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1
Faculty Sections / Perspective on brain cancer risk
« on: April 28, 2013, 03:33:47 PM »
News regarding cell phone tumor risks is plainly confusing because a battle continuous among different international panels and interest groups over how to analyze and interpret cell phone  tumor data. An article (July 6,2011) on Microwave News explains why there is no overlap in the International commission for Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) & the International Agency for research on Cancer (IARC), The two Panels that are supposed to work together , but fell into deep  disagreement  as the data stared showing some link between cell phone use and brain cancer. This piece is highly suggested read for anyone who would like to be able to make more sense of past and potentially future news on cell tumor risk.





The fountain Magazine , Jan/Feb-2013

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Faculty Sections / Global Warming
« on: January 28, 2013, 12:37:10 PM »
What are the three most important change that will have occurred on earth by 2050?
Please try to answer.

3
Faculty Forum / How math will help us in our daily life
« on: November 18, 2012, 04:07:15 PM »




   
What does math have to do with home decorating? Most home decorators need to work within a budget. But in order to figure out what you'll spend, you first have to know what you need. How will you know how many rolls of wallpaper to buy if you don't calculate how much wall space you have to cover? Understanding some basic geometry can help you stick to your budget.
The word geometry literally means "to measure the Earth." Geometry is the branch of math that is concerned with studying area, distance, volume, and other properties of shapes and lines. If you need to know the distance between two points, the volume of water in a pool, the angle of a tennis serve, or how much wallpaper it will take to cover a wall, geometry holds the answers.
Figuring area: Squares and rectangles
Imagine you're planning to buy new carpeting for your home. You're going to put down carpeting in the living room, bedroom, and hallway, but not in the bathroom. You could try to guess at how much carpet you might need to cover these rooms, but you're better off figuring out exactly what you need. To determine how much carpet you'll need, you'll use this simple formula:
A = L x W
Or in other words, "area equals length times width." This formula is used to determine the area of a rectangle or square. In the floor plan below, all of the floor space (as well as the walls and ceilings) is made up of squares or rectangles, so this formula will work for figuring the area you need to carpet.
 
Start by figuring the total area of the floor plan. When you're done, you can deduct the area of the bathroom, since you don't want to carpet that room. To figure out the total area of the floor plan, you'll need to know the total length and width. The total length of the floor plan shown above is 12 feet plus 10 feet, or 22 feet. The total width is 7 feet plus 5 feet, or 12 feet. Plug these numbers into your equation to get the total area of the floor plan:
A = 22 feet x 12 feet
A = 264 square feet
The total area of your floor plan is 264 square feet. Now you need to figure out the area of the bathroom so you can deduct it from the total area. The bathroom is 7 feet long and 5 feet wide, so it has an area of 35 square feet. Deducting the area of the bathroom from the total area (264 minus 35) leaves you with 229 square feet to carpet.
Figuring area: Circles
Calculating how much carpet you'll need is a fairly simple task if your home has only square or rectangular rooms. But what if you have a circular alcove at the end of one room? How do you figure the area of a circle? Geometry comes to the rescue again with a handy formula:
A = (pi) x r2
In English, this formula means "area equals pi times the radius squared." A circle's radius is one half of its diameter, or one half of what you get if you measure all the way across its widest part. "Squaring" something means you multiply it by itself. Pi is a number that roughly equals 3.14159.
 
If your living room has a semi-circular alcove as shown in the floor plan above, you'll need to use this additional equation to figure out its area. To figure the radius of your alcove, the number you'll need to plug into the equation, you'll divide its diameter in half. Its diameter is the same as the width of the living room: 12 feet. Half of that is its radius: 6 feet.
Let's plug in the numbers:
A = 3.14159 x (6 feet x 6 feet)
A = 113 square feet (rounded to the closest square foot)
If your alcove were a complete circle, it would have an area of 113 square feet. Because it's a half circle, its area is half of that, or 56.5 square feet. Adding 56.5 square feet to the rest of your floor plan's area of 229 square feet gives you the total area you want to carpet: 285.5 square feet. Using geometry, you can buy exactly the amount of carpet you need.


