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Messages - Md. Mehedi Hasan Shoyeb

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Officially announcing the new DIUDC Executive Committee for the year 2012-2013

President: Jayanta Bhowmik
Vice-President: Amlan Kishore Moon
General Secretary: Tasnia Tajrin
Joint Secretary (Bangla Debate): Jayanta Karmaker
Joint Secretary (English Debate): Rahima Hima
Treasurer: Priyanka Condri
Organizing Secretary: Salahuddin Morsalin
Publication & Publicity Secretary: Syed Arefin
Program Secretary: Erfan Elahi Sharif
Executive Members:
1. Shraboni Farhana
2. Saidul Islam Sujon
3. Bithi Farjana
4. Sadiya Choudhury

Mehedi Hasan Shoyeb
Former President, DIUDC

What is food security?
Food Security can be divided between two broader groups. They are Food Production and Food Distribution.

Food Production –

Food producing environment will create entitlement to land to cultivate, land to live. Land to cultivate will create employment and Equal Fair Wages will give justice to the day laborers to provide for their necessities. Affordability and availability of seed, irrigation, fertilizer and wages will enable the farmers and Day Laborer to sustainable food production. These areas of the process of food production will create an environment for food production with justice. 

Food Distribution -

Food security can be ensured where food distribution process is strong. In same distribution process if middlemen can be reduced and syndicated pricing can be stopped then the people buying the produce can be ensured fair prices therefore enabling the both farmers and day laborers to have within their reach their own produce. Ensuring feeding of the vulnerable aged or individuals will all create an environment where none remain hungry.   

Climate change
Climate Change, which in recent times, is drawing increasing attention world wide. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) claims climate change as one of the causes of food insecurity. Bangladesh, being an agro-based economy of South Asia, is thought to be under the heavy threat of deteriorating its food security caused by the dire effects of climate change. The IPCC reported crop yields could decrease up to 30 percent in Central and South Asia by the mid-21st century.

The five main global threats arising from climate change are considered to be droughts, floods, storms, rising sea levels, and greater uncertainty in agriculture. Four of the world's poorest nations top the list of the 12 countries at the highest risk. Bangladesh heads the list of countries most at risk of flooding.

The year's first round of UN climate talks has ended with delegates talking of a clear split between the visions of developed and developing nations. This split offers potential scopes for debates and dialogues, which the binaurally opposing parties can debate over in the debate competition, by representing the visions of the developed nations and that of the developing ones.

Youth Watchdog on Food Security and Climate Change
Students and youth groups and individuals can take up of role of watchdog to create awareness between the communities they live in and become a deterrent towards economic injustice, critic towards wrong policies and finally a watchdog to advocate for policy advocacy for the Food Insecure people and farmers. This can be achieved by creating a link between the rural poor and the student watchdog through any form of interface to write articles in the news daily, to mass protest and provide communities with case studies of food insecure individuals and family. Having a watchdog can create better realist understanding of Food Insecurity and the abject poverty it creates and be able to articulate how poor people or groups can come out of this vicious cycle generations of descending poverty.   

Communication is a process of exchanging verbal and non verbal messages. It is a continuous process. Pre-requisite of communication is a message. This message must be conveyed through some medium to the recipient. It is essential that this message must be understood by the recipient in same terms as intended by the sender. He must respond within a time frame. Thus, communication is a two way process and is incomplete without a feedback from the recipient to the sender on how well the message is understood by him.

The main components of communication process are as follows:

  1. Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context.

   2. Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for new batch of employees. Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views, background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the message. The verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender.

  3. Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear.

   4. Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. The sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. This choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication. For instance - Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.

   5. Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder on decoder.

