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Topics - Anayetur Rahaman

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Journalism / Freedom of Press
« on: May 12, 2019, 01:56:19 PM »

The value of fake news
Josh Freidman

On a trip to Ethiopia in the 1990s, I met with Prime Minister Meles Zenawi to try to persuade him to stop jailing journalists. Since Meles’s guerillas had ousted a repressive Soviet-backed dictatorship a few years before, there had been an explosion of exuberant and sometimes wildly inaccurate little newspapers, many of them attacking Meles. So, he had cracked down, introducing laws criminalising what he called “insults” to the government and fining and imprisoning journalists for inaccuracies. Ethiopia quickly became one of the world’s top jailors of journalists. Continue the reading at: https://www.thedailystar.net/opinion/global-affairs/news/the-value-fake-news-1742002

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Journalism / Guidelines on Reporting Children
« on: April 25, 2019, 06:47:37 PM »
                                      Reporting Children: What Journalists Should Do

 
Reporting on children and young people has its special challenges.  In some instances the act of reporting on children places them or other children at risk of retribution or stigimatization.
Unicef has developed principles to assist journalists as they report on issues affecting children.  They are offered as guidelines that Unicef believes will help media to cover children in an age-appropriate and sensitive manner.  The guidelines are meant to support the best intentions of ethical reporters: serving the public interest without compromising the rights of children.

Principles

1. The dignity and rights of every child are to be respected in every circumstance.
2. In interviewing and reporting on children, special attention is to be paid to each child's right to privacy and confidentiality, to have their opinions heard, to participate in decisions affecting them and to be protected from harm and retribution, including the potential of harm and retribution.
3. The best interests of each child are to be protected over any other consideration, including over advocacy for children's issues and the promotion of child rights.
4. When trying to determine the best interests of a child, the child's right to have their views taken into account are to be given due weight in accordance with their age and maturity.
5. Those closest to the child's situation and best able to assess it are to be consulted about the political, social and cultural ramifications of any reportage.
6. Do not publish a story or an image which might put the child, siblings or peers at risk even when identities are changed, obscured or not used.

Guidelines for interviewing children

1. Do no harm to any child; avoid questions, attitudes or comments that are judgmental, insensitive to cultural values, that place a child in danger or expose a child to humiliation, or that reactivate a child's pain and grief from traumatic events.
2. Do not discriminate in choosing children to interview because of sex, race, age, religion, status, educational background or physical abilities.
3. No staging: Do not ask children to tell a story or take an action that is not part of their own history.
4. Ensure that the child or guardian knows they are talking with a reporter. Explain the purpose of the interview and its intended use.
5. Obtain permission from the child and his or her guardian for all interviews, videotaping and, when possible, for documentary photographs. When possible and appropriate, this permission should be in writing. Permission must be obtained in circumstances that ensure that the child and guardian are not coerced in any way and that they understand that they are part of a story that might be disseminated locally and globally. This is usually only ensured if the permission is obtained in the child's language and if the decision is made in consultation with an adult the child trusts.
6. Pay attention to where and how the child is interviewed. Limit the number of interviewers and photographers. Try to make certain that children are comfortable and able to tell their story without outside pressure, including from the interviewer. In film, video and radio interviews, consider what the choice of visual or audio background might imply about the child and her or his life and story. Ensure that the child would not be endangered or adversely affected by showing their home, community or general whereabouts.

Guidelines for reporting on children
1. Do not further stigmatize any child; avoid categorisations or descriptions that expose a child to negative reprisals - including additional physical or psychological harm, or to lifelong abuse, discrimination or rejection by their local communities.
2. Always provide an accurate context for the child's story or image.
3. Always change the name and obscure the visual identity of any child who is identified as:
a. A victim of sexual abuse or exploitation,
b. A perpetrator of physical or sexual abuse,
c. HIV positive, or living with AIDS, unless the child, a parent or a guardian gives fully informed consent,
d. Charged or convicted of a crime.
4. In certain circumstances of risk or potential risk of harm or retribution, change the name and obscure the visual identity of any child who is identified as:
a. A current or former child combatant
b. An asylum seeker, a refugee or an internal displaced person
5. In certain cases, using a child's identity - their name and/or recognizable image - is in the child's best interests. However, when the child's identity is used, they must still be protected against harm and supported through any stigmatization or reprisals.
Some examples of these special cases are:
a. When a child initiates contact with the reporter, wanting to exercise their right to freedom of expression and their right to have their opinion heard.
b. When a child is part of a sustained programme of activism or social mobilization and wants to be so identified.
c. When a child is engaged in a psychosocial programme and claiming their name and identity is part of their healthy development.
6. Confirm the accuracy of what the child has to say, either with other children or an adult, preferably with both.
7. When in doubt about whether a child is at risk, report on the general situation for children rather than on an individual child, no matter how newsworthy the story.