4
BCS Cadre / How math will help us in our daily life
« on: November 18, 2012, 03:39:48 PM »
Population Growth
   
   
In the last few centuries, the number of people living on Earth has increased many times over. By the year 2000, there will be 10 times more people on Earth than there were 300 years ago.
How can population grow so fast? Think of a family tree. At the top are 2 parents, and beneath them the children they had. Listed beneath those children are the children they had, and so on and so on, down through each generation. As long as the family members continue to reproduce, the family tree continues to increase in size, getting larger with each passing generation. This same basic idea applies to the world's population.
Exponential growth
Population grows in the same way that money grows when it's left to compound interest in a bank. With money, growth comes through accumulating interest upon interest. The interest payments you accumulate eventually earn interest, increasing your money. With population growth, new members of the population eventually produce other new members of the population. The population increases exponentially as time passes.
________________________________________WORLD POPULATION
    Year       Population   
    1700       600,000,000   
    1800       900,000,000   
    1900       1,500,000,000   
    2000       6,000,000,000   
________________________________________
A crucial difference between money and population is that money can increase without limits while population can't. Any population of living creatures is constrained by the availability of food, water, land, or other important resources. Once those resources are depleted, a population won't continue to grow exponentially. It will plateau, or even decline, as a result of disease or malnutrition. Unlike calculating interest, calculating population growth is an imprecise business.
How fast will it grow?
To arrive at a reasonable estimate of how the world's population will grow in the next 50 years, you need to look at birth and death rates (the rates at which people are being born and dying in any given period). If birth and death rates stayed the same across the years in all parts of the world, population growth could be figured with a fairly simple formula much like the one used to figure compound interest. Birth and death rates aren't constant across countries and through time, however. Disease or disaster can cause death rates to increase for a certain period. A booming economy might mean higher birth rates for a given year.
The rate of Earth's population growth is slowing down. Throughout the 1960s, the world's population was growing at a rate of about 2% per year. By 1990, that rate was down to 1.5%, and by the year 2015, it's expected to drop to 1%. Family planning initiatives, an aging population, and the effects of diseases such as AIDS are some of the factors behind this rate decrease.
Even at these very low rates of population growth, the numbers are staggering. By 2015, despite a low expected 1% growth rate, experts estimate there will be 7 billion people on the planet. By 2050, there may be as many as 10 billion people living on Earth. Can the planet support this population? When will we reach the limit of our resources?


5
Faculty Sections / Mathematics help in Savings and credits
« on: November 13, 2012, 02:25:07 PM »


   
Do you avoid gambling on the stock market or at a casino because you fear heavy financial losses? You may be surprised to hear that you're just as likely to lose money because of your everyday banking decisions. Many people collect only 1 to 3% interest on money in a savings account while simultaneously paying rates as high as 18 to 20% on credit card balances. Over time, this can mean some pretty heavy losses.

With some math smarts and an understanding of simple and compound interest, you can manage the way your money grows (and ideally keep it from shrinking). The principles of simple and compound interest are the same whether you're calculating your earnings from a savings account or the fees you've accumulated on a credit card. Paying a little attention to these principles could mean big payoffs over time.
Understanding the basics
When you put money in a savings account, the bank pays you interest according to what you deposit. In effect, the bank is paying you for the privilege of "borrowing" your money. The same is true for the interest you pay on a loan you take from the bank or the money you "borrow" from a credit card.
Interest is expressed as a rate, such as 3% or 18%. The dollar amount of the interest you earn on a savings account is figured by multiplying the money you deposit (called the principal) by the rate of interest. If you have $100 in an account that pays only 1% interest, you'll only earn $1 in interest. If you shop around for an account that pays 5% interest, you'll earn five times that amount.
In banking, interest is calculated and added at the end of a certain time period. You might have a savings account that offers a 3% interest rate annually. At the end of each year, the bank multiplies the principal (the amount in the account) by the interest rate of 3% to compute what you have earned in interest.
Interest on interest: Compounding
There are two basic kinds of interest: simple and compound. Simple interest is figured once. If you loaned $300 to a friend for one month and charged her 1% interest ($3) at the end of the month, you'd be dealing with simple interest. Compound interest is a little different. With compound interest, the money you earn in interest becomes part of the principal, and also starts to earn interest. If you loaned that same friend $300 for one month but charged her 1% each day until the end of the month, you'd be using compound interest. At the end of the first day, she would owe you $303. At the end of the second day, she would owe you $306.03. At the end of the third day, she would owe you $309.09, and so on.
Compound interest is what makes credit cards and loans so difficult to pay off. The rules of interest are the same ones that increase your savings over time, only with credit and debt, they're in the bank's favor—not in yours. With some rates as high as 21%, collecting interest on credit card loans can be a lucrative business.