   6. Feedback - Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.


We discus the same models of communication today that we taught forty years ago. This can and should be regarded as a mark of the enduring value of these models in highlighting key elements of that process for students who are taking the process apart for the first time. It remains, however, that the field of communication has evolved considerably since the 1960's, and it may be appropriate to update our models to account for that evolution. This paper presents the classic communication models that are taught in introducing students to interpersonal communication and mass communication, including Shannon's information theory model (the active model), a cybernetic model that includes feedback (the interactive model, an intermediary model (sometimes referred to as a gatekeeper model of the two-step flow), and the trans-active model. It then introduces a new ecological model of communication that, it is hoped, more closely maps to the the range of materials we teach and research in the field of communication today. This model attempts to capture the fundamental interaction of language, medium, and message that enables communication, the socially constructed aspects of each element, and the relationship of creators and consumers of messages both to these elements and each other.

While the field of communication has changed considerably over the last thirty years, the models used in the introductory chapters of communication textbooks (see Adler, 1991; Adler, Rosenfeld, and Towne, 1996; Barker and Barker, 1993; Becker and Roberts, 1992; Bittner, 1996; Burgoon, Hunsaker, and Dawson, 1994; DeFleur, Kearney, and Plax, 1993; DeVito, 1994; Gibson and Hanna, 1992; Wood, 2002) are the same models that were used forty years ago. This is, in some sense, a testament to their enduring value. Shannon's (1948) model of the communication process (Figure 1) provides, in its breakdown of the flow of a message from source to destination, an excellent breakdown of the elements of the communication process that can be very helpful to students who are thinking about how they communicate with others. It remains, however, that these texts generally treat these models as little more than a baseline. They rapidly segue into other subjects that seem more directly relevant to our everyday experience of communication. In interpersonal communication texts these subjects typically include the social construction of the self, perception of self and other, language, nonverbal communication, listening, conflict management, intercultural communication, relational communication, and various communication contexts, including work and family. In mass communication texts these subjects typically include media literacy, media and culture, new media, media industries, media audiences, advertising, public relations, media effects, regulation, and media ethics.

There was a time when our communication models provided a useful graphical outline of a semesters material. This is no longer the case. This paper presents the classic models that we use in teaching communication, including Shannon's information theory model (the active model), a cybernetic model that includes feedback (the interactive model, an intermediary model (sometimes referred to as a gatekeeper model of the two-step flow), and the transactive model. Few textbooks cover all of these models together. Mass Communication texts typically segue from Shannon's model to a two-step flow or gatekeeper model. Interpersonal texts typically present Shannon's model as the "active" model of the communication process and then elaborate it with interactive (cybernetic) and transactive models. Here we will argue the value of update these models to better account for the way we teach these diverse subject matters, and present a unifying model of the communication process that will be described as an ecological model of the communication process. This model seeks to better represent the structure and key constituents of the communication process as we discus it today.

Shannon's Model of the Communication Process

Shannon's (1948) model of the communication process is, in important ways, the beginning of the modern field. It provided, for the first time, a general model of the communication process that could be treated as the common ground of such diverse disciplines as journalism, rhetoric, linguistics, and speech and hearing sciences. Part of its success is due to its structuralist reduction of communication to a set of basic constituents that not only explain how communication happens, but why communication sometimes fails. Good timing played a role as well. The world was barely thirty years into the age of mass radio, had arguably fought a world war in its wake, and an even more powerful, television, was about to assert itself. It was time to create the field of communication as a unified discipline, and Shannon's model was as good an excuse as any. The model's enduring value is readily evident in introductory textbooks. It remains one of the first things most students learn about communication when they take an introductory communication class. Indeed, it is one of only a handful of theoretical statements about the communication process that can be found in introductory textbooks in both mass communication and interpersonal communication.

Shannon's model breaks the process of communication down into eight discrete components:

