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Topics - Md. Alamgir Hossan

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511
Business Administration / Importance of Vision and Mission Statements
« on: March 13, 2016, 04:16:37 PM »
One of the first things that any observer of management thought and practice asks is whether a particular organization has a vision and mission statement. In addition, one of the first things that one learns in a business school is the importance of vision and mission statements.

This article is intended to elucidate on the reasons why vision and mission statements are important and the benefits that such statements provide to the organizations. It has been found in studies that organizations that have lucid, coherent, and meaningful vision and mission statements return more than double the numbers in shareholder benefits when compared to the organizations that do not have vision and mission statements. Indeed, the importance of vision and mission statements is such that it is the first thing that is discussed in management textbooks on strategy.

Some of the benefits of having a vision and mission statement are discussed below:

    Above everything else, vision and mission statements provide unanimity of purpose to organizations and imbue the employees with a sense of belonging and identity. Indeed, vision and mission statements are embodiments of organizational identity and carry the organizations creed and motto. For this purpose, they are also called as statements of creed.

    Vision and mission statements spell out the context in which the organization operates and provides the employees with a tone that is to be followed in the organizational climate. Since they define the reason for existence of the organization, they are indicators of the direction in which the organization must move to actualize the goals in the vision and mission statements.

    The vision and mission statements serve as focal points for individuals to identify themselves with the organizational processes and to give them a sense of direction while at the same time deterring those who do not wish to follow them from participating in the organization’s activities.

    The vision and mission statements help to translate the objectives of the organization into work structures and to assign tasks to the elements in the organization that are responsible for actualizing them in practice.

    To specify the core structure on which the organizational edifice stands and to help in the translation of objectives into actionable cost, performance, and time related measures.

    Finally, vision and mission statements provide a philosophy of existence to the employees, which is very crucial because as humans, we need meaning from the work to do and the vision and mission statements provide the necessary meaning for working in a particular organization.

As can be seen from the above, articulate, coherent, and meaningful vision and mission statements go a long way in setting the base performance and actionable parameters and embody the spirit of the organization. In other words, vision and mission statements are as important as the various identities that individuals have in their everyday lives.

It is for this reason that organizations spend a lot of time in defining their vision and mission statements and ensure that they come up with the statements that provide meaning instead of being mere sentences that are devoid of any meaning.

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Organizational environment consists of both external and internal factors. Environment must be scanned so as to determine development and forecasts of factors that will influence organizational success. Environmental scanning refers to possession and utilization of information about occasions, patterns, trends, and relationships within an organization’s internal and external environment. It helps the managers to decide the future path of the organization. Scanning must identify the threats and opportunities existing in the environment. While strategy formulation, an organization must take advantage of the opportunities and minimize the threats. A threat for one organization may be an opportunity for another.

Internal analysis of the environment is the first step of environment scanning. Organizations should observe the internal organizational environment. This includes employee interaction with other employees, employee interaction with management, manager interaction with other managers, and management interaction with shareholders, access to natural resources, brand awareness, organizational structure, main staff, operational potential, etc. Also, discussions, interviews, and surveys can be used to assess the internal environment. Analysis of internal environment helps in identifying strengths and weaknesses of an organization.

As business becomes more competitive, and there are rapid changes in the external environment, information from external environment adds crucial elements to the effectiveness of long-term plans. As environment is dynamic, it becomes essential to identify competitors’ moves and actions. Organizations have also to update the core competencies and internal environment as per external environment. Environmental factors are infinite, hence, organization should be agile and vigile to accept and adjust to the environmental changes. For instance - Monitoring might indicate that an original forecast of the prices of the raw materials that are involved in the product are no more credible, which could imply the requirement for more focused scanning, forecasting and analysis to create a more trustworthy prediction about the input costs. In a similar manner, there can be changes in factors such as competitor’s activities, technology, market tastes and preferences.

While in external analysis, three correlated environment should be studied and analyzed —

    immediate / industry environment
    national environment
    broader socio-economic environment / macro-environment

Examining the industry environment needs an appraisal of the competitive structure of the organization’s industry, including the competitive position of a particular organization and it’s main rivals. Also, an assessment of the nature, stage, dynamics and history of the industry is essential. It also implies evaluating the effect of globalization on competition within the industry. Analyzing the national environment needs an appraisal of whether the national framework helps in achieving competitive advantage in the globalized environment. Analysis of macro-environment includes exploring macro-economic, social, government, legal, technological and international factors that may influence the environment. The analysis of organization’s external environment reveals opportunities and threats for an organization.