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Departments / How math will help us in our daily life
« on: November 13, 2012, 02:13:15 PM »
When you buy a car, follow a recipe, or decorate your home, you're using math principles. People have been using these same principles for thousands of years, across countries and continents. Whether you're sailing a boat off the coast of Japan or building a house in Peru, you're using math to get things done.
How can math be so universal? First, human beings didn't invent math concepts; we discovered them. Also, the language of math is numbers, not English or German or Russian. If we are well versed in this language of numbers, it can help us make important decisions and perform everyday tasks. Math can help us to shop wisely, buy the right insurance, remodel a home within a budget, understand population growth, or even bet on the horse with the best chance of winning the race.
Join us as we explore how math can help us in our daily lives. In this exhibit, you'll look at the language of numbers through common situations, such as playing games or cooking. Put your decision-making skills to the test by deciding whether buying or leasing a new car is right for you, and predict how much money you can save for your retirement by using an interest calculator

7
 

Look around you, it is amazing. Skyscrapers, gravity, daisies, peaches, archipelagos, children, languages, music, wars, phosphorous, galaxies, snow, literature, human existence.
We live in such a breathtaking environment that is full of magic and wonder. Although we can feel intense sadness, profound happiness can be just around the corner. One step away. One thought away. One kiss away. Sources for joy are literally everywhere, one just has to overlook all of the negative things trying to cover them up.
The world conspires for you to be happy, not unhappy. It is all a matter of perspective, of stepping back and taking a good look at the world around you. How can you ever be bored, depressed, frustrated, annoyed or jealous in a world of such infinite possibility?
Are you discontent with your current situation? Then change it. Move elsewhere. Do something else. Befriend other people. This world is not a single plane, it is vast and varied and waiting to be experienced.
If today is not a good day, wake up tomorrow and start a better day. Better yet, close your eyes for one minute and open then looking for the beauty, the complexity, the awesomeness that is this Universe. Forget the ugliness, the adversity, the vacuous nature that so many impose upon the world around them for those details are not worth paying attention to, nor remembering.
What good do negative thoughts and actions serve? They only hurt, cramp and suppress positivity. It is only with optimism, altruism and compassion that this world can be cured of its ills. Judgement, hatred, egotism, bitterness and despair only bring more evil into a world already riddled with problems. Even a very small amount of a good can spread exponentially because it is so much more rare than bad in this universe.
Regarding good, people are the ultimate source of it. Every single human being is completely different with their own flaws, skills, experiences, secrets, and dreams. Every man and woman holds inside of themselves a story so infinitely interesting that it could never be told completely in a film, book or conversation. People cannot be defined as ignorant, pretty, selfish, purple, happy or conservative. Every person is a unique being shaped by the infinite amount of variables that our Earth-bound existences offer us. The Earth is a museum and we all are the art within it. Study all of the art regardless of its shape, color or texture and you will gain a greater understanding of the museum.
Life is what you make of it. Life is perception: sight, taste, smell, sound and touch. Reality depends upon the intensity and angle with which light hits our eyes. Reality sounds only because of the way our brains decipher the vibrations of the air around us. That same air is only felt because of the stimulation of our nerve endings and the subsequent signals to our brains. We are told only what is around us, it is our job to actually interpret that information. A “negative” sensory input can be a source of anguish, or simply an inspiration to change everything and attract more positive inputs. It is up to you, and you alone. No one thing or one person can decide or influence how you feel. That is completely up to you. Decide to be happy about life and you will remain that way. It is your perception, so why not make it a positive perception?
We live in a beautiful world. It is time that you see the beauty. It is ever-pervading and impossible to miss unless your eyes are closed. So open your them.
http://www.highexistence.com/we-live-in-a-beautiful-world/

8
Science Discussion Forum / 101 Simple Truths We Often Forget
« on: January 17, 2012, 08:05:24 PM »
 
Sometimes we find ourselves running in place, struggling to get ahead simply because we forget to address some of the simple truths that govern our potential to make progress.  So here’s a quick reminder:
1.The acquisition of knowledge doesn’t mean you’re growing.  Growing happens when what you know changes how you live.
2.You can’t have good ideas unless you’re willing to generate a lot of bad ones.
3.A good idea without action is worth nothing.
4.Change is often resisted when it is needed the most.
5.Discipline is choosing what you want most over what you want right now.  Read The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People .
6.People seldom do things to the best of their ability.  They do things to the best of their willingness.
7.You can’t change other people; you can only offer guidance, and lead by example.
8.Right now, there’s a lot you don’t know.  And if you never challenge your own beliefs, the list will never shrink.
9.If you’re talking to someone you don’t know well, you may be talking to someone who knows way more about the topic of conversation than you do.
10.The most common and harmful addiction in the world is the draw of comfort.
11.Growth begins at the end of your comfort zone.  Stepping outside of your comfort zone will put things into perspective from an angle you can’t grasp now.
12.When you spend time worrying, you’re simply using your imagination to create things you don’t want.
13.It’s usually only as good or bad as you think it is.  Most of what we see is only what we think about what we see.
14.Most of the bad things you worry about will never happen.  Most of the bad things that do happen will have never have crossed your worried mind.
15.Some circumstances are uncontrollable, but we can always decide how we react to those circumstances.
16.Those who complain the most, accomplish the least.
17.Whenever somebody discredits you, and tells you that you can’t do something, keep in mind that they are speaking from within the boundaries of their own limitations.
18.Every problem you have in your life right now is your responsibility, regardless of who initially caused it.
19.It’s not so much about finding opportunities as it is about creating them.
20.Having a plan, even a flawed one at first, is better than no plan at all.
21.Paving your own road is intelligent only if nobody has gone exactly where you are going.
22.What you do every day matters more than what you do every once in a while.
23.What you don’t start today won’t be finished by tomorrow.
24.If you’re waiting for the perfect conditions, ideas or plans to get started, you’ll never achieve anything.
25.Doing something and getting it wrong is at least ten times more productive than doing nothing.
26.Putting something off makes it instantly harder and scarier.
27.You cannot change what you refuse to confront.
28.If you keep doing what you’re doing, you’ll keep getting what you’re getting.
29.The harder you work, the luckier you will become.
30.Kindness and hard work together will always carry you farther than intelligence.
31.Lots of successful people have failed as many times as they have succeeded.
32.Failures are simply lessons that help you prepare for next time.
33.Being successful is a journey, not a destination.
34.To be successful does not mean you have to dominate others; it means you have to dominate your own potential.
35.Your success isn’t just about you.  It’s about how you positively impact the lives around you.
36.Being busy and being productive are two different things.
37.Being happy and being successful are two different things.
38.You have every right to be happy, but it’s up to YOU and only YOU to exercise that right.  Read Stumbling on Happiness .
39.Everyone you meet is better than you at something.  We all have different strengths.  What worked for someone else might not work for you.
40.When you’re worried about what others think of you, you’re really just worried about what you think of yourself.
41.The bad news: nothing is permanent.  The good news: nothing is permanent.
42.You don’t have to settle.  It’s simply a choice you make every day.  If you don’t like your life, then it’s time to start making changes and better choices.
43.There’s no such thing as ‘risk free.’  Everything you do or don’t do has an inherent risk.
44.No matter how smart you are, you will make mistakes.
45.Problems, when they arise, are rarely as painful and hurtful as the process of fearing them.
46.Confusion isn’t a bad thing.  It means you’re growing and thinking.
47.Just because you can doesn’t mean you should.
48.In the beginning, you need to say “yes” to a lot of things to discover and establish your goals.  Later on, you need to say “no” to a lot of things and concentrate on your goals.
49.Even if it doesn’t cost any money, it’s not free if it takes up your time.
50.No matter how you make a living or who you think you work for, you only work for one person, yourself.  The big question is:  What are you selling, and to whom?