1. An information source. Presumably a person who creates a message.

2. The message, which is both sent by the information source and received by the destination.

3. A transmitter. For Shannon's immediate purpose a telephone instrument that captures an audio signal, converts it into an electronic signal, and amplifies it for transmission through the telephone network. Transmission is readily generalized within Shannon's information theory to encompass a wide range of transmitters. The simplest transmission system, that associated with face-to-face communication, has at least two layers of transmission. The first, the mouth (sound) and body (gesture), create and modulate a signal. The second layer, which might also be described as a channel, is built of the air (sound) and light (gesture) that enable the transmission of those signals from one person to another. A television broadcast would obviously include many more layers, with the addition of cameras and microphones, editing and filtering systems, a national signal distribution network (often satellite), and a local radio wave broadcast antenna.
4. The signal, which flows through a channel. There may be multiple parallel signals, as is the case in face-to-face interaction where sound and gesture involve different signal systems that depend on different channels and modes of transmission. There may be multiple serial signals, with sound and/or gesture turned into electronic signals, radio waves, or words and pictures in a book.
5. A carrier or channel, which is represented by the small unlabeled box in the middle of the model. The most commonly used channels include air, light, electricity, radio waves, paper, and postal systems. Note that there may be multiple channels associated with the multiple layers of transmission, as described above.
6. Noise, in the form of secondary signals that obscure or confuse the signal carried. Given Shannon's focus on telephone transmission, carriers, and reception, it should not be surprising that noise is restricted to noise that obscures or obliterates some portion of the signal within the channel. This is a fairly restrictive notion of noise, by current standards, and a somewhat misleading one. Today we have at least some media which are so noise free that compressed signals are constructed with an absolutely minimal amount information and little likelihood of signal loss. In the process, Shannon's solution to noise, redundancy, has been largely replaced by a minimally redundant solution: error detection and correction. Today we use noise more as a metaphor for problems associated with effective listening.
7. A receiver. In Shannon's conception, the receiving telephone instrument. In face to face communication a set of ears (sound) and eyes (gesture). In television, several layers of receiver, including an antenna and a television set.
8. A destination. Presumably a person who consumes and processes the message.

Like all models, this is a minimalist abstraction of the reality it attempts to reproduce. The reality of most communication systems is more complex. Most information sources (and destinations) act as both sources and destinations. Transmitters, receivers, channels, signals, and even messages are often layered both serially and in parallel such that there are multiple signals transmitted and received, even when they are converged into a common signal stream and a common channel. Many other elaborations can be readily described.. It remains, however, that Shannon's model is a useful abstraction that identifies the most important components of communication and their general relationship to one another. That value is evident in its similarity to real world pictures of the designs of new communication systems, including Bell's original sketches of the telephone.

Bell's sketch visibly contains an information source and destination, transmitters and receivers, a channel, a signal, and an implied message (the information source is talking). What is new, in Shannon's model (aside from the concept of noise, which is only partially reproduced by Bell's batteries), is a formal vocabulary that is now generally used in describing such designs, a vocabulary that sets up both Shannon's mathematical theory of information and a large amount of subsequent communication theory. This correspondence between Bell's sketch and Shannon's model is rarely remarked (see Hopper, 1992 for one instance).

Shannon's model isn't really a model of communication, however. It is, instead, a model of the flow of information through a medium, and an incomplete and biased model that is far more applicable to the system it maps, a telephone or telegraph, than it is to most other media. It suggests, for instance, a "push" model in which sources of information can inflict it on destinations. In the real world of media, destinations are more typically self-selecting "consumers" of information who have the ability to select the messages they are most interested in, turn off messages that don't interest them, focus on one message in preference to other in message rich environments, and can choose to simply not pay attention. Shannon's model depicts transmission from a transmitter to a receiver as the primary activity of a medium. In the real world of media, messages are frequently stored for elongated periods of time and/or modified in some way before they are accessed by the "destination". The model suggests that communication within a medium is frequently direct and unidirectional, but in the real world of media, communication is almost never unidirectional and is often indirect.

Derivative Models of the Communication Process

One of these shortcomings is addressed intermediary model of communication (sometimes referred to as the gatekeeper model or two-step flow (Katz, 1957)). This model, which is frequently depicted in introductory texts in mass communication, focuses on the important role that intermediaries often play in the communication process. Mass communication texts frequently specifically associate editors, who decide what stories will fit in a newspaper or news broadcast, with this intermediary or gatekeeper role. There are, however, many intermediary roles (Foulger, 2002a) associated with communication. Many of these intermediaries have the ability to decide what messages others see, the context in which they are seen, and when they see them. They often have the ability, moreover, to change messages or to prevent them from reaching an audience (destination). In extreme variations we refer to such gatekeepers as censors. Under the more normal conditions of mass media, in which publications choose some content in preference to other potential content based on an editorial policy, we refer to them as editors (most mass media), moderators (Internet discussion groups), reviewers (peer-reviewed publications), or aggregators (clipping services), among other titles . Delivery workers (a postal delivery worker, for instance) also act as intermediaries, and have the ability to act as gatekeepers, but are generally restricted from doing so as a matter of ethics and/or law.

gatekeeper model are also used in teaching organizational communication, where gatekeepers, in the form of bridges and liaisons, have some ability to shape the organization through their selective sharing of information. These variations are generally more complex in depiction and often take the form of social network diagrams that depict the interaction relationships of dozens of people. They network diagrams often presume, or at least allow, bi-directional arrows such that they are more consistent with the notion that communication is most often bidirectional.

The bidirectionality of communication is commonly addressed in interpersonal communication text with two elaborations of Shannon's model (which is often labeled as the action model of communication): the interactive model and the transactive model. The interactive model, a variant of which is elaborates Shannon's model with the cybernetic concept of feedback (Weiner, 1948, 1986), often without changing any other element of Shannon's model. The key concept associated with this elaboration is that destinations provide feedback on the messages they receive such that the information sources can adapt their messages, in real time. This is an important elaboration, and as generally depicted, a radically oversimplified one. Feedback is a message (or a set of messages). The source of feedback is an information source. The consumer of feedback is a destination. Feedback is transmitted, received, and potentially disruptable via noise sources. None of this is visible in the typical depiction of the interactive model. This doesn't diminish the importance of feedback or the usefulness of elaborating Shannon's model to include it. People really do adapt their messages based on the feedback they receive. It is useful, however, to notice that the interactive model depicts feedback at a much higher level of abstraction than it does messages.

Journalism & Mass Communication / Communication Process
« on: May 08, 2011, 11:21:44 AM »
Overview: This lesson teaches learners to define the elements of effective
communication and its process. It will focus on communication as the
best way to convey meaning and introduce barriers to the communication
process. Students will learn the communication process loop and its
key elements.

Educational Goal: The goal of this lesson is for each learner to:
(1) Comprehend the elements of the communication process and
(2) respond positively to it and how it applies to their goals and lives.

Cognitive: — Define effective communication
— Explain the elements of the communication process, the
best communication approach (transaction), and
internal and external barriers.
Affective: — Describe the value of effective communication and its
various elements.

Skills Connection: How it relates: Learners must talk with respect, listen
for understanding, get along with others, and speak so others can understand
in order to use the Communication Process effectively as it applies
to their life and goals as parents, workers, and citizens. This lesson has
connections with the Tennessee KSA – Listen for Understanding, Talking
With Respect and Getting Along With Others; and the EFF Standards – Listen
Actively and Speak So Others Can Understand.

When discussing how to write a feature article, it's a good idea to remember that most of the rules for successful feature writing apply to all types of written work. For example:

* Write in the active voice. This is a great tip for all types of writing, but it's especially important when writing a feature article. In active writing, people "do" things instead of having things "done" to them. If you have trouble telling the difference between the active voice and the passive voice, check out the tutorial on Purdue Online Writing Lab Web site.
* Keep your paragraphs short. In most cases, two or three sentences per paragraph is sufficient. Long paragraphs tend to look intimidating to readers.
* Use short sentences. Generally, it's good to keep your sentences between 15 and 20 words in length. It's fine to have an occasional long sentence, but you want to make your article as easy to read as possible.
* Use action verbs to keep the story moving. This is much more interesting than "to be" verbs that show little action.
* Avoid cliches. Writing that lacks originality is unlikely to hold the reader's attention for very long.

Top tips for writing feature articles

A feature story differs from a straight news story in one respect – its intent. A news story provides
information about an event, idea or situation. The feature does a bit more – it may also interpret
news, add dept h and colour to a story, instruct or entertain.