Strategic managers must not only recognize the present state of the environment and their industry but also be able to predict its future positions.

513
Business Administration / Strategy - Definition and Features
« on: March 13, 2016, 04:15:02 PM »
The word “strategy” is derived from the Greek word “stratçgos”; stratus (meaning army) and “ago” (meaning leading/moving).

Strategy is an action that managers take to attain one or more of the organization’s goals. Strategy can also be defined as “A general direction set for the company and its various components to achieve a desired state in the future. Strategy results from the detailed strategic planning process”.

A strategy is all about integrating organizational activities and utilizing and allocating the scarce resources within the organizational environment so as to meet the present objectives. While planning a strategy it is essential to consider that decisions are not taken in a vaccum and that any act taken by a firm is likely to be met by a reaction from those affected, competitors, customers, employees or suppliers.

Strategy can also be defined as knowledge of the goals, the uncertainty of events and the need to take into consideration the likely or actual behavior of others. Strategy is the blueprint of decisions in an organization that shows its objectives and goals, reduces the key policies, and plans for achieving these goals, and defines the business the company is to carry on, the type of economic and human organization it wants to be, and the contribution it plans to make to its shareholders, customers and society at large.
Features of Strategy

    Strategy is Significant because it is not possible to foresee the future. Without a perfect foresight, the firms must be ready to deal with the uncertain events which constitute the business environment.

    Strategy deals with long term developments rather than routine operations, i.e. it deals with probability of innovations or new products, new methods of productions, or new markets to be developed in future.

    Strategy is created to take into account the probable behavior of customers and competitors. Strategies dealing with employees will predict the employee behavior.

Strategy is a well defined roadmap of an organization. It defines the overall mission, vision and direction of an organization. The objective of a strategy is to maximize an organization’s strengths and to minimize the strengths of the competitors.

Strategy, in short, bridges the gap between “where we are” and “where we want to be”.

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SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. By definition, Strengths (S) and Weaknesses (W) are considered to be internal factors over which you have some measure of control. Also, by definition, Opportunities (O) and Threats (T) are considered to be external factors over which you have essentially no control.

SWOT Analysis is the most renowned tool for audit and analysis of the overall strategic position of the business and its environment. Its key purpose is to identify the strategies that will create a firm specific business model that will best align an organization’s resources and capabilities to the requirements of the environment in which the firm operates.

In other words, it is the foundation for evaluating the internal potential and limitations and the probable/likely opportunities and threats from the external environment. It views all positive and negative factors inside and outside the firm that affect the success. A consistent study of the environment in which the firm operates helps in forecasting/predicting the changing trends and also helps in including them in the decision-making process of the organization.

An overview of the four factors (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) is given below-

    Strengths - Strengths are the qualities that enable us to accomplish the organization’s mission. These are the basis on which continued success can be made and continued/sustained.

    Strengths can be either tangible or intangible. These are what you are well-versed in or what you have expertise in, the traits and qualities your employees possess (individually and as a team) and the distinct features that give your organization its consistency.

    Strengths are the beneficial aspects of the organization or the capabilities of an organization, which includes human competencies, process capabilities, financial resources, products and services, customer goodwill and brand loyalty. Examples of organizational strengths are huge financial resources, broad product line, no debt, committed employees, etc.

    Weaknesses - Weaknesses are the qualities that prevent us from accomplishing our mission and achieving our full potential. These weaknesses deteriorate influences on the organizational success and growth. Weaknesses are the factors which do not meet the standards we feel they should meet.

    Weaknesses in an organization may be depreciating machinery, insufficient research and development facilities, narrow product range, poor decision-making, etc. Weaknesses are controllable. They must be minimized and eliminated. For instance - to overcome obsolete machinery, new machinery can be purchased. Other examples of organizational weaknesses are huge debts, high employee turnover, complex decision making process, narrow product range, large wastage of raw materials, etc.

    Opportunities - Opportunities are presented by the environment within which our organization operates. These arise when an organization can take benefit of conditions in its environment to plan and execute strategies that enable it to become more profitable. Organizations can gain competitive advantage by making use of opportunities.