References:
1. Unicef
2. International Federation of Journalists (IFJ)

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Journalism / Courageous Journalism
« on: April 16, 2019, 07:59:04 PM »
Brave journalism wins Pulitzer. Reporting on Rohingya earns Reuters Pulitzer

Awarding the prize to Reuters, the Pulitzer committee recognized the team for "expertly exposing the military units and Buddhist villagers responsible for the systematic expulsion and murder of Rohingya Muslims from Myanmar, courageous coverage that landed its reporters in prison."

To read the article, please click here: https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/reuters-wins-pulitzer-prizes-for-international-reporting-and-breaking-news-photography-300832399.html

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Language for Journalists / News Writing
« on: April 04, 2019, 05:52:51 PM »
The first thing to do is stop and think. Do not start writing until you have a plan


You've gathered the information, done the reporting. You've interviewed all the people involved, the eye witnesses to the explosion, the police, etc, etc. And now you have to write the story. You have pages in your notebook of facts, observations, quotes. You may have some agency copy, some material from other media. The first thing to do is stop and think. Do not start writing until you have a plan. Read through all your notes, marking the most important pieces of information and the quotes you want to use. The information you have gathered will not have entered your notebook in order of importance. You need to decide what is more important, what is less important, to establish a hierarchy of pieces of information. And this is where you must think about your audience. Not necessarily what interests you most, but what will interest them. It may not be the same thing, and this is where knowing, having a feeling for, understanding your audience is so important. As you stare at the blank screen try to imagine the reader.

To read more: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2008/sep/25/writing.journalism.news

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Journalism & Mass Communication / English Tips for Budding Journalists
« on: March 28, 2019, 01:14:19 PM »

For many journalists today, English is the primary language used for news reporting on radio, television, online, and in print. If you’re an aspiring journalist you’ll be expected to have a firm grasp of the English language and its grammar rules. Please find the link for details:

https://englishlive.ef.com/blog/career-english/english-tips-budding-journalists/

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In this chapter, we give guidance on how to write sentences for maximum understanding and why care over language is important. In the three following chapters we show how to avoid some common language problems, we suggest some rules for news writing style and we give advice on translating news from one language to another.

https://www.thenewsmanual.net/Manuals%20Volume%201/volume1_10.htm

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News Editing / Functions of Headline
« on: March 28, 2019, 12:59:05 PM »
The headline is the text which gives readers a complete idea about the article. It comes on top of the story. Headline has several important functions. They are discussed below:

The Functions of an Effective Headline
1.   To grab the readers’ attention.
2.   Summarizes  the story
3.   To pre-screen or select your readers.
4.   Draw a reader into the story.
5.   Set the tone of the newspaper
6.   Provides typographic relief

For details, please see the attachment.

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News Editing / News Editing
« on: March 28, 2019, 12:57:12 PM »
Of all the copyeditor’s duties, editing for accuracy is probably the most important. A newspaper that is inaccurate soon loses its credibility. The copyeditor’s responsibilities during editing a copy include:
1.   Ensuring accuracy
2.   Trimming unnecessary words
3.   Protecting and polishing the language
4.   Correcting inconsistencies
5.   Making the story conform to style
6.   Eliminating libelous statement
7.   Eliminating passage in poor state
8.   Making certain the story is readable and complete.

For details, please see attachment.

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Journalism / Decline of newspapers circulation
« on: March 28, 2019, 12:41:59 PM »
Newspapers have been dying in slow motion for two decades now. In Canada, this talk has transcended the hypothetical; the government commissioned a report that speculates on what Canada’s democracy might look like in a post-newspaper world. In Britain, too, Prime Minister Theresa May has warned that the closure of newspaper after newspaper is a “danger to democracy;” Britain has nearly 200 fewer regional and local newspapers now than in 2005. The picture is similar in the U.S. A once unimaginable scenario has lately become grimly conceivable.
To read more: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/theworldpost/wp/2018/03/21/newspapers/?utm_term=.27e9bfb3fe05

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Journalism / History of Journalism in Bengal
« on: July 11, 2018, 02:24:56 PM »
Newspapers and Periodicals emerged first in Bengal from the last quarter of the 18th century. At official level, there were systems to collect information of the kingdom from the very ancient time. According to Kautilya, government employees of a certain category were assigned to report to the royal court all news collected from the country. Historians also mentioned about newsletters, royal notifications and other modes of communication during the Mughal period. There was at least one Wakia Nabis in each district whose responsibility was to send details and compilations of important events in the area to the royal court.

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