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Messages - Rafiz Uddin

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1
English Grammar / Difference between British & American English
« on: March 25, 2019, 03:27:44 PM »
If you’re not a full time editor, you may be asking yourself what the differences between American and British English are. Well, Americans and the British clearly speak the same language, but there’s enough variation to create versions of the language with slightly different personalities and local flavor — or should that be flavour?
Accent

It’s difficult to make clear distinctions between US and UK accents when there is such a wide variety of accents within both the US and UK. A Texan and a New Yorker are both Americans, but have very different accents. The same goes for British accents in London, Manchester and Glasgow.

However, some very general distinctions can be made. Americans usually pronounce every “r” in a word, while the British tend to only pronounce the “r” when it’s the first letter of a word.
Spelling
American English    British English
color    colour
behavior    behaviour
theater    theatre
meter    metre
organize    organise
traveled    travelled

 
Vocabulary
American English    British English
apartment    flat
college    university
theater    theatre
vacation    holiday
chips    crisps
(french) fries    chips
the movies    the cinema
soda / pop / coke / soft drink    soft drink / fizzy drink
sneakers / tennis shoes    trainers
sweater    jumper
mailbox    postbox
band-aid    plaster
drugstore    chemist’s
soccer    football
cookie    biscuit

 
Grammar
Prepositions

The differences below are only a general rule. American speech has influenced Britain via pop culture, and vice versa. Therefore, some prepositional differences are not as pronounced as they once were.
American English    British English
I’m going to a party on the weekend.    I’m going to a party at the weekend.
What are you doing on Christmas?    What are you doing at Christmas?
Monday through Friday.    Monday to Friday.
It’s different from/than the others.    It’s different from/to the others.

 
Past Simple vs Present Perfect

Americans tend to use the past simple when describing something that has recently occurred, while people in the UK are more likely to use the present perfect.
American English    British English
I ate too much.    I’ve eaten too much.
I went to the store.    I’ve been to the shop.
Did you get the newspaper?    Have you got the newspaper?

 
The past participle of get

In the UK, “gotten” as the past participle of “get” is considered archaic and was abandoned long ago in favor of “got.” However, in the US people still use “gotten” as the past participle.
American English    British English
get — got — gotten    get — got — got
I haven’t gotten any news about him.    I’ve not got any news about him.

 
Collective nouns: singular or plural?

In British English, a collective noun (like committee, government, team, etc.) can be either singular or plural, but more often tends toward plural, emphasizing the members of the group. Collective nouns in the US, by comparison, are always singular, emphasizing the group as one whole entity.
American English    British English
The government is doing everything it can during this crisis.    The government are doing everything they can during this crisis.
My team is winning.    My team are winning.
Regular or irregular verbs?

This is a subtle difference that can be easily overlooked in speech, but is much more apparent in written form. Many verbs that are irregular in the preterite in Britain (leapt, dreamt, burnt, learnt) have been made regular in America (leaped, dreamed, burned, learned).

As the most-spoken second language on the planet, English has to be flexible. After all, it’s not solely spoken in the countries we’ve detailed above. So whether you speak English like a Brit or like a ‘merkan, this should not be an obstacle when communicating with people on the opposite side of the pond, or anywhere else in the world for that matter.


This article is from: https://www.babbel.com/en/magazine/what-are-the-differences-between-american-and-british-english/

