the source or acknowledge the original writer.

3.   If you get something from some other website or search engine, please mention it at the bottom of your posting.

4.   We believe, we are maintaining international standard; as such, we need to be more careful while we have been posting something from other sources or some other articles/write-ups, partly or fully.

5.   Proper reference should be considered as Forum Posting Ethics to keep ourselves more transparent and decent in the virtual world.

6.   Avoid unnecessary interaction and repetition which will not add much value to the Forum archive.

I, therefore, request to every forum users firstly, to develop own writing skill by writing more and more, and secondly, to acknowledge properly or citing the sources either.

Masud Ibn Rahman
Assistnt Professor and Head
Department of Real Estate

12
Real Estate / An urge to all the students of BRE
« on: September 05, 2010, 11:55:52 PM »
With my experience and opportunity to work with our beloved students of BRE ,I would like to urge the following:

(Please don not just read, but realize!)

1. Please follow the notice board time to time rather than asking information to friends or officials. It doesn't mean that you are not welcome at program office, you always are welcome for any information. Ours experience shows huge rush at program office while the info is available in the notice board. Please have a habit of looking at the notice board everyday.

2. Please don't be anxious or panic regarding BRE program, its job opportunities, or don't be demotivated with multiple comparison with BBA or some other programs by others. Every program has its own power and opportunities.

3. Students need to be more attentive to the classes. So far the dropout rate or absent rate is very high comparing to other programs. Help us to come out of this blind tunnel.

4. Please do not ignore the programs organized by the department. Our experience shows you need to be more serious and give more value to such programs where distinguish guests reaches to the auditorium and our students seems reluctant to be on time.

5. Please be on tie rather than disagree having small segmented groups and try to follow the leadership even you have different opinion!

6. Please be more time conscious in both the classes and outdoor programs.

7. Please be positive and do not loose faith on us. Don't think negative things and keep going with your studies.

8. Please show respect to your senior or junior or vice-versa.

9. Please complete your assigned task from the department on time. Come forward to take the leadership, don't think you are not the person to be on the driving seat! Yes, it's you!


Finally, we shall overcome!!

Wish you all the best in every aspect.



Masud Ibn Rahman
Assistant Professor and Head
Department of BRE

13
Apocalyptic disasters and the human miseries
September 2, 2010
By Rubayat Ahsan


Scientists have named it once-in-a-century flood. 20 million affected people just thriving out there in Pakistan to back to their every day normal existence, more than 1000 people are believed to be killed, millions have been displaced, villages are washed away, children are fighting water-borne diseases and thousands of women and men crawling towards vehicles carrying relief. Ban Ki-moon said that he has never seen anything like the flood disaster in Pakistan. The scale of such a flood has astonished international community.

String of disasters in china caused by floods and mudslides killed thousands and displaced many. The recent mudslides have leveled an area and raised death toll. China’s proud of becoming the nearest economic power to US is dismayed by these disasters one after the another. Cyclones devastated Bangladesh for many centuries and the latest ones are Sidr and Aila. Floods destroy crops and livestock on a yearly basis in this nation. Many around the world perceive that this nation remains under water.

Aid effort is slow in the context of Pakistan. Non government agencies working round the clock with their limited capacities. While governments of developing countries are seemingly accused for their inefficacy to handle tragedies, existentialism boost humanity to revive as it happened in the post Tsunami’s communities in the Asia-Pacific. Political leaders often appeared alike celebrities delivering relief to the distressed people and having snap shots in the media. Mainstream media apparently broadcast tragedy with enormous enthusiasm. However, people survive, grow and revive in the face of difficulties. This is the spirit of humanity that overcomes trauma of losing livestock as well as relatives and repeatedly ‘pushing the boulder up the mountain’.

Nature’s fury is observed from Pakistan to China leaving thousands to mourn for their loved ones. Scientists are searching for causes of such a monster flood and they mostly blame ‘climate change’ in line with IPCC’s hypothesis. IPCC has tons of scientific materials along with lots of graphs and tables to explain changing climate and the future of the planet. Other group has claimed some sort of cyclical process of earth changes through couple of thousands of years. Whatever the hypothesis is, human miseries out of these apocalyptic disasters are quite visible in the recent days.

Policy thinkers tirelessly developed mitigation and adaptation strategies besides organizing conferences. Cop 15’s climate change accord is one of the outcomes of international community’s effort to hold governments accountable. National plan of actions are out there in the hand governments containing nice words as well as lots of commitments and strategies to protect citizens from adversities of such disasters. Multilateral and bilateral donor agencies are quite busy to negotiate with governments of developing countries on how to accumulate  and spend fund as well. Rights based organizations are busy how to hold these governments accountable and transparent to be little kind with their citizens.