· The introduction is the most important part - entice your reader, hook them in. Use
drama, emotion, quotations, questions, descriptions

· The body of the article needs to keep any promises or answer any questions raised in
the introduction - try and maintain an "atmosphere" throughout the writing

· While the introduction draws the reader in, the conclusion should be written to help the
reader remember the story - use a strong punchline

Some points to keep in mind:

· Focus on human interest - the feel and emotion you put into the article are critical. Don't
think about writing a "science" story - think about writing a "human interest" story.

· Be clear about why you are writing the article. Is it to inform, persuade, observe,
evaluate, or evoke emotion?

· Write in the active voice. In active writing, people do things. Passive sentences often
have the person doing the action at the end of the sentence or things being done “by”

· Accuracy is important - you can interpret and embroider but not fudge.

· Keep your audience clearly in mind - what are their desires, what really matters to them?
· Avoid cliches (cutting edge, world beating, revolutionary) and sentimental statements -
especially at the end of your article.

· Interviews for features usually need to be in-depth and in person rather than over the
phone - this enables you to add in color and detail.

· Use anecdotes and direct quotes to tell the story - try not to use too many of your own

· Talk to more than one person to provide a more complete picture – but don’t just add in
sources to show how much work you’ve done. Be ruthless about who you put in and who
you leave out!

· Don't rely on the computer spell-checker - especially those with a U.S. dictionary.

· Decide on the ‘tense' of your story at the start and stick to it. Present tense usually works

· Avoid lengthy, complex paragraphs. Your article will appear in columns, so one or two
sentences equals a paragraph.

· Ideas come from everywhere - watch, read, listen, keep up to date, take notes. Talk to
people outside the field of science to find out what interests and concerns them.
Getting your feature articles published

· READ the publication you want to write for (a surprising number of writers don’t and it

· Give a proposal rather than full article

· Include good examples of your previously published work

· Write what the editor wants to publish, not what you want to write. How do you find out?
Study the editorial and staff writers' pieces - they are aimed precisely at the publication's
target audience

· Select your market - list six magazines that could buy your article and study them. The
articles, advertising and letters to the editor will give vital clues to the interests and
demographics of the audience

· A picture sells the story - offer good quality images as prints, transparencies or digital
files. Check with the editor for the preferred option

· Obtain a style sheet for the publication

· Submit your story typed and double-spaced.

· Let the relevant person (editor/deputy editor) in the print media outlet know you are
sending them an article. Follow this up with a phone call a week or so later

· Send your article to only one print media outlet initially. If they don't want to use it within a
set time period, send it elsewhere.

India and Bangladesh are to launch this week joint celebrations of the 150th birth anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore, the globally revered poet who wrote their respective national anthems.

Indian Vice President Hamid Ansari arrived in Dhaka Thursday to launch the celebrations jointly with Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at a function scheduled for Friday.

The Indian part will be opened in New Delhi Saturday by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.

Ansari, who arrived here on a two-day visit, is accompanied by wife Salma, Minister of State for External Affairs Preneet Kaur and a 59 member delegation that includes three lawmakers.

Bangladesh Foreign Minister Dipu Moni received Ansari.

Ansari's itinerary includes meeting President Zillur Rahman, paying homage to the martyrs at the National Memorial at Savar and to the martyrs of the War of Liberation in 1971.

India and Bangladesh had decided to jointly celebrate the 150th birth anniversary of Tagore during Sheikh Hasina's visit to New Delhi in January last year.

Both the countries have chalked out elaborate programs to mark the year-long birthday celebrations of the poet who has penned the national anthems of India and Bangladesh.

As part of the celebrations, the two countries have decided to produce two feature films, prepare a tourist circuit and dramatize the Nobel laureate's novels and poems on Tagore, who lived and worked in Bengal and visited several other nations.

Debate Forum / Refutation and Rebuttal in a Debate
« on: April 28, 2011, 11:21:10 AM »
The rebuttal period is a time for refutation and summary; in fact, such emphasis has been placed on summary that some writers now refer to the "rebuttal-summary" period. Sometime one team believes that it has completely refuted the other team's arguments before the final speech starts, and then it may be devoted entirely to summary.