2
English / Re: Motivating teachers
« on: September 24, 2018, 01:41:02 PM »
Thanks for sharing.

4
Dear Sir,
You can get some information from this write-up from the Daily Star as stated below:

"What we call Bangladeshi writing in English has come into being after the emergence of Bangladesh. Although the stream is very feeble, it exists. There is, however, no chronological list of the writers of this school. I have tried to make a rough outline which is, of course, subject to further modifications. The first generation of Bangladeshi writers in English includes a few poets. Razia Khan Amin came up with a couple of collections of poems. Her poetry books Argus Under Anaesthesia (1976) and Cruel April (1977) bear the stamp of her preeminence among English poets in Bangladesh. Farida Majid is another distinguished poet and literary translator. Her Take Me Home, Rickshaw (1974) is a collection of poems by contemporary Bangladeshi poets translated in English. She has edited an anthology of English poems titled Thursday Evening Anthology (1977).
Kaiser Haq is the most leading English language poet in Bangladesh. His poetic output is quite substantial. They are as follows: Starting Lines (1978)-Dacca; A Little Ado (1978)- Dacca ; A Happy Farewell (1994)-Dhaka; Black Orchid (1996)-London; The Logopathic Reviewer's Song (2002); Published in the Streets of Dhaka : Collected poems 19662006) (2008). A freedom fighter himself, Kaiser Haq is a consummate artist who has painted the contemporary Bangladeshi scene with powerful imaginative mind and artistic precision. His work bears all the hallmarks of good poetry. Feroz Ahmed-ud-din is another noted poet. Though not prolific, his poetry is marked by shortness and intensity. His Handful of Dust (1975) vividly portrays the loss of vision in contemporary life. Syed Najmuddin Hashim's collection of poems, Hopefully the Pomegranate, is a valuable addition to Bangladeshi English poetry. Hashem has drawn allusions and references from far-off European mythology and biblical anecdotes, and woven them into the local themes. Nuzhat Amin Mannan's Rhododendron Lane (2004) is enriched with creative imagery and distinctive style.
Rumana Siddique's Five Faces of Eve: Poems (2007) reflects the timeless experience of a woman symbolized by their biblical ancestor, Eve. Rumana's poems are a mix of the pleasures and pains of life. Nadeem Rahman's Politically Incorrect Poems (2004) is a collection of poems dealing with post-liberation war themes. His poetry is typified by highly individualistic attitude, sharp social sensibility, and keen political observation. Fakrul Alam's translation Jibanananda Das: Selected Poems (1999) is of great literary value. Apart from the poets identified, a number of enthusiastic poets are also writing good English poems. Syed Badrul Ahsan is one of them.
The realm of fiction in BWE hitherto is dominated by Adib Khan, a Bangladeshi diasporic author in Australia. He is a writer of real merit. His novels Seasonal Adjustments (1994) Solitude of Illusions (1996); The Storyteller (2000); Homecoming (2005); and Spiral Road (2007) win global acclaim and are mostly concerned with themes of self-identity, sense of belonging, migration, and social dislocation. His style is characterized by lucidity and sarcasm.
Tahmima Anam belongs to the group of writers who were born after the liberation of Bangladesh. Her novel A Golden Age (2007) is set in war-torn Bangladesh. As an English fictional work on the independence war (1971), Anam's novel must have a singular place in the history of Bangladeshi English literature. The storyteller Mahmud Rahman has appeared on the BWE scene with his debut publication Killing the Water (2010). It is a collection of a dozen short stories published by Penguin India and covers a wide range of themes ranging from the liberation war of Bangladesh to the racial violence against fresh immigrants in the USA. A galaxy of promising writers is trying their hands at writing short stories in English. Among others Khademul Islam, Kazi Anis Ahmed, Ahmede Hussain, Razia Sultana Khan, Shabnam Nadiya and Shahidul Alam deserve special mention.
Although Bangladeshi writing in English has a long way to go, it has a bright future too. We may be able to play at least a role similar to that of India. But how? The ongoing mode of BWE has to be liberated from the literary coterie, i.e., the small circle of writers, publishers, and their admirers. It has to be rescued from the narrow confines of academia and the English medium schools. English language newspapers and magazines should allow enough room for literary expression and fresh writings should be picked solely on merit. The King's/Queen's English can better be exploited by the conscious 'Calibans' of our country.''
https://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-150619