51.Money makes life easier only when it’s yours free and clear.  The stress of financial debt can change a person.
52.The fewer possessions you own, the more you will use and enjoy them.
53.Life is not easy, especially when you plan on achieving something worthwhile.
54.There is good reason why you should wake each morning and mindfully consider what and who you will give your day to:  Because unlike other things in life - love, money, respect, good health, hope, opportunities, and many more - time is the one thing you can never get back once it’s gone.
55.Cutting your losses is often better than the alternative.
56.We sometimes do things that are permanently foolish just because we are temporarily upset.
57.Screaming at people always makes things worse.
58.Everyone likes a person who gets straight to the point.
59.First impressions are oftentimes inaccurate judgments of a person’s true character.
60.When you’re up, your friends know who you are.  When you’re down, you know who your friends are.
61.If someone wants you in their life, they’ll make room for you.  You shouldn’t have to fight for a spot.
62.When someone truly loves you, they don’t ever have to say a word.  You will be able to tell simply by the way they treat you over the long-term.
63.We rarely lose friends, we usually just figure out who our real ones are.
64.Just because one person doesn’t seem to care for you, doesn’t mean you should forget about everyone else who does.
65.Family isn’t always blood.  They’re the people in your life who want you in theirs – the ones who would do anything to see you smile and who love you no matter what.
66.Good looks attracts the eyes.  Personality attracts the heart.
67.In human relationships, distance is not measured in miles but in affection.  Two people can be right next to each other, yet miles apart.
68.Being nice to someone you dislike doesn’t mean you’re fake.  It means you’re mature enough to control your emotions.
69.If you aren’t happy being single, you won’t be happy in a relationship.  You have to create your own life first before you can share it with someone else.
70.Whenever you hate someone or something, you are giving that person or thing a piece of your heart.  Read The Road Less Traveled .
71.Life is too short to spend time with people who suck the happiness out of you.
72.It’s better to be alone than to be in bad company.
73.Saying “no” to right people gives you the time and resources required to say “yes” to right opportunities.
74.When you stop chasing the wrong things you give the right things a chance to catch you.
75.You can raise the bar or you can wait for others to raise it.  Either way, it’s getting raised.
76.In life you get what you put in.  If you want love, give love.  If you want friends, be friendly.  If you want money, provide value.  It really is this simple.
77.Cynicism might seem warranted at times, but it’s never useful.
78.Everyone dies, some sooner than later, and often unexpectedly.  To know this means you are alive, with a chance to make the time you have left count.
79.You are in competition with one person and one person only – yourself.  You are competing to be the best you can be.
80.Trying to be somebody you’re not is a sure path to self-hate, and a waste of the person you are.
81.It’s better to be disliked for who you are than to be liked for who you are not.
82.Giving up doesn’t always mean you’re weak, sometimes it means you are strong enough and smart enough to let go.
83.Sometimes you need to distance yourself to see things clearly.
84.You can’t make the same exact mistake twice. The second time you make it, it’s no longer a mistake, it’s a choice.
85.Not getting what you want is sometimes a wonderful stroke of luck.
86.You never have to deal with more than one moment at a time.
87.Many of the greatest lessons we learn in life we don’t seek on purpose.
88.You have to fight through some bad days to earn the best days of your life.
89.A harsh fact of life:  Bad things do happen to good people.
90.Regardless of the situation, the sun rises the next day and life goes on.
91.You never know how strong you really are until being strong is the only choice you have.
92.We end up regretting the things you did NOT do far more than the things you did.
93.We meet no ordinary people in our lives.  If you give them a chance, everyone has something amazing to offer.
94.Every passing face on the street represents a story every bit as compelling and complicated as yours.
95.People are not as beautiful as they look, as they walk, or as they talk.  They are only as beautiful as they love, as they care, and as they share.
96.Silence is often the loudest cry.  So pay attention to those you care about.
97.Making one person smile can change the world.  Maybe not the whole world, but their world.
98.Blowing out another’s candle will not make yours shine brighter.
99.No matter how many mistakes you make or how slow you progress, you are still way ahead of everyone who isn’t trying.
100.Things turn out best for people who make the best out of the way things turn out.
101.Life is short.  If there was ever a moment to follow your passion and do something that matters to you, that moment is now.