In all fairness to the opposing team, the constructive arguments of a team should be established in the constructive speeches, to allow time for the opposition to answer. Consequently, the following rule is well established:

Rule: No new constructive arguments may be introduced in the rebuttal period.

A constructive argument is generally an alleged advantage or disadvantage in one of the proposed plans. All such arguments must be brought out in the constructive speeches.

Constructive arguments introduced in the rebuttal must be disregarded by the judge, with only one exception:

Rule: New constructive arguments may be introduced in the rebuttal period if the rebuttal is the first opportunity to answer a direct question and if these new arguments answer the question.

The long-standing policy against new constructive arguments in the rebuttal period exists to protect teams from the last-minute introduction of new arguments by their opponents. If a team lets down the bars by an indiscreet question, it no longer deserves this protection; accordingly, the opposition may, if it desires, take advantage of the situation by introducing new constructive arguments in rebuttal. Such instances are rare because most teams find it desirable to introduce their constructive arguments early enough in the debate to support them with adequate evidence.

Rule: Refutation may take place in any part of the debate and is not limited to the rebuttal period.

The above rule is so well understood that its mention would be unnecessary were it not that sometimes young debaters claim otherwise. "Refutation" includes the introduction of new evidence, when used to counter a point raised by the opposition.

Rule: Either team, when advocating a plan of action, must explain that plan early enough in the debate so that the opposing team has a constructive speech in which to reply.

Advantages and disadvantages in a proposed plan of action are generally considered new constructive arguments; and new constructive arguments are not permitted in rebuttal. Therefore, each team must give the other an opportunity to bring out new arguments of this kind before the rebuttals begin.

From the standpoint of the affirmative team, the rule is not particularly important. The affirmative can delay the explanation of its plan until the second constructive speech if it chooses, since the negative still has a constructive speech in which to bring out the defects of the plan before the rebuttals.

From the standpoint of the negative team, however, the rule is significant. Where there are only two constructive speeches per team, the negative must propose any counter plan in its first constructive speech. If the negative waits until the second constructive speech to introduce the counter plan, the affirmative is forced to ignore it or present new constructive arguments in rebuttal.

If the affirmative is on its toes when the negative violates this principle, it can refuse to discuss the matter, pointing out that the negative left it no constructive time in which to bring out the disadvantages. The judge then considers the counter plan irrelevant, out of the debate, and does not consider it in his decision. This, in effect, penalizes the negative.

If, on the other hand, the affirmative chooses to meet the counter plan in the short time remaining, it does so knowing full well that it will be working under a handicap. Therefore, if the affirmative elects this course it is not entitled to any special sympathy; the judge simply reaches his decision on the basis of the arguments presented.

The last affirmative rebuttal presents special problems of its own, since it is the last speech of the debate and the negative has no opportunity for reply. One such problem is covered by this principle:

Rule 8e. The affirmative must, if possible, reply to the major negative arguments before the last rebuttal.

Suppose this rule were not followed. Suppose, for instance, that the affirmative had opportunity to answer some important negative argument earlier in the debate, but failed to do so until the last speech. The negative, having no speech in which to reply, is unfairly handicapped.

If the negative rebuttalist anticipates this problem, he can make the affirmative look very bad by pointing out, as he summarizes, that the affirmative had opportunity to answer this argument earlier, and they did not do so, so any new defense dragged out at the last minute is under suspicion.

Suppose, however, that the negative does not anticipate the problem, and the affirmative does step out of bounds in that final speech. Suppose, for example, that the final speech contains a serious misquotation, or inaccurate facts that seem rather important, or new constructive arguments. What protection does the negative have? What can it do?

There are two methods for preventing unfairness of this kind. Either (1) the judge must be required to recognize and discard such material from the last rebuttal, or (2) some method must be developed to permit the negative to call the attention of the judge and audience to the situation. Since the negative team can recognize inaccurate quotations or facts more easily than the judge, the following rule seems to provide the preferable solution:

Rule: If the negative believes that the affirmative is making unfair use of the last rebuttal, it may ask for the floor to point out the situation. The affirmative may then defend the statements in question or correct them and apologize.