    Organization should be careful and recognize the opportunities and grasp them whenever they arise. Selecting the targets that will best serve the clients while getting desired results is a difficult task. Opportunities may arise from market, competition, industry/government and technology. Increasing demand for telecommunications accompanied by deregulation is a great opportunity for new firms to enter telecom sector and compete with existing firms for revenue.

    Threats - Threats arise when conditions in external environment jeopardize the reliability and profitability of the organization’s business. They compound the vulnerability when they relate to the weaknesses. Threats are uncontrollable. When a threat comes, the stability and survival can be at stake. Examples of threats are - unrest among employees; ever changing technology; increasing competition leading to excess capacity, price wars and reducing industry profits; etc.

Advantages of SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis is instrumental in strategy formulation and selection. It is a strong tool, but it involves a great subjective element. It is best when used as a guide, and not as a prescription. Successful businesses build on their strengths, correct their weakness and protect against internal weaknesses and external threats. They also keep a watch on their overall business environment and recognize and exploit new opportunities faster than its competitors.

SWOT Analysis helps in strategic planning in following manner-

    It is a source of information for strategic planning.
    Builds organization’s strengths.
    Reverse its weaknesses.
    Maximize its response to opportunities.
    Overcome organization’s threats.
    It helps in identifying core competencies of the firm.
    It helps in setting of objectives for strategic planning.
    It helps in knowing past, present and future so that by using past and current data, future plans can be chalked out.

SWOT Analysis provide information that helps in synchronizing the firm’s resources and capabilities with the competitive environment in which the firm operates.
SWOT ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK

SWOT Analysis
Limitations of SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis is not free from its limitations. It may cause organizations to view circumstances as very simple because of which the organizations might overlook certain key strategic contact which may occur. Moreover, categorizing aspects as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats might be very subjective as there is great degree of uncertainty in market. SWOT Analysis does stress upon the significance of these four aspects, but it does not tell how an organization can identify these aspects for itself.

There are certain limitations of SWOT Analysis which are not in control of management. These include-

    Price increase;
    Inputs/raw materials;
    Government legislation;
    Economic environment;
    Searching a new market for the product which is not having overseas market due to import restrictions; etc.

Internal limitations may include-

    Insufficient research and development facilities;
    Faulty products due to poor quality control;
    Poor industrial relations;
    Lack of skilled and efficient labour; etc

Learn about ‘SWOT Analysis’ with the help of easy to understand, richly illustrated Powerpoint Presentation of 130 Slides.
(Download Demo Below)

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Business Administration / Benefits of Strategic Management
« on: March 13, 2016, 04:13:43 PM »
There are many benefits of strategic management and they include identification, prioritization, and exploration of opportunities. For instance, newer products, newer markets, and newer forays into business lines are only possible if firms indulge in strategic planning. Next, strategic management allows firms to take an objective view of the activities being done by it and do a cost benefit analysis as to whether the firm is profitable.

Just to differentiate, by this, we do not mean the financial benefits alone (which would be discussed below) but also the assessment of profitability that has to do with evaluating whether the business is strategically aligned to its goals and priorities.

The key point to be noted here is that strategic management allows a firm to orient itself to its market and consumers and ensure that it is actualizing the right strategy.
Financial Benefits

It has been shown in many studies that firms that engage in strategic management are more profitable and successful than those that do not have the benefit of strategic planning and strategic management.

When firms engage in forward looking planning and careful evaluation of their priorities, they have control over the future, which is necessary in the fast changing business landscape of the 21st century.

It has been estimated that more than 100,000 businesses fail in the US every year and most of these failures are to do with a lack of strategic focus and strategic direction. Further, high performing firms tend to make more informed decisions because they have considered both the short term and long-term consequences and hence, have oriented their strategies accordingly. In contrast, firms that do not engage themselves in meaningful strategic planning are often bogged down by internal problems and lack of focus that leads to failure.
Non-Financial Benefits

The section above discussed some of the tangible benefits of strategic management. Apart from these benefits, firms that engage in strategic management are more aware of the external threats, an improved understanding of competitor strengths and weaknesses and increased employee productivity. They also have lesser resistance to change and a clear understanding of the link between performance and rewards.

The key aspect of strategic management is that the problem solving and problem preventing capabilities of the firms are enhanced through strategic management. Strategic management is essential as it helps firms to rationalize change and actualize change and communicate the need to change better to its employees. Finally, strategic management helps in bringing order and discipline to the activities of the firm in its both internal processes and external activities.
Closing Thoughts

In recent years, virtually all firms have realized the importance of strