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1
English / And the runners-up of the Oxford Word of the Year 2018 are...
« on: January 05, 2019, 12:02:11 PM »
Word of the Year 2018: shortlist
Big Dick Energy (BDE)
[/b]An attitude of understated and casual confidence

 Big Dick Energy – or BDE, for short – fast became the 2018 descriptor du jour after an exchange on Twitter toward the end of June captured the online community’s imagination.

In a now-deleted tweet, pop icon Ariana Grande appeared to comment on the physical endowment of her then fiancé, comedian Pete Davidson. Amid the flurry of responses, Twitter user @babyvietcong used the phrase ‘exudes big dick energy’ in a joking character analysis of Davidson and the tweet promptly went viral.


Tina⚔️
@babyvietcong
 Pete davidson is 6’3 with dark circles, exudes big dick energy, looks evil but apparently is an angel, and loves his girl publicly the only thing wrong w him is that he’s a scorpio but anyway.....id married him within a month too


The term itself appears to have been coined by another Twitter user, @imbobswaget, who published a tweet eulogizing the irreverently brilliant celebrity chef Anthony Bourdain, identifying him as a possessor of ‘big dick energy’. In doing so, @imbobswaget put a name to this phenomenon and, together with @babyvietcong, inspired a host of commentary speculating as to who, truly, exudes BDE.

Though the term has its roots in the perceived confidence of the well-endowed, BDE is by no means exclusive to those with male genitalia; many women, such as Rihanna, Serena Williams, and Cate Blanchett, are among those identified as having this low-key, self-assured poise.

Consequentially, BDE has evolved from teasing entertainment to the subject of much discussion around gender in 2018. Brigid Delaney, writing for The Guardian, called it ‘in some ways … the opposite of toxic masculinity’, while Alex Abad-Santos and Constance Grady summed up the BDE hype for Vox, saying: ‘as we sort various members of society into those who have BDE and those who don’t, it ultimately says a lot about us and what we value.’

 Cakeism
Primarily a word used in the UK, cakeism is the belief that it is possible to enjoy or take advantage of both of two desirable but mutually exclusive alternatives at once.

A new, highly politicized layer has been added to the British’s well-known love of cake, as over the past two years ‘cake’ has become the enduring metaphor for discussion of the terms under which Great Britain will leave the European Union. 2018 has seen the neologism Cakeism come into its own.

Riffing off the proverb ‘you can’t have your cake and eat it (too)’, the idea that Britain could both have its cake and eat it – namely, retain all the perks of EU membership with none of the drawbacks of leaving – became something of a rallying cry for the pro-Brexit faction of the British government after the EU referendum in June 2016. However, it soon drew considerable public ire when a Conservative MP’s aide was photographed leaving Downing Street in November 2016 with notes reading: ‘What’s the model? Have cake & eat it.’

The metaphor endured, though it increasingly became more a vehicle for criticism than the initial optimistic grandstanding. The subsequent ‘ism’-ing of this philosophy solidified its place in the Brexit lexicon.

While earlier, one-off examples of the word can be found, the first known use of Cakeism in this context is claimed by Bonnie Greer, a writer for The New European, whose article entitled ‘The delusions of Cakeism’ was published on 15 September 2017. Since then, Cakeism has become the go-to critique for Britain’s negotiating position, with one senior EU official calling Theresa May’s 2 March 2018 landmark speech on Britain’s future economic partnership with the EU ‘still in the world of Cakeism’.

Carrying over the connotations but changing the context, this year we are beginning to see examples of the word Cakeism used in other industries, one being ‘climate cakeism’ in the insurance industry – the desire to tackle climate risks while continuing to invest in carbon intensive assets.

Gammon

Typically used in the UK as a derogatory term for an older middle-class white man whose face becomes flushed due to anger when expressing political (typically right-wing) opinions.

Gammon, the traditional British pub grub served with pineapple or a fried egg (or both, if you’re lucky) has had something of a renaissance in 2018 – though not due to any sudden food fads. Thanks to parallels drawn between the fleshy, pink meat and the visages of older, white men flushed in anger, gammon has become a derogatory term in political circles.

This usage can be traced back to the night of the UK general election in 2017, when children’s author Ben Davis jokingly tweeted a photoset of nine men from the audience of BBC panel show Question Time – in which politicians and other guests answer topical questions posed by the public – calling it ‘this Great Wall of gammon’.


Ben Davis
@bendavis_86
 Whatever happens, hopefully politicians will start listening to young ppl after this. This Great Wall of gammon has had its way long enough.


The term was later picked up by left-wing activists and weaponized, with many viewing gammon as an answer to insults hurled by right-wing opponents, such as ‘snowflake’ and ‘remoaner’. In May 2018, gammon rapidly gathered steam, with Davis' relatively old tweet gaining thousands of retweets, propelling the insult into the mainstream consciousness and gaining widespread media coverage. Subsequently, debate arose as to whether gammon could be considered a racist term because of its basis on skin colour, and what was once said in jest became a political hot potato.

Linguistically, the development of gammon has been of particular interest over the last year for its use as a countable form, i.e. ‘a gammon’, which is unusual to see in the original, literal meaning of an emerging sense.

Gaslighting verb
The action of manipulating someone by psychological means into accepting a false depiction of reality or doubting their own sanity.

In 2018, the term gaslighting emerged from the psychotherapist’s notebook to feature widely in discussions across the public realm, aided in part by growing public sensitivity to the importance of mental health and wellbeing.

Gaslighting is not a new word, but comes from the 1938 play Gas Light by Patrick Hamilton – made famous by the subsequent Oscar -winning 1944 film of the same title starring Ingrid Bergman – in which a man manipulates his wife into believing that she is going insane. The title, from which the concept takes its name, is a reference to the husband’s insistence that the woman is imagining the gas lights brightening and dimming, when in reality this is part of his machinations.

In June 2018, gaslighting hit UK headlines when domestic abuse charity Women’s Aid said a contestant on the reality television show Love Island exhibited ‘clear warning signs’ for this pattern of emotional abuse, with other commentators describing the behaviour as ‘textbook gaslighting’. The word surfaced again in media circles during the year’s Strictly Come Dancing scandal, with one contestant’s then partner accusing him of engaging in gaslighting behaviour ‘countless times’ in an open letter published on Twitter.

The concept has also been applied to political contexts this year, with the term used extensively of President Donald Trump; his frequent assertions that the media are spreading 'fake news', and implications that his administration is the sole arbiter of truth, have led to Trump's presidency of the United States being compared to an abusive relationship. The term has also been applied to the Conservative government's treatment of the issue of Brexit with the UK public, and has even taken root in India, becoming part of the lexicon in the wake of the country’s own #MeToo movement, notably in discussions of campus culture at universities.