Natural disaster is no more a national concern. The scale of catastrophe disturbs global conscience. Volcanic eruptions, frequent earth trembles, heavy monsoon, floods and super cyclones have hit nations indiscriminately for last couple of years. Some may worry that none of the strategies, policy measures and fundings could be much worthy if nature demonstrates such a havoc. People, governments and markets are racing against time to air the bubbles of economy. Making money is the indicator of progress and prosperity in the chase pool of modernity. Thus, reduction of carbon emission appears to be an issue that governments do not like to think or talk much. Adaptation is a humanitarian talk in the down town. Climate change undergoes academic rigour and investigation. Time is ticking, wider scale apocalyptic disasters are causing more and more casualties, which gradually threats the very existence of human species.

Source: http://www.e-bangladesh.org

14
Common Forum / Apocalyptic disasters and the human miseries
« on: September 04, 2010, 04:45:22 PM »
Apocalyptic disasters and the human miseries
September 2, 2010
By Rubayat Ahsan

Scientists have named it once-in-a-century flood. 20 million affected people just thriving out there in Pakistan to back to their every day normal existence, more than 1000 people are believed to be killed, millions have been displaced, villages are washed away, children are fighting water-borne diseases and thousands of women and men crawling towards vehicles carrying relief. Ban Ki-moon said that he has never seen anything like the flood disaster in Pakistan. The scale of such a flood has astonished international community.

String of disasters in china caused by floods and mudslides killed thousands and displaced many. The recent mudslides have leveled an area and raised death toll. China’s proud of becoming the nearest economic power to US is dismayed by these disasters one after the another. Cyclones devastated Bangladesh for many centuries and the latest ones are Sidr and Aila. Floods destroy crops and livestock on a yearly basis in this nation. Many around the world perceive that this nation remains under water.

Aid effort is slow in the context of Pakistan. Non government agencies working round the clock with their limited capacities. While governments of developing countries are seemingly accused for their inefficacy to handle tragedies, existentialism boost humanity to revive as it happened in the post Tsunami’s communities in the Asia-Pacific. Political leaders often appeared alike celebrities delivering relief to the distressed people and having snap shots in the media. Mainstream media apparently broadcast tragedy with enormous enthusiasm. However, people survive, grow and revive in the face of difficulties. This is the spirit of humanity that overcomes trauma of losing livestock as well as relatives and repeatedly ‘pushing the boulder up the mountain’.

Nature’s fury is observed from Pakistan to China leaving thousands to mourn for their loved ones. Scientists are searching for causes of such a monster flood and they mostly blame ‘climate change’ in line with IPCC’s hypothesis. IPCC has tons of scientific materials along with lots of graphs and tables to explain changing climate and the future of the planet. Other group has claimed some sort of cyclical process of earth changes through couple of thousands of years. Whatever the hypothesis is, human miseries out of these apocalyptic disasters are quite visible in the recent days.

Policy thinkers tirelessly developed mitigation and adaptation strategies besides organizing conferences. Cop 15’s climate change accord is one of the outcomes of international community’s effort to hold governments accountable. National plan of actions are out there in the hand governments containing nice words as well as lots of commitments and strategies to protect citizens from adversities of such disasters. Multilateral and bilateral donor agencies are quite busy to negotiate with governments of developing countries on how to accumulate  and spend fund as well. Rights based organizations are busy how to hold these governments accountable and transparent to be little kind with their citizens.

Natural disaster is no more a national concern. The scale of catastrophe disturbs global conscience. Volcanic eruptions, frequent earth trembles, heavy monsoon, floods and super cyclones have hit nations indiscriminately for last couple of years. Some may worry that none of the strategies, policy measures and fundings could be much worthy if nature demonstrates such a havoc. People, governments and markets are racing against time to air the bubbles of economy. Making money is the indicator of progress and prosperity in the chase pool of modernity. Thus, reduction of carbon emission appears to be an issue that governments do not like to think or talk much. Adaptation is a humanitarian talk in the down town. Climate change undergoes academic rigour and investigation. Time is ticking, wider scale apocalyptic disasters are causing more and more casualties, which gradually threats the very existence of human species.

Source: http://www.e-bangladesh.org

15
Environmental Science and Disaster Management / Firefighting Issues
« on: June 10, 2010, 12:55:52 PM »
Causes of fire:

Loose wiring /Electric short circuit.
Burning oven/stove.
Careless disposal of burning cigarette and match stick.
Mosquito coil.
Chemical reaction.
Spark from chimney.
Dust explosion.
Miss fire of engine.
Flash of Lightning.
Sabotage.
Careless use of calender.
Excessive heat.
Friction of machineries.
Boiler Explosion.
Spontaneous Combustion
Hot dust & hot meterial
Nacked lamp
Thunder
Arson


Fire fighting method:
a.    Cooling: By means of water, foam and carbon dioxide.
b.    Smothering: Stopping oxygen supply to the area of fire.
c.    Starvation: Removing combustible materials from burning area.
d.    Poisoning the flame: Through dry chemical powder extinguisher.