5
Creative Writing / পথিক হেটে চলেছে
« on: September 24, 2018, 01:31:29 PM »
পথিক হেটে চলেছে।
পথের দুপাশে ফোটা ভাঁটফুল জিজ্ঞেস করে, জেনেছি কী যেন শিক্ষা অর্জন করেছ, ঠিক?
.
পথিক হেটে যায়।
পথের সামনে পড়ল এক কালকেউটে সাপ। পথিক হাতে লাঠি নিয়ে এগুলো।
সাপ বলে, আমি তোমায় মারতে আসিনি। জানতে চাইছি কেবল, কী শিখেছ?
পথিক লাজাওয়াব। সাপ গর্তে লুকোয়।
এরপর আবারো হেটে চলে পথিক।
উপরে আকাশ আর নিচে মাটি সমস্বরে জিজ্ঞাসে, বলো না পথিক, শিখেছ কী?
.
পথিক এবার আকাশের দিকে তাকায়। একবার খুঁজে দেখে চারপাশে। না, কেউ নেই। এবার তাকালো নিচে। পথের মাঝে মাটির স্তরে ভিন্নতা আছে। কোথাও উঁচু, নিচু কোথাও। একই মাটির কতই ধরন! উঁচু মাটি নিচু মাটির দিকে তাচ্ছিল্য করছে কিনা সে শুনছে কান পেতে। না।
আর নিচু মাটিও নিজের ব্যাপারে হীনমন্যতায় ভুগছে কিনা তাও ঠাউর করা যাচ্ছে না।
.
আচমকা আকাশ বাতাস ধ্বনিত করে পথিক ডেকে ওঠে- অতটুকু পথ হেটে আমি শিখেছি ঠকে যায় কারা- 'অপবাদদাতারা ঠকে যায়। ঠকবাজরা ঠকে যায়। নিজেকে নিয়ে বড়াইকারীরা ঠকে যায়। ঠকে যায় মিথ্যুকরা। ঠকে যায় হিংসুকরা। ঠকে যায় খায়েশের অনুসারীরা।'

6
Creative Writing / Exploring the Road Unknown
« on: September 24, 2018, 01:30:35 PM »
When the sun was playing its hottest heat-game
And the drops of sweat were blinking in my name,
I suddenly realized that the other side of this road is unknown
Nor trod I on it as before I'd trod on whatever road was shown
That bicycle was a pretty good companion
Who was nodding himself for me to ride on

And I did not wait for the reactions waiting
Who'll say what and who'll keep debating

The man from the wood said to turn to the trend
Saying it would take time for me to reach the end
He was not to be listened
Nor had I poise to intend
I worked on my pedals and I rose the gear
In a few minutes I learned the end was near

7
English / Re: Two Poems
« on: September 24, 2018, 01:29:33 PM »
 :)

8
Speaking Skill / Re: 10 Tips to stay focused in an interview
« on: September 24, 2018, 01:29:18 PM »
Thanks for presenting the important tips madam.

9
Speaking Skill / Re: 4 Basic Types of Speeches
« on: September 24, 2018, 01:27:59 PM »
Really helpful for the teachers.

10
Speaking Skill / Re: Extempore Speech Topics
« on: September 24, 2018, 01:27:21 PM »
We can make cue cards based on the topics. Thank you madam.

11
Speaking Skill / Re: 12 fun speaking games for language learners
« on: September 24, 2018, 01:25:16 PM »
I was sort of searching for them. Thanks for presenting.

12
Speaking Skill / Re: 13 Ideas for ESL Speaking Activities for Adults
« on: September 24, 2018, 01:24:13 PM »
Interesting to know about.

13
English / Re: একা
« on: September 24, 2018, 01:21:38 PM »
Keep reading!

14
Applied Linguistics & ELT / Motivation in ELT
« on: September 24, 2018, 01:16:39 PM »
Motivation is what moves us to act, in this context to learn English, to learn to teach English, or to teach it. This deceptively simple statement reveals, however, the four elements it involves:

    ▪ the reasons why we want to learn,

    ▪ the strength of our desire to learn,

    ▪ the kind of person we are, and

    ▪ the task, and our estimation of what it requires of us.