However, some psychologists are not encouraged by this increased international awareness of the dangers of gaslighting, warning that overuse of the term could dilute its potency and downplay the serious health consequences – like PTSD and depression – of such abuse.

Incel noun
An incel is a member of an online community of young men who consider themselves unable to attract women sexually.  Typically, they hold views that are hostile towards men and women who are sexually active. 

 Incel, short for ‘involuntary celibate’, is used as a self-descriptor by members of an online subculture who deem themselves chronically unable to attract romantic or sexual partners.

Brought together on internet forums such as Reddit, these men hold that it is women who are to blame for their forced celibacy by ‘withholding’ sex. The online spaces where incels communicate – such as the /r/Incels subreddit, which had reached 40,000 members when the forum banned it in November 2017 – have consequently become hotbeds for the incitement of violent misogyny.                                                           

The term itself was originally coined over twenty years ago by a woman named Alana – in fact, Alana first proposed ‘invcel’ before shifting to the more easily pronounceable incel – who started a website for lonely men and women struggling to find love: Alana’s Involuntary Celibacy Project. Of course, in founding this innocent lonely hearts’ club, Alana could have no idea that the word would go on to be co-opted by a decidedly darker set and virulently radicalized online.

While such hate groups have existed online for years, it was in April 2018 that incel made front-page news worldwide; a man named Alek Minassian deliberately drove a van into pedestrians on a crowded Toronto street, killing 10 people and wounding 14 others. It was discovered that shortly before the horrific attack, Minassian had shared ‘The Incel Rebellion has already begun!’ in a now-deleted Facebook post, and namechecked Elliot Rodger, the perpetrator of the 2014 Isla Vista killings. Rodger, who has since been idolized by incel groups, described his own killing spree as a ‘Day of Retribution’ in a lengthy manifesto detailing his loathing of women and the society that ‘denied’ him.

Orbiting
Orbiting is the action of abruptly withdrawing from direct communication with someone while still monitoring, and sometimes responding to, their activity on social media.

The new dating buzzword for 2018, orbiting was coined by Anna Iovine in an article for the Man Repeller blog in which she described a burgeoning relationship that abruptly ended due to an all but complete withdrawal by her would-be suitor – who nevertheless persisted in engaging with Iovine’s social media profiles.

Iovine dubbed the experience orbiting after a colleague ‘poetically described this phenomenon as a former suitor '‘keeping you in their orbit” – close enough to see each other; far enough never to talk.’ The phenomenon’s ubiquity ensured the term’s rapid spread on social media, striking a chord with many twenty-first-century daters.

Unlike ‘ghosting’, in which one party in the relationship disappears without a trace, orbiting is unique to the social media age as the so-called orbiters ‘like’ and comment on posts, watch ‘stories’ on apps such as Instagram and Snapchat, or generally maintain an online presence in the subject’s life without any promise of meaningful interaction.

The naming of the practice this year has opened up debate as to whether orbiting can be considered a consciously manipulative power play or is merely symptomatic of the fast-paced, public-facing, keep-your-options-open world of modern dating.

Overtourism
An excessive number of tourist visits to a popular destination or attraction, resulting in damage to the local environment and historical sites and in poorer quality of life for residents.

A booming tourist trade has long been considered a highly valuable asset, however, for many, this outlook reached its limit in 2018.

Overtourism has become a heavy burden for numerous ‘must-see’ locations in recent years, with a sharp rise in international holidaymakers fuelled by budget airlines and the widespread popularity of rental platforms, like AirBnB. The resultant overcrowding has caused environmental, infrastructural, and cultural damage to a number of destinations, and directly impacted local residents’ lives as they are priced out of their homes to accommodate the tourist demand.

According to our data, use of overtourism shot up over the course of 2017, thanks in part to mass protests across Europe demanding action against the overtourism pandemic, and has subsequently emerged in 2018 as the go-to term, surpassing both ‘anti-tourism’ and ‘tourism-phobia’, which have been used to similar effect.

This year, local authorities have put increasingly stringent measures in place to regulate tourism, including rental restrictions on tourist lets in Madrid, fines for sitting in undesignated spots (along with many other offences) in Venice, and capping the number of cruise ships permitted to dock in Dubrovnik.

Meanwhile, in June, Thailand’s Maya Bay was closed to the public 18 years after it was made famous by the 2000 film The Beach due to the damage excessive numbers of tourists had inflicted on the local ecosystem. Though the closure was only intended to last four months, Songtham Sukswang, director of Thailand’s Office of National Parks, has suggested that the bay will need ‘at least’ one year to recover from the effects of overtourism.

Techlash
A strong and widespread negative reaction to the growing power and influence of large technology companies, particularly those based in Silicon Valley.

Once hailed as society’s heroes, the tech giants we know and (used to) love have been braced for the oncoming techlash for several years now, but in 2018 the storm truly hit.

A portmanteau comprising ‘technology’ and ‘backlash’, the term techlash seems to have originated in the title of an article published by The Economist in November 2013, although – as often seen in the initial blending of words – the word appears hyphenated here, only later settling into its one-word state.

From the very beginning of the year, the top tier of tech has taken a battering as philanthropist George Soros attacked the monopolistic ‘menace’ of Facebook and Google at the World Economic Forum in January, and, along with Salesforce CEO Marc Benioff, called for increased regulation of tech products – Benioff even likening tech to tobacco, saying ‘technology has addictive qualities we have to address’.

Data privacy – or rather, the lack thereof – has taken a central role in this techlash as the Cambridge Analytica scandal, which saw millions of people’s data harvested from Facebook and utilized by paying political campaigns to influence voters on both sides of the Atlantic, fundamentally undermined the public’s confidence in the tech industry’s ethics and ability to govern its creations.

Neither Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg’s testimony before the United States Senate, nor the stringent, Europe-wide General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) laws coming into force in May, managed to quell concerns over data privacy and the long-reaching implications for our democracy, and instead arguably served to further the public’s distaste for all things ‘data’.

This attitude has seen action taken in 2018’s growing trend of young people giving up social media – either taking a temporary break or making a more permanent cut – as such concerns over their data privacy, along with its impact on mental health, supersede the desire to be online.

Whether fears over data privacy, disinformation, anti-competitive practices, and tech’s impact on mental health can be abated by measures like Apple’s new Screen Time software or regulations like GDPR remains to be seen, but the widespread adoption of the word techlash this year indicates that the issue is at the forefront of public consciousness.