If the judge determines that the negative charges are true, he penalizes the affirmative by throwing out the arguments in question. If he determines that the negative charges are unjustified, no action is necessary. It seems preferable for the judge to state, before the affirmative speaker resumes his remarks, whether the arguments are to be thrown out or not, for only in this way will the affirmative rebuttalist know whether to continue in the same vein.

The judge makes no distinction between the last rebuttal and any other speech unless the negative points out some unfairness.

The time consumed in appeals and their settlement is not counted.

Debate Forum / Why debate?
« on: April 28, 2011, 11:10:20 AM »
"He [the student debater] learns to use a library, and to find the exact information he needs in the shortest possible time. He learns to be thorough and accurate. He learns to analyze; to distinguish between the vital and the unimportant. He learns the need of proving his statements; of supporting every statement with valid evidence and sound reasoning—and he learns to demand the same sort of proof for the statements of others. He learns to present ideas in a clear and effective manner, and in a way which wins others to his way of thinking. He learns to think under pressure, to "use his head" in a time of need, to make decisions quickly and accurately. In a word, the essential point in any debating situation is that of convincing the listener that your side of the proposition is desirable." (from How to Debate by Harrison Boyd Summers)

John Stuart Mill, in his Autobiography, said, "I have always dated from these conversations [in a discussion group similar to the ideal debate squad meeting] my own inauguration as an original and independent thinker."

"I think debating in high school and college is most valuable training whether for politics, the law, business, or for service on community committees such as the PTA and the League of Women Voters. A good debater must not only study material in support of his own case, but he must also, of course, thoroughly analyze the expected argument of his opponent. The give and take of debating, the testing of ideas, is essential to democracy. I wish we had a good deal more debating in our educational institutions than we do now." John F. Kennedy, August 22, 1960

"I truly believe I would have been as prepared for law school had I simply debated and not attended college at all. I have found that the practice of law—and I assume this is true of a large number of other jobs—consists basically of trying to solve problems in an organized manner.... Debate... placed a premium on the factors that I believe are essential to effective problem solving, including...breaking an argument down into its smallest components and then marshaling factual data...for each element;...talking a problem through with others over a period of time that a contention or issue becomes fully perceivable;...verbally articulating ideas rather than just having a mental conception of them;...and, finally, and perhaps most importantly, coming to appreciate the stresses and rewards of competition." Raoul D. Kennedy, Attorney in San Francisco

"Debate trained me to analyze and articulate the complex national issues that confront our country today. Too, it was a tremendous help in campaign debates for my House and Senate seats... My intercollegiate debate training was the most valuable experience that I had at Penn State. I derived benefits from it far beyond the normal extracurricular activity that it encompassed." Richard S. Schweiker, Former Pennsylvania Congressman and Senator, Former Secretary of Health and Human Services

"If it is a disgrace to a man when he cannot defend himself in a bodily way, it would be absurd not to think him disgraced when he cannot defend himself with reason in a speech." Aristotle from The Rhetoric

"The wisest advice I can give to persons considering debate as an activity is: "participate." In my opinion, hour- for-hour, the reward for time spent debating is greater than any other activity available to the typical student... In addition to the "academic" benefits, potential participants should be alerted to the life-long friendships they will develop, the opportunity to associate with competitive, creative and bright young people, as well as the favorable view of the activity taken by potential employers (particularly in the field of law)." Thomas F. Hozduk, Los Angeles Attorney

"I didn't make varsity cheerleader. I thought my life was over. I ended up joining the speech team instead. And within a year, I became real good. My event was Girls Extemporaneous Speaking. They would give you a topic, and a half-hour later you made a seven-minute speech on it...By my senior year, I was state champion. And I made it to the semifinals of the national competition. The six girls who were ranked ahead of me are probably all arguing cases before the Supreme Court...So I did find out my limitations. But in my smaller pond, I was a big fish. And I can't imagine better preparation for what I do today." (BTW, one of Jane Pauley's teammates is now a homeschooling mother) Jane Pauley, National TV News Anchor

"It was my experience with debating and public speaking in both high school and college that led me to become a lawyer, and ultimately, a member of Congress." Paul E. Kanjorski, Pennsylvania Congressional Representative

Debate is the ultimate mind exercise.