http://www.marcandangel.com/2012/01/15/101-simple-truths-we-often-forget/

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Science Discussion Forum / How To Achieve The Impossible
« on: January 17, 2012, 07:54:59 PM »

How To Achieve The Impossible
 
The impossible is what nobody can do until somebody does.
Teleportation is the new air travel.  Humans can walk on water.  And there is a cure for cancer.  These things will happen eventually because, quite simply, the nature of progression dictates that they must happen.  And because there are people on this planet who believe they can make them happen.
Are you one of these people?
3 Short Stories on Achieving the Impossible
When I was a high school freshman, a 260 pound freshman girl showed up for track and field try-outs.  Her name was Sara, and she was only there because her doctor said her health depended on it.  But once she scanned the crowd of students who were trying-out, she turned around and began walking away. Coach O’Leary saw her, jogged over, and turned her back around.  “I’m not thin enough for this sport!” Sara declared.  “And I’ll never be!  It’s impossible for me to lose enough weight.  I’ve tried.”  Coach O’Leary nodded, and promised Sara that her body type wasn’t suited for her current weight.  “It’s suited for 220 pounds,” he said.  Sara looked confused.  “Most people tell me I need to lose 130 pounds,” she replied.  “But you think I only need to lose 40?”  Coach O’Leary nodded again.  Sara started off as a shot put competitor, but spent every single afternoon running and training with the rest of the track team.  She was very competitive, and by the end of our freshman year she was down to 220 pounds.  She also won 2nd place in the county-wide shot put tournament that year.  Three years later, during our senior year, she won 3rd place in the 10K run.  Her competitive weight at the time was 130 pounds.
When Charles Darwin wrote The Origin of Species , which proposed the groundbreaking idea of evolution by natural selection, it launched a worldwide debate.  Supporters included scientists, historians, and others whose professions and worldviews required that they carefully analyze new ideas and adopt those that seemed to make sense.  Critics included theologians, conservative extremists, and others who were convinced that the current explanation of our ancestry was the only possible explanation.  This group of people, the ones who refused to accept the possibility of new ideas, eventually alienated themselves from the debate, and arguably failed to assist in the progression of mankind.  The people who didn’t blindly reject evolution, who instead questioned it, researched it, and sought to explore its possibilities, were able to achieve previously impossible feats by making important advances in various fields of study from sociology to history to medicine.
When Sergey Brin and Larry Page founded Google, they had absolutely no intention of building the most powerful Internet-based company in the world.  In the mid 1990’s the Internet was already saturated with hundreds of established search engine companies like Yahoo, Lycos, and Alta Vista.  Competing and succeeding in such a competitive environment seemed impossible to them.  So instead, they tried to sell their search technology to these companies.  And although Google, with its PageRank algorithm and efficient scaling, was clearly more cutting-edge than any search technology currently in place, none of these established companies wanted to get their hands dirty with Google’s new technology.  So after exhausting their options, Brin and Page decided to release Google to the public and directly compete with the biggest names in the business.  As we know, they blew them out of the water.
‘Impossible’ is Simply a State of Mind
If we can find the patience to see the world for what it is – dynamic, flexible, and loaded with untapped potential – and if we can accept the fact that change is an inevitable and brilliant part of life, then we can partake in the thrill of progression, and help shape a world in which the impossible becomes possible.
To achieve the impossible, we must first understand that the ‘state of impossible’ is simply a ‘state of mind.’  Nothing is truly impossible.  Impossibility only exists when we lack the proper knowledge and experience to comprehend how something can be possible.
Sara was convinced that it was impossible to lose weight because, in her past experience, it had never worked-out the way she had hoped.  19th-century theologians laughed at Charles Darwin’s theories because his theories didn’t come from the Bible, which, at the time, was their sole source of knowledge and truth.  Google’s old competitors didn’t recognize the next big thing when it was offered to them on a silver platter.  Why?  Because they didn’t want to bother with a new technology that they didn’t fully understand.  This ultimately forced Google’s Brin and Page to achieve their version of the ‘impossible.’
Conclusion
When people say something is impossible, what they really mean is, “I can’t imagine how it could be possible.”  But with more knowledge and experience, they’d begin to realize that anything is possible, it just takes a change in mindset.  Because ‘impossible’ is what we get when we haven’t trained our minds and our hearts to see past the systems that currently exist to ones that don’t yet exist.
So let’s start the training our minds and our hearts, today, so we can turn today’s impossibility into tomorrow’s possibility.
http://www.marcandangel.com/2009/09/07/how-to-achieve-the-impossible/

10
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a design tool that has been developed over the past few decades and will be continually developed as the understanding of the physical and chemical phenomena underlying CFD theory improves. The goals of CFD are to be able to accurately predict fluid flow, heat transfer and chemical reactions in complex systems, which involve one or all of these phenomena. Presently, CFD is being increasingly employed by many industries either to reduce manufacturing design cycles or to provide an insight into existing technologies so that they may be analyzed and improved. Examples of such industries include power generation, aerospace, process industries, automotive, chemical engineering and construction. As a design tool, CFD presently sits behind experimental analysis due to the fact that CFD does not produce absolute results. The reason for this is that the numerical methods, which govern the solutions in a CFD problem, rely on several modeling assumptions that may not have been validated to a satisfactory level. However, CFD presently offers itself as a powerful design tool and even more so in the future because:
(a) Dangerous or expensive trial and error experiments can be simulated and
design parameters observed prior to any physical prototype being constructed;
(b) Computers are becoming even more powerful and less expensive, thus
allowing larger CFD simulations to be calculated, or more detailed  simulations of present CFD problems;
(c) The numerical schemes and physical models that are the building blocks of
CFD are continually improving.
(d) If a CFD model can be established yielding accurate results on one particular design, then the model can be used as a tool of prediction for that design under many different operating conditions.



Source:
Computational Fluid www.leeds.ac.uk/cfd

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