2
English / The Oxford Word of the Year 2018 is…
« on: January 05, 2019, 11:56:15 AM »
The Oxford Word of the Year 2018 is… toxic.

The adjective toxic is defined as ‘poisonous’ and first appeared in English in the mid-seventeenth century from the medieval Latin toxicus, meaning ‘poisoned’ or ‘imbued with poison’.

But the word’s deadly history doesn’t start there. The medieval Latin term was in turn borrowed from the Latin toxicum, meaning ‘poison’, which has its origins in the Greek toxikon pharmakon – lethal poison used by the ancient Greeks for smearing on the points of their arrows. Interestingly, it is not pharmakon, the word for poison, that made the leap into Latin here, but toxikon, which comes from the Greek word for ‘bow’, toxon.

Why was toxic chosen as Word of the Year?

The Oxford Word of the Year is a word or expression that is judged to reflect the ethos, mood, or preoccupations of the passing year, and have lasting potential as a term of cultural significance.

In 2018, toxic added many strings to its poisoned bow becoming an intoxicating descriptor for the year’s most talked about topics. It is the sheer scope of its application, as found by our research, that made toxic the stand-out choice for the Word of the Year title.

Our data shows that, along with a 45% rise in the number of times it has been looked up on oxforddictionaries.com, over the last year the word toxic has been used in an array of contexts, both in its literal and more metaphorical senses.

Drawn from our corpus, the top 10 toxic collocates for the year – that is, words habitually used alongside toxic – are indicative of this.

Top 10 ‘toxic’ collocates in 2018
by absolute frequency

Chemical
Masculinity
Substance
Gas
Environment
Relationship
Culture
Waste
Algae
Air
Sourced from the Oxford corpus

Beyond the more usual substance warnings, this year toxic chemical has had particular significance as the nerve agent poisoning of a former Russian intelligence officer and his daughter in Britain sent shockwaves around the globe. Ongoing international attention to the case, including rising concern over who has access to the world’s toxic chemical stockpiles, ensured that ‘chemical’ topped the list of words most frequently seen alongside toxic in 2018.

Similarly literal and deadly are toxic substance, toxic gas, and toxic waste, with the latter especially becoming a focal point as the US seeks to combat the spread of toxic waste in the wake of hurricanes and people speak out against businesses burning toxic waste, notably in India.

This burning of toxic waste, resulting in the release of toxic gases, has been identified as one of a number of causes of toxic air. Air pollution has rapidly become a prime public health concern, and global attention reached a high in October 2018 when the World Health Organization published its report into the quality of air breathed by children worldwide. The report described this pollution as toxic air, plainly and potently signifying its poisonous nature, and with the aid of international media coverage, served to consolidate the association of toxicity and poor air quality in our lexicon.

Such pollutants are not only dangerous to our health, but to the health of our environment, and one of the many environmental issues discussed this year has been the toxic algae disaster in Florida, US. Thanks to a central role in the state’s Senate mid-terms race, toxic algae garnered so much commentary that ‘algae’ featured as the ninth-most frequently seen toxic collocate for 2018.

The term toxic environment itself, however, has been more frequently used in reference to harmful workplace environments and the toll this takes on the workforce’s mental health. From overly demanding workloads to outright sexual harassment, many companies have been exposed as crucibles for such toxic culture this year, which has seen mass walkouts at Google, the fashion mogul Philip Green disgraced, and the Speaker of the House of Commons accused of misusing his official powers to cover up allegations of bullying in Westminster.

Toxic relationships are not exclusive to the workplace, however, and whether its partners, parents, or even politicians, this year has seen so much discussion of ‘poisonous’ relationships across our society that ‘relationship’ is the sixth most-seen toxic topic for 2018. One reoccurring element in such discussions has been toxic masculinity.

Our corpus data shows that, after ‘chemical’, ‘masculinity’ is the most-used word in conjunction with toxic this year. With the #MeToo movement putting a cross-industry spotlight on toxic masculinity, and watershed political events like the Brett Kavanaugh Senate judiciary committee hearing sparking international debate, the term toxic masculinity has well and truly taken root in the public consciousness and got people talking in 2018.

https://youtu.be/udOLSkDRjbE

Source: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/word-of-the-year/word-of-the-year-2018

3
Speaking Skill / 13 Ideas for ESL Speaking Activities for Adults
« on: August 14, 2018, 06:02:44 PM »
by RUTHWICKHAM
13 ESL Speaking Activities That Make Adult Students Love to Talk
Ah, to be young again.

Younger ESL students know what’s up. They treat being in ESL class like being on the playground.

Got a couple of bumps and bruises on the jungle gym? Brush yourself off and keep playing, kid.

Made a few English mistakes? Laugh it off and keep chattering away.

And that’s how it should be! ESL class is the perfect place to make English mistakes.

That being said, speaking out loud in front of other people—especially in a second language—can be nerve-wracking for anyone. Youngsters are often less inhibited than adults, so when teaching English speaking lessons to adults, there are some things that we need to bear in mind.

1. Adults, from any cultural background, still like to have “fun,” but their idea of what’s fun may be different from yours.

2. Adults are likely to be more sensitive to the need for dignity, and won’t want to “lose face” in front of others.

Those are a couple of big ones, but there’s still more. Keep reading to find out all you need to know about teaching speaking lessons to your adult ESL students.
 
Download: This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you can take anywhere. Click here to get a copy. (Download)

 
Learn a foreign language with videos
Important Considerations for Teaching Adult ESL Students
If you’re teaching a class overseas (rather than a class with mixed nationalities in your home country), you need to be aware of local sensitivities, especially to appropriateness in mixed gender situations.

While your school may have considered it acceptable to have men and women learning in the same room, you should notice if students have a strong tendency to sit separately based on gender. When you indiscriminately ask them to pair off, you may observe signs of discomfort or even distress in some students.
Sometimes you may notice that the class is silent and attentive when a male student is talking, but students fidget and become talkative when a female student takes her turn at the front.
What can you do about it?

If they have sufficient language skills, you could open up a class discussion about it.
Be flexible when arranging the class, without necessarily letting them become lazy and work with their same favorite partners every time.
There are a few other things to consider about teaching ESL to adult students:

Just because they’re of a mature age doesn’t mean that they necessarily have advanced language skills.
If they’re struggling, it may mean that they’ve forgotten language lessons from earlier school days—we refer to students who have studied English before and later forgotten “false beginners.”
Try not to always link reading skills too closely to speaking skills, because they may be having difficulties with the reading.
They may actually be illiterate (especially if they’re refugees).
They may be literate in a different script but are struggling with English script.
They may have a difficulty such as dyslexia.
No matter the unique challenges facing each adult ESL student, with the right motivation, encouragement and direction they can still learn to improve their English speaking skills.