Motivation is a property of the learner, but it is also a transitive concept: coaches can motivate their clients, teachers can motivate their students. Furthermore, it is dynamic and changes over time, especially in the usually long-drawn out process of language learning. Motivation is thus remarkably complex.

For many years, studies of motivation for language learning concentrated on reasons for learning. Empirical evidence showed that for some people a wish to integrate, in some sense, with the speech community of the language being learnt seemed to be more strongly associated with success, while for others a wish to capitalize on the usefulness of knowing a language within the learners’ own culture was more effective. This was the distinction made famous by Gardner and his colleagues (Gardner 1985) between ‘integrative’ and ‘instrumental’ orientations. Although this work had the advantage of direct relevance to language learning, its almost universal acceptance masked equally important but more general distinctions, such as:

    ▪ extrinsic and intrinsic motivation (Deci and Ryan 1985), which referred to the source of the influence, whether within oneself or perceived as being from the outside; and

    ▪ striving for success versus avoidance of failure (Heckhausen 1991).

In Gardner's approach, strength of motivation was typically estimated only from attitude questionnaires and thought of as a hidden psychometric trait. However, other educational traditions had used indices from observed on-task behaviour: choice of task according to perceived difficulty, the learner's persistence in tackling a problem, level of participation in class or group activities, attention focus and span; or qualitative data such as verbal reports of self-monitoring and self-regulation.

Crookes and Schmidt's (1991) ‘new research agenda’ incorporated developments in general educational studies into the narrower field of language learning motivation. This focused on individuals, the contexts of learning, the strategies learners might adopt, and the observable learning behaviour of class members.

Following the new agenda, attention then shifted to ideas about the individuality of the learner. For example, Covington's (1998) self-worth theory emphasizes the importance of the beliefs learners hold about themselves, and therefore their level of aspiration and the kinds of strategies they operate or can be taught to adopt, to achieve what they want for themselves. A very important related concept is Bandura's (1997) notion of self-efficacy, looking at how learners estimate their capabilities and manage themselves. Learners who can develop effective motivational thinking, capitalize on success, and minimize the effect of failure will depend less on externally imposed structures and strategies than on their own resources. This connection between intrinsic motivation and the development of learner autonomy in language learning has been investigated by Ushioda (1996).

Learners’ beliefs about the task or sub-tasks, their perceptions of the level and nature of the difficulties, and of what is expected of them, represent another very important motivational influence. Attribution theory (Weiner 1972) has long been a means of capturing how learners evaluate tasks differently, by considering the reasons why the learners believe learning outcomes occurred. If success is attributed to having a good teacher, that learner will not believe it will occur in the absence of that teacher; if failure is seen as the result of lack of effort rather than talent, the learner may believe working harder will result in success.

A comprehensive source-book for all these approaches is Pintrich and Schunk (1996) which succinctly describes the range of motivational theories in education and associated research and applications.

Dörnyei (2001: 21) argues that motivation changes over time in three phases: choice, execution, and retrospection. The initial choice to actually learn the language or start the task rather than just think about it requires different springs to the maintenance of effort, perseverance, or tolerance of frustration in the second phase. Finally the learner needs to come to terms with the whole experience and evaluate the outcomes. Dörnyei (ibid.: 136) offers a checklist of 35 motivational strategies covering the three phases for teachers to try out—warning that the aim is to become a ‘good enough’ motivator, not a perfect one.

The teacher's role in all of this is central, and difficult. It goes far beyond the provision of reward (itself dependent on the learner's self-efficacy). It involves providing a supportive and challenging learning environment, but also facilitating the development of the learners’ own motivational thinking, beyond simply identifying their original orientation. Perhaps the most difficult aspect is not doing anything to de-motivate them.

https://academic.oup.com/eltj/article/61/4/369/372102

15
Postcolonialism / Re: key concepts in Postcolonialism
« on: September 24, 2018, 01:04:13 PM »
Good to read Madam :)

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