FIRST AID:

Definition:
The simple medical treatment that is given to casualties by a first aider before a doctor comes or they can be taken to a hospital.
     
Principles of First Aid :-
To remove the patient from the cause or cause from the patient.
To render artificial respiration
To stop bleeding.
To treat for the suffocation and shock.
To use splint/bandage in case of wound and fracture.
To supply pure air.
To remove the crowd from the casualty.
To send the casualty to hospital.
     
Object of First Aid:
1. To save life of victim.
2. To prevent further aggravation of the casualty.
3. To immobilize the broken bone of casualties.
4. To ease pain.
     
     
Qualities of a First aider:    HUMAN BODY SYSTEM: DOCTOR PENDS-
D - Dexterous.    O - Observant
C – Careful.    T – Tactful.
O – Omit.    R – Resourceful.
P – Persevering.    E – Explicit.
N – Not a doctor.    D – Discriminating
S – Sympathetic.    

Integumentary System
Skeleton System
Muscular System
Digestive System
Circulatory System
Respiratory System
Excretory System
Nervous System
Reproductive System
Glandular System
Special sense organ System.
Blood Circulatory System
Definition :-
The system by which blood is circulated throughout the body is called circulatory system.
Organs of blood circulation : -
Heart – It is the pumping chamber which propels blood throughout the body.
Artery – Blood vessel to carry oxygenated (pure blood) blood from heart to different parts of the body.
Vein – Blood vessel to carry deoxygenated (impure blood) blood form different parts of the body to the heart.
Capillaries – are the tiny blood vessels which connect arteries and veins providing network.
     
Functions of blood:
Convey temperature throughout the body.
Convey nutrition produced from the food in different part of the body.
Bear the waste substances from the tissue to the kidney.
Carry oxygen from lungs to different parts of the body.
Carry carbon-dioxide from different parts of the body to the lungs.
Destroy germs with the help of white blood corpuscles.
Bear hormones, enzymes, lipid etc. to the organs.
Control blood pressure.
Stop bleeding by being clot.
Increase the ability of prevention of the body.
Keep the cells alive.
Keep balance of water throughout the body.
     
Wound
Definition:
     
Wound is a break in the continuity of the tissues of the body which thus permits the escape of blood and entrance of disease-producing germs or other injurious agents.
     
Classification of wounds:
Wounds may be classified with the help of the abbreviation-
     
A2 CLIP3’
     
A – Amputation – The removal of a limb or other appendage of the body by surgical knife.
A – Avulsion – The wrenching away of a part
C – Contused wound – Produced by blunt instruments or by crushing.
L – Lacerated wound – Produced by machinery, claws of animal etc.
I – Incised wound – Produced by sharp instruments such as razor.
P – Punctured wound – Produced by needle, knife or bayonet (stab).
P – Penetrating wound – Produced by bullet of splinter.
P – Perforated wound – Produced by bullet of splinter.
     
Danger from wounds: -
1. Bleeding
2. Shock
3. Septic.
     
Treatment of wound:
Do not disturb any blood clot already formed.
Apply dressing, pad and bandage
Immobilize the injured part.
Use tourniquet in case of damage of artery or vein.
Apply and maintain pressure.
     
Fracture:
Definition:
Fracture is a term when a bone is broken or cracked.
Causes of Fracture
Direct Violence – By direct impact.
Indirect Violence – By indirect impact.
Muscular Action – Generally occurred during running .


Plan of Evacuation:
During peace time a plan should be made how to evacuate persons systematically in case of emergency. According to exits/emergency exits divide the entire person into several groups. Give instruction to the group of every floor to move towards nearest exit as slowly as possible in disciplinary way one after another to get down during using emergency exits, so that they can evacuate themselves without any confusion. During emergency fire & safety personnel must use emergency torch/search light. Nobody should try to overtake other whimsically to avoid collision and to escape from trampling. Remember that for successful evacuation demonstration and exercise must be followed at least once in three months. Follow the advice given bellow-
    
If fire is breakout in the 3rd floor of a ten story building -
Evacuate the persons from – 3rd to 10th floor step by step and
 Then from level 2 to 1.
If fire is breakout in the 5th floor of a ten story building –
 Evacuate the persons from – 5th to 10th floor step by step and
 Then from floor 4 to 1.

    
NB. Never try to rush simultaneously during evacuation.
    
Priority of evacuation
 The children & expected mother.
 The aged person
 The women
 The staff
 The officers.
 The head of the wings
 The safety & security personnel.

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