Strategies for Getting Adult ESL Students to Speak
Students need to speak out loud by themselves and not just follow along in their heads while someone else speaks. It isn’t good enough for them to only mumble along with the crowd as in a drilling exercise.

Here are some possible speaking opportunities that you can provide your students:

Stand up in front of the class and speak. (This is good practice for the speaking part of exams such as IELTS, TOEFL or TOEIC.)
Stand up in front of the class with a partner and present something together.
Be part of a group presenting a drama or role-play in front of the class.
Take part in a whole class discussion or debate. (Make sure everyone participates. Often the quieter students will sit back and not participate in this.)
Be involved in pair work where every student must talk with a partner.
Be involved in small group discussions where individual students are less likely to get left out.
It’s also important to lay the groundwork outside of dedicated speaking activities. While young students are often comfortable diving straight into new tasks, adults may want to see it done first and mentally prepare.

FluentU is a helpful tool for this purpose—it provides authentic English videos that’ve been transformed into level-appropriate language lessons.

FluentU has everything from news clips, to music videos, to inspiring talks and more, all organized from beginner to advanced. Each video comes with interactive captions that students can click for instant definitions and pronunciations, plus flashcards and exercises to help with retention. As an educator, you’ll love the built-in curriculum building and progress tracking tools.

It’s a fun way for students to actively build their English skills while absorbing native-sounding speech. You can use it in-class or, if students have access to mobile devices outside of the classroom, they can take their practice on the go.

13 Ideas for ESL Speaking Activities for Adults
1. Short Talks
Create a stack of topic cards for your students, so that each student will have their own card. Each student draws their card, and then you assign them a time limit—this limit may be one minute initially, or maybe three minutes when they have had practice. This is the amount of time that they’ll have to speak about their given topic.

Now give the students a good chunk of time to gather their thoughts. You may want to give them anywhere from 5 minutes to half an hour for this preparation stage. You can let them write down three to five sentences on a flashcard to remind them of the direction they’ll take in the course of their talk.

To keep listening students focused you could create an instant “Bingo” game. The class is told the topic and asked to write down five words which they might expect to hear (other than common words such as articles, conjunctions and auxiliary verbs). They listen for those words, crossing them off as they hear them and politely raising a hand if they hear all five.

2. Show and Tell
Students can be asked to bring to school an object to show and tell about. This is lots of fun because students will often bring in something that’s meaningful to them or which gives them pride. That means they’ll have plenty to talk about! Encourage students to ask questions about each other’s objects.

Instead of having students bring their own objects, you could provide an object of your own and ask them to try to explain what they think it is and what its purpose is. Another option is to bring in pictures for them to talk about. This could be discussed with a partner or in a group, before presenting ideas in front of the whole class.

Generate a stronger discussion and keep things flowing by asking students open-ended questions.

3. PechaKucha
If your students have laptops (or a computer lab they can use) and are reasonably familiar with presentation software (such as PowerPoint), then all that’s left to acquire for this activity is access to an LCD projector.

Students can have a lot of fun speaking while giving a presentation to the class. Using projected images helps to distract some attention away from the speaker and can be helpful for shy students.

The “PechaKucha” style of presentation* can give added interest with each student being allowed to show 20 slides only for 20 seconds each (the timing being controlled by the software so that the slides change automatically) or whatever time limit you choose. You could make it 10 sides for 15 seconds each, for example.

You could also add rules such as “no more than 3 words on each slide” (or “no words”) so that students must really talk and not just read the slides. They need to be given a good amount of time, either at home or in class, to prepare themselves and practice their timing. It can also be prepared and presented in pairs, with each partner speaking for half of the slides.

*PechaKucha originated in Tokyo (in 2003). The name means “chitchat.”

“Nowadays held in many cities around the world, PechaKucha Nights are informal and fun gatherings where creative people get together and share their ideas, works, thoughts, holiday snaps—just about anything, really.”—the PechaKucha 20×20 format.

4. Bingo
Many people think of this game as a listening activity, but it can very quickly become a speaking activity.

There are a number of ESL websites that will allow you to quickly create a set of Bingo cards containing up to 25 words, phrases or even whole sentences. They’ll allow you to make as many unique cards as you need to distribute a different card to each student in class. Each card can contain the same set of words arranged differently, or you can choose to have more or less than 25 items involved.

Rather than having students mark up their cards, you can give them markers (such as stones or sunflower seeds) to place on each square as they recognize it. This way the markers can be removed and the game can be repeated.

For the first round, the teacher should “call” the game. The first student to get five markers in a row in any direction shouts out “Bingo!” Then you should have this student read out every item in their winning row.

The winner is congratulated and then rewarded by becoming the next Caller. This is a great speaking opportunity. Everyone removes their markers and the game starts again. Every expression that’s called tends to be repeated quietly by everyone in the room, and by the end of a session everyone can say all of the expressions on the card.

5. Two Texts
This challenging task is great for more capable students and it involves reading. Having texts in front of them can make adult students feel more supported.

Choose two short texts and print them out. Print enough of each text for half of the class. Create a list of simple questions for each text and print out the same quantity.

Divide the class into two groups and hand out the texts. Hang onto the question sheets for later. One group gets one text, the second group gets the other text. The texts can be about related topics (or not).

Group members then read their texts and are free to talk about them within their group, making sure they all understand everything. After 5 minutes or so, take the papers away.

Each student is paired with someone from the other group. Each student must tell their partner everything they learned from their text. Then they must listen to (and remember) what the other student tells them about their group’s text.
Students return to their original groups and are given a list of questions about their original text.
Students are paired again, this time with a different person from the other group. Each student must test their partner using the questions about the text which their partner never read and was only told about, and likewise answer questions about the text they were told about.
Another day use two different texts and try this activity again. Students do remarkably better the second time!

6. Running Dictation
This useful activity requires students to use all four language skills—reading, writing, listening, and speaking—and if carefully planned and well-controlled can cause both great excitement and exceptional learning.

Pair students up. Choose who will run and who will write. (At a later stage they could swap tasks.)

Print out some short texts (related to what you’re studying) and stick them on a wall away from the desks. You should stick them somewhere out of sight from where the students sit, such as out in the corridor.

There could be several numbered texts, and the students could be asked to collect two or three each. The texts could include blanks which they need to fill later, or they could be asked to put them in order. There are many possibilities here!