Debate Forum / What is debate?
« on: April 28, 2011, 11:03:51 AM »
A debate is a contest, or, perhaps, like a game, where two or more speakers present their arguments intent on persuading one another. Men have been debating with one another since the beginning of time when the serpent first debated with Eve the benefits of eating certain fruits in the Garden. We shall limit ourselves here with discussing formal contest debating between educational institutions, or, in the world of homeschooling, between families that choose to bypass educational institutions and educate their children at home.

Debate Forum / Regular Debate session
« on: April 13, 2011, 12:56:27 PM »
It is hereby notified to all of the Daffodil International University Debating Club (DIUDC) members that our regular Debate session will be held on 13 April (Wednesday), 2011 at 4:00pm in JMC Media Lab (4th floor, Prince Plaza). So all of the members of DIUDC are highly encouraged to attend this session.



Journalism & Mass Communication / What is responsible journalism?
« on: April 12, 2011, 05:21:45 PM »
Where you are not biased. Write and report what you see. not exaggerating or leaving out detail. some try and enhance what they see. or leave out parts because they are lazy or don't want the truth to be seen.

people will recognize your honesty. watch how you report. and what you report on.

Ouch. Journalists should also be able to use grammar and spelling correctly: "your" should be "you're" as in "you are" . capitalize the beginnings of a sentence ... "dont" should be "don't" as in "do not" ...

Journalism & Mass Communication / Public Speaking
« on: April 12, 2011, 05:06:25 PM »
Public speaking is the process of speaking to an audience in a deliberate, structured manner intended to inform, entertain or influence the listeners. It can be a powerful tool to use for various purposes including motivation, persuasion, influence, translation or entertaining.

While speaking, don't think about the mistakes. Just relax and keep speaking without any hesitation.

Here are the various components of the communication process in detail.

Input: The sender has an intention to communicate with another person. This intention makes up the content of the message.

Sender: The sender encodes the message, e.g. the idea of "piece of furniture to sit on" = . Thus he gives expression to the content.
Channel: The message is sent via a channel, which can be made of a variety of materials. In acoustic communication it consists of air, in written communication of paper or other writing materials.

Noise:The channel is subjected to various sources of noise. One example is telephone communication, where numerous secondary sounds are audible. Even a solid channel such as paper can be crushed or stained. Such phenomena are also noise in the communicative sense.

Receiver: The receiver decodes the incoming message, or expression. He "translates" it and thus receives the

Output: This is the content decoded by the receiver.

Code: In the process, the relevance of a code becomes obvious. The codes of the sender and receiver must have at least a certain set in common in order to make communication work.

Debate Forum / How to Write a Negative Debate Speech
« on: April 12, 2011, 04:44:02 PM »
In a debate, both sides write constructive speeches that cover the topic of the debate. Whatever the topic of the debate is, there will be a positive and negative side; this does not refer to the attitude of the speakers, but to the content of their position. The team or individual who takes the negative side of the speech will need to respond both to the topic of the debate and to the positive case. The negative debate must still build an explanatory case while taking the negative or "no" position.


1. Read the debate question. The question or topic of debate should be a yes or no or two-sided statement that can be researched and support both a positive and negative debate position.

2. Research the topic. Information should be found from reputable resources that present a fair analysis of the topic and allow you to form your own opinion based on the evidence presented. Use information that supports the negative side of the debate.

3. Begin organizing your opening speech. Most debates have two to three sections, with an opening speech and two rebuttals or question periods. Prepare an opening speech that introduces the negative position and provides 3 to 5 main points, each with supporting evidence.

4. Organize a rebuttal and prepare answers to questions. Outline and describe possible rebuttals to your points and develop responses to them. Be sure to back up all points with evidence.
5. Prepare questions for the positive team or individual. Find weaknesses in the positive position and prepare questions and evidence to ask for during the debate. Write 5 to 10 questions for the positive team.

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