The running students run (or power-walk) to their assigned texts, read, remember as much as they can and then return to dictate the text to the writing student. Then they run again. The first pair to finish writing the complete, correct texts wins.

Be careful that you do not:

Let students use their phone cameras to “remember” the text.
Let “running” students write—they can spell words out and tell their partner when they’re wrong.
Let “writing” students go and look at the text (or let “running” students bring it to them).
7. Surveys and Interviews
Becoming competent at asking and answering questions is invaluable in language learning.

In the simplest form of classroom survey practice the teacher hands out ready-made questions—maybe 3 for each student—around a topic that is being studied.

For example, let’s say the topic is food. Each student could be given the same questions, or there could be several different sets of questions such as questions about favorite foods, fast foods, breakfasts, restaurants, ethnic foods, home-style cooking, etc.

Then each student partners with several others (however many the teacher requires), one-by-one and asks them the questions on the paper. In each interaction, the student asking the questions will note down the responses from their peers.

At the end of the session students may be asked to stand up and summarize what they found out from their survey.

8. Taboo
In this game, one player has a card listing four words:

The first word is the secret word. The aim of the game is to get another player to say this word. The student with the card will need to describe this word until another student figures out what the secret word is.
The other three words are the most obvious words that you might use to explain the secret word. They are all “taboo” and cannot be used in the student’s description of the secret word.
This game can be played between two teams. It can also be played between partners.

You can create your own sets of words based on what you’ve been studying, or you can find sets in your textbook and on the Internet.

9. Discuss and Debate
More mature students can discuss and debate issues with a partner. They can even be told which side of the argument they should each try to promote. This could be a precursor to a full-blown classroom debate. Working with a partner or small group first gives them an opportunity to develop and practice the necessary vocabulary to speak confidently in a larger forum.

10. I Like People
Adults do like to have fun, as long as they aren’t made to feel or look stupid. This is a brilliant game for helping them think quickly and speak more fluent English (rather than trying to translate from their native tongue).

1. Students sit on chairs in a circle, leaving a space in the circle for the teacher to stand.

2. First, they’re asked to listen to statements that the teacher makes and stand if it applies to them, such as: “I like people who are wearing black shoes,” “I like people who have long hair,” etc.

3. Next, the teacher asks standing students to change places with someone else who’s standing.

4. Now it becomes a game. The teacher makes a statement, students referred to must stand and quickly swap places. When the students move around, the teacher quickly sits in someone’s spot, forcing them to become the teacher.

5. The students quickly get into the swing of this game. Generally they’ll quickly notice a “cheating” classmate who hasn’t stood up when they should have, and they’ll also eagerly encourage a shy student who finds himself standing in the gap with no ideas.

This game has no natural ending, so keep an eye on the mood of the students as they play. They may start to run out of ideas, making the game lag. Quickly stand and place yourself back into the teacher position and debrief (talk with them about how they felt about the game).

11. Sentence Auction
Create a list of sentences, some correct and some with errors.

The errors should be related to a language topic you’re teaching or reviewing (e.g. articles, tenses or pronouns).
The number of sentences will depend on your students’ abilities. 20 is a good number for intermediate students. If you have too few sentences then it will be harder to balance the correct and incorrect.
The ratio of correct and incorrect is up to you, but it’s a good idea to have more than 50% correct.
Next to the list of sentences draw three columns: Bid, win, lose.

You can set a limit for how much (imaginary) money they have to spend, or just let them have as much as they want.

They need to discuss (in English) and decide whether any sentence is 100% reliable, in which case they can bid 100 dollars (or whatever unit you choose). If they’re totally sure that it’s incorrect (and they rarely are) they can put a “0” bid. If they’re unsure, they can bid 20, 30, 40, based on how likely it is to be correct. (Having a limit on their total bid will make them decide more carefully.)

When all of their bids are written in, it’s often a good idea to get pairs to swap their papers with other pairs for marking.
Go through the sentences, discussing which are correct and why. Get individual students to explain what’s right, what’s wrong and why.
For correct sentences, the bid amount is written in the “win” column. For incorrect sentences, it’s written in the “lose” column.
Both columns are totaled, and the “lose” total is subtracted from the “win” total.
Papers are returned, and partners discuss (in English) how their bidding went.
This activity is most effective when the students work together as partners, reading and discussing the correctness of sentences. Students are encouraged to use English to discuss their strategies with their partner.

12. Alibi
This well-known ESL game is great speaking practice for adults. The teacher tells the class that a particular crime has been committed. For fun, make it locally specific. For example:

“Last Friday night, sometime between ___ and ___, someone broke into the ____ Bank on ____ Street.”

Depending on the size of your class, pick several students as “Suspects.” The “Police” can work in groups of 2-4, and you need one Suspect for each police group. So, for example, in a class of 20 you could choose 4 Suspects and then have 4 groups of 4 Police for questioning.

Tell the class: “___, ___, ___ and ___ were seen near the scene of the crime, and the police would like to question them.”

The Suspects go outside or to another room to prepare their story. They need to decide all of the details about where they were during the time of the crime. For example: If they were at a restaurant, what did they eat? What did it cost? Who arrived first?

1. The Police spend some time preparing their questions.

2. The Suspects are called back in and go individually to each police group. They’re questioned for a few minutes, and then each one moves on to the next group.

3. The Police decide whether their answers match enough for them to have a reasonable Alibi. (Maybe up to 5 mistakes is reasonable.)

13. Typhoon
Explain to students that this game is named after the strong wind that blows everything away. It can be played with a class as small as 3, but it also works with large classes. It’s great for reviewing speaking topics.

1. On the board draw a grid of boxes—a 6 x 6 grid works well and can take about 45 minutes to complete, but you may vary this once you’ve played a few times. You’ll just want to choose the size depending on how much time you have. Mark one axis with numbers, the other with letters. (Or use vocabulary words like adjectives on one and nouns on the other.)

2. On a piece of paper or in a notebook (out of sight) draw the same grid. On your grid, fill in scores in all of the boxes. Most of them should be numbers, and others will be letters. It doesn’t matter which numbers you choose, but it’s fun to have some small ones (1, 2, 3, etc.) and some very big ones (500, 1000, etc.). About one in four boxes should have the letter “T” for “Typhoon.”

3. Put the students into teams—at least 3 teams—and mark a place on the board to record each team’s score.

4. Ask questions or give speaking tasks to each team in turn. If they answer correctly, they then “choose a box” using the grid labels. The teacher checks the secret grid, and writes the score into the grid on the board. This score also goes into the team’s score box.

5. If the chosen box contains a number, the scores simply add up. But if the box contains a “T,” the team then chooses which other team’s score they want to “blow away” back to zero.

Notes on Typhoon:

If you run out of time but the game isn’t finished, declare a “no questions, just choose” period to fill the rest of the grid and find out who wins.
Students love this game, so you can spice it up by adding different symbols in some of the boxes. I use:
Swap: They must swap their score with another team’s score, even if they’re winning.
S: Steal. They can steal a score instead of just blowing it away.
D: Double. They double their own score.
After a couple of times playing this game, students can easily run it themselves. This provides even more opportunities to speak. One student (or a pair) could handle the grid, another could handle the score board, others can make or choose questions or tasks and someone can be Game Presenter.
After the Speaking Activity

If you run your speaking activity well, the students will often get really involved in it. They may well need to be “debriefed” afterwards before they leave the classroom. This helps them get out residual excitement and reinforce the lessons they learned.

Always allow a few minutes of class time to talk about the activity, what they liked about it (or hated), how it made them feel and what they think they’ve learned.

Of course, all of this involves more worthwhile speaking time!
 

4
Speaking Skill / 12 fun speaking games for language learners
« on: August 14, 2018, 05:59:53 PM »
ENGLISH-LANGUAGE LEARNERS
12 Fun Speaking Games for Language Learners
By Teacher Diane
November 12, 2015
 

Two children at a table with the teacher playing a game
Photo Credit: Jenny Cu (CC BY 2.0)
Have you ever asked a question to your language class, only to be answered with complete silence and blank stares? At one point every teacher has had the struggle of encouraging students to speak. Perhaps the student has a deep fear of making a mistake, or maybe the student is just plain shy, even in their native language. Whatever the reason, here is a list of a few fun activities to get your students to speak!

This list is for more advanced (B2+) students.

1. Who's Telling the Truth?

Have each student write three facts about themselves that nobody in the class knows on a piece of paper. Make sure each student includes his/her name on the top of the paper.  Collect the sheets of paper and bring three students to the front of the room. Read aloud one of the facts that is true for one of the students in the front of the room. The class then proceeds to question the students in an attempt to determine who is telling the truth, and who is lying. Each student is allowed to ask one question to one of the three students. After a round of questioning, the students predict who is telling the truth.

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2. Taboo Variations

Variation #1: Create a PowerPoint presentation with each slide containing a noun. Have one student come to the front of the room and sit with his/her back to the PowerPoint. The students in the class should take turns describing the words for the student in the front of the room to guess.

Variation #2: Separate the students into groups of 4/5. Place a pile of cards with random nouns in the center of the group. Have students take turns describing the nouns for their group members to guess. The group member who guesses correctly keeps the card in an attempt to have the most cards at the end of the game.

Variation #3 (Advanced speakers): Separate the class into two teams. Students are given a word to describe to their teammates, in addition to a list of words that they cannot use in their description. Each student should have 2-3 minutes to see how many words his/her teammates can guess.

3. Descriptive Drawing Activity

Pair up the students and give them each a picture face down. They must describe the picture for their partner to draw.

4. Comic Strip Descriptions

Give each student a portion of a comic strip. Without showing their pictures to one another, the students should attempt to describe their image, and put the comic strip into the correct order. After about ten minutes, the students can predict the order, show one another their portion, and see if they were correct!

5. "Secret" Word

Students are given a random topic, and a random word completely unrelated to the topic. The student must hide the word in their speech, without the other students in the class guessing their "secret" word. The other students in the class must listen carefully to the speech, in an attempt to discover the secret word.

6. Debates

Give each student a piece of paper with “agree” written on one side, and “disagree” on the other side. Read aloud a controversial statement, and have each students hold up his/her paper stating whether they agree or disagree. Choose one student from each side to explain his/her position and participate in a short debate.

7. Impromptu Speaking

Split the class into two teams, and use a list of impromptu speaking topics. Have each student choose a number, and respond to the statement without preparation. The student must continue speaking for 45 seconds when the teacher calls out "stop." As the student is speaking, the other team listens for any hesitation, grammatical mistakes or vocabulary mistakes. If the other team can correctly identify an error, they get a point.

8. Desert Island Activity

Give each student a piece of paper and tell him or her to draw an item. Any item. Tell the students that they have been stranded on a desert island, and only half of the class can survive and continue to inhabit the desert island. The student's goal is to convince the class that they should survive. The hard part is that the only thing they have is an item that was drawn a few minutes earlier by a classmate on the piece of paper.

9. Storytelling Activity


 Bring four students to the front of the classroom. Three students should sit down in a row, and one of the students should stand behind them acting as a controller. The controller should have a stack of cards in his hand containing nouns. The controller will hand a noun to one of the three students who will start to tell a story. The student will continue telling the story until the controller decides to hand another noun to another student who will then take over the story.

10. Two Truths, One Lie

Each student should write three facts about themselves on a piece of paper. Two of the facts should be the truth, and one should be a lie. Students read aloud the facts, and give the other students a chance to question them and decide which statement is a lie.

11. True/False Storytelling

Give each student a piece of paper with either the word “true” or “false.” Each student should tell the class a story, and the class must guess whether the story is the truth, or a lie. To add to the activity, you can allow the other students to question the student telling the story.

12. I Have Never…

All students in the class should start holding five fingers in the air (this number can be adjusted depending on how many students are in the class). The student who begins the activity will tell the class one thing that he/she has NEVER done. The students who have done that activity should put a finger down, and tell the class a story about this activity.

This piece was originally submitted to our community forums by a reader. Due to audience interest, we've preserved it. The opinions expressed here are the writer's own.



https://www.edutopia.org/discussion/12-fun-speaking-games-language-learners

5
By Christian Jarrett

The idea that we learn better when taught via our preferred modality or “learning style” – such as visually, orally, or by doing – is not supported by evidence. Nonetheless the concept remains hugely popular, no doubt in part because learning via our preferred style can lead us to feel like we’ve learned more, even though we haven’t.

Some advocates of the learning styles approach argue that the reason for the lack of evidence to date is that students do so much of their learning outside of class. According to this view, psychologists have failed to find evidence for learning styles because they’ve focused too narrowly on whether it is beneficial to have congruence between teaching style and preferred learning style. Instead, they say psychologists should look for the beneficial effects of students studying outside of class in a manner that is consistent with their learning style.

For a new paper in Anatomical Sciences Education, a pair of researchers at Indiana University School of Medicine have conducted just such an investigation with hundreds of undergrads. Once again however the findings do not support the learning styles concept, reinforcing its reputation among mainstream psychologists as little more than a myth.


At the start of term, Polly Husmann and Valerie Dean O’Loughlin asked hundreds of undergrads on an anatomy course (which involved lectures and practical lab classes) to take one of the most popular online learning styles surveys, the VARK. Taken by millions of people worldwide, the VARK categorises students according to how much they prefer to learn visually, via auditory information, through reading and writing, or through kinaesthetics (by doing or by practical example).

The VARK website also offers study tips based on your supposed preferred learning style(s). The researchers encouraged their student participants to take the survey and to adopt the study practices consistent with their dominant learning style. Later in the term, the researchers surveyed them about the methods they’d actually used when studying outside of class, to see if they used methods in line with their supposed dominant learning style. Finally, the researchers accessed the students’ end-of-year grades to see if there was any association between grade performance, dominant learning style, and/or studying outside of class in a way consistent with one’s dominant learning style.

The results are bad news for advocates of the learning styles concept. Student grade performance was not correlated in any meaningful way with their dominant learning style or with any learning style(s) they scored highly on. Also, while most students (67 per cent) actually failed to study in a way consistent with their supposedly preferred learning style, those who did study in line with their dominant style did not achieve a better grade in their anatomy class than those who didn’t.

Instead, there were specific study strategies, such as practising microscope work and using lecture notes, that were associated with better grade performance, regardless of students’ learning style. Other activities, such as using flash cards, were associated with poorer performance, perhaps because they were a sign of learning by rote rather than deeper learning.

Husmann and O’Loughlin don’t pull any punches in their conclusion. Their findings, they write – especially when considered in the context of past research – “provide strong evidence that instructors and students should not be promoting the concept of learning styles for studying and/or for teaching interventions. Thus, the adage of ‘I can’t learn subject X because I am a visual learner’ should be put to rest once and for all.”


https://digest.bps.org.uk/2018/04/03/another-nail-in-the-coffin-for-learning-styles-students-did-not-benefit-from-studying-according-to-their-supposed-learning-style/

6
English / Oxford Word of the Month released on April 6, 2018
« on: April 17, 2018, 02:37:24 PM »
The blend word frenemy will most probably come in handy more and more in discussing post-Brexit relations:

friend + enemy = frenemy

Here is its entry from the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary online:

Image

This word is actually not anywhere near as new as Brexiteer and Remoaner: its first use is recorded as being in 1953. But its usage has increased in recent years.

The big band of Brexiteers includes many frenemies: people united in their wish to leave the EU but otherwise with different political views or social backgrounds. In the situation in which the UK will be cutting at least some ties with old friends, it will need new ones – and will most likely have to make some frenemies too! Which countries will prove to be lifelong friends, and which will become best frenemies remains to be seen.

For more entry to Oxford Dictionary check:
https://oxfordlearnersdictionariesblog.com/2018/04/01/brexiteers-remoaners-and-frenemies/

7
English / THE (6-MINUTE) MIRACLE MORNING
« on: February 28, 2018, 10:35:21 AM »
Imagine that the first six minutes of every morning begins like this…S.A.V.E.R.S. or S.A.V.S.R.E
Minute One… (Silence) Imagine waking up in the morning, and instead of rushing carelessly into your hectic day—feeling stressed and overwhelmed—imagine that you instead spend the first minute sitting in purposeful Silence. You sit, very calm, very peaceful, and you breathe deeply, slowly. Maybe you say a prayer of gratitude to appreciate the moment, or pray for guidance on your journey. Maybe, you decide to try your first minute of meditation. As you sit in silence, you’re totally present in the now, in the moment. You calm your mind, relax your body, and allow all of your stress to melt away. You develop a deeper sense of peace, purpose, and direction…
Minute Two… (Affirmations) You pull out your daily Affirmations—the ones that remind you of your unlimited potential and your most important priorities—and you read them out loud from top to bottom. As you focus on what’s most important to you, your level of internal motivation increases. Reading over the reminders of how capable you really are, gives you a feeling of confidence. Looking over what you’re committed to, what your purpose is, and what your goals are re-energizes you to take the actions necessary to live the life you truly want, deserve, and now know is possible for you…
Minute Three… (Visualization) You close your eyes, or you look at your vision board, and you visualize. Your Visualization could include your goals, what it will look and feel like when you reach them. You visualize the day going perfectly, see yourself enjoying your work, smiling and laughing with your family, or your significant other, and easily accomplishing all that you intend to accomplish for that day. You see what it will look like, you feel what it will feel like, and you experience the joy of what you will create…
Minute Four… (Scribing) Imagine, pull out your journal, and in your journal, you take a minute to write down what you’re grateful for, what you’re proud, and the results you’re committed to creating for that day. Doing so, you put yourself in an empowered, an inspired, and confident state of mind.
Minute Five… (Reading) Then, you grab your self-help book and invest one miraculous minute reading a page or two. You learn a new idea, something that you can implement into your day. You discover something new that you can use to feel better—to be better.
Minute Six… (Exercise) Finally, you stand up and you spend the last minute, doing jumping jacks for 60 seconds and getting your heart rate up and getting energized and waking yourself up and increasing your ability to be alert and to focus.
GOOD MORNING  :) :) :) :)

8
English / Teaching and Learning ESL Grammar is not that boring
« on: February 25, 2018, 05:35:39 PM »
Learning grammar can be a matter of great fun, too. Shared is a learning outcome from Unit-1 of New Headway Upper Intermediate Fourth Edition while revisiting 'Tense' in a novel way incorporating Tasks after Tasks appropriate of local context to bring out a better upshot. Students thought, fought, cried, applied, created and cursed me for giving them extra burden of these personalised creative 'tasks'. But how much did they know that they need changes in their 'way of learning'-- do they really learn is a big question, though,  and that they direly need to shun rote-learning. And when they do that, learning becomes exemplary and teaching stands for a worthy profession, too.

Thank you.
Thought of sharing this little attempt with my fellow-colleagues at DIU. Please follow the link:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zJcJBWAEwPE

9
English / Interesting Facts About Languages
« on: February 25, 2018, 01:14:46 PM »
 Every two weeks, another language dies.
Or, perhaps, a dialect. There are over 231 completely extinct languages and 2,400 of the world’s languages are considered to be in danger of dying out.

The language with the largest alphabet in the world belongs to the Cambodian language Khmer and is 74 characters long. The shortest alphabet is 12 characters long, and belongs to Rotokas. The language with the most words, however, is English, boasting over 250,000 words.

Learning a second language can make you smarter. A number of scientists agree that becoming polyglot can boost your brainpower. Other studies also suggest that speaking more than one language can help to slow down the aging process of the mind.

Despite that, onomatopoeias are not shared across languages. Rice Krispies in the United States go ‘snap, crackle, and pop.’ But in Germany, they go ‘Knisper! Knasper! Knusper!’ In France, they go ‘Cric! Crac! Croc!’ and in Spain, they go ‘Cris! Cras! Cros!’
Bees don’t buzz in Afrikaans, they go ‘zoem-zoem’. And while cats say “meow” in America, they say “meo-meo” in Vietnam, “nau” in Estonia, and “ngjau” in Malay.
Cows are sacred in India, but they don’t say “moo” in Bengali, they say “hamba”.
Thai owls say “hook hook” instead of “hoot”, and Albanian pigs don’t say “oink”, they say “hunk hunk.”

10
English / Can you answer 15 thought provoking questions?
« on: April 26, 2017, 08:00:39 PM »
http://teacherprobs.com/can-you-answer-15-thought-provoking-iq-questions/

Check out your IQ
My Result:
Rocket Scientist Smart!
[/u
Congratulations, you ACED this one! Did you Google the answers to this quiz? We don’t believe you cheated, so that means you are a bonafide genius! Based on the amount of time you spent on each question, we’ve determined you have a real knack for solving thoughtful problems. You are one of the few people willing to put in the time to understand a problem before selecting an answer, and boy did it pay off! Only 3% of test takers do as well as you did and it is impossible to do better than you! Great job!

We doubt any of your family or friends will do as well as you did, but it will be fun to see their results. Please share this quiz on Facebook so you can see if anyone is as smart as you!

http://teacherprobs.com/can-you-answer-15-thought-provoking-iq-questions/

11
English / Question to all Teachers
« on: April 26, 2017, 07:46:15 PM »
As teachers, we instruct our students to “write…write…write…and write some more,” but how often do we write?

As much as we critique our students’ writing, are we willing to be vulnerable enough to share our creations, performances, and/or writings with our overly critical students?

12
English / Are these spiral or perfect circles?
« on: April 26, 2017, 07:44:59 PM »
Spiral or circles?

13
Until a few decades ago, scholars believed that young children know very little, if anything, about what others are thinking. Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget, who is credited with founding the scientific study of children’s thinking, was convinced that preschool children cannot consider what goes on in the minds of others.
...
What modern studies reveal
In the 1980s, these kinds of implicit measures became customary in developmental psychology. But it took a while longer before these tools were employed to measure children’s grasp of the mental lives of others. Recent studies have revealed that even infants and toddlers are sensitive to what goes in others’ minds.

In one series of experiments, a group of Hungarian scientists had six-month-old babies watch an animation of the following sequence of events: A Smurf observed how a ball rolled behind a screen. The Smurf then left. In its absence, the infants witnessed how the ball emerged from behind the screen and rolled away. The Smurf returned and the screen was lowered, showing that the ball was no longer there. The authors of the study recorded the infants’ looks and found that they fixated longer than usual on the final scene in which the Smurf gazed at the empty space behind the barrier – as if they understood that the Smurf’s expectation was violated.

In another set of experiments, my colleagues at the University of Southern California and I found evidence that toddlers can even anticipate how others will feel when their expectations are disappointed. We acted out several puppet shows in front of two-year-old children. In these puppet shows, a protagonist (Cookie Monster) left his precious belongings (cookies) on stage and later returned to fetch them. What the protagonist did not know was that an antagonist had come and messed with his possessions. The children had witnessed these acts and attentively watch the protagonist return.

We recorded children’s facial and bodily expressions. Children bit their lips, wrinkled their nose or wiggled in their chair when the protagonist came back, as if they anticipated the bewilderment and disappointment he was about to experience. Importantly, children showed no such reactions and remained calm when the protagonist had seen the events himself and thus knew what to expect. Our study reveals that by the tender age of two, kids not only track what others believe or expect; they can even foresee how others will feel when they discover reality.

Studies like these reveal that there is much more going on in toddlers’ and even infants’ minds than was previously believed. With the explicit measures used by Piaget and successors, these deeper layers of kids’ understanding cannot be accessed. The new investigative tools demonstrate that kids know more than they can say: when we scratch beneath the surface, we find a fledgling understanding of relations and perspectives that Piaget probably did not dream of.

For more read: http://scitechconnect.elsevier.com/children-understand-more-other-minds-believed/?sf68227352=1#utm_source=socialmedia&utm_medium=psychology&utm_campaign=Children%20Understand%20Far%20More%20About%20Other%20Minds%20Than%20long%20Believed

14
English / Emoji is oxford's word of the year
« on: November 26, 2015, 04:48:05 PM »
Oxford’s ‘2015 word of the year’ is... :'(  an emoji! 

          :'(


In an unexpected move, the notable Oxford English Dictionaries has chosen the widely shared “tears of joy” emoji used on smartphones and social media as its 'word of the year.'

Traditionally, Oxford Dictionaries pick a word or expression that has garnered considerable interest during the year that reflects the global general mood of that particular year.

This year, and for the first time, it has decided to take a different turn, highlighting social media’s role in expressing human emotions.

Oxford Dictionaries justified its selection as it best represents the “mood and preoccupations of 2015.”

An emoji is ‘a small digital image or icon used to express an idea or emotion in electronic communication’; the term emoji is a loanword from Japanese, and comes from e ‘picture’ + moji ‘letter, character’, according to Oxford Dictionaries website.

“Emoji culture has become so popular that individual characters have developed their own trends and stories,” said Casper Crathwohl, president of Oxford Dictionaries.

Two years ago, the dictionary giant decided to award the word "selife" as word of the year.

{Source: http://english.alarabiya.net/en/variety/2015/11/23/Oxford-s-2015-word-of-the-year-is-an-emoji-.html }

15
English / Fun Learning Activity for Students
« on: March 14, 2015, 06:16:21 PM »
Dear Colleagues of Uttara Campus:

I was thinking of making more use of the Movable Board prepared last semester before the program:'Immerse in Diverse Bangladeshi and Turkish Culture' as part of my Speaking Skill course presentation.

How about posting the 'Word of the day' 'New expressions in English' 'Crosswords Puzzle, Games' to engage students in learning in a fun way? We may post here to share with mass students rather than only course students.

For a start, I am going to post few activities this week accompanying 'Vowel Crosswords', 'Misunderstood Words in English' and ' Few Phrasal Verbs'.

Your suggestion and cooperation will be highly appreciated.
Thank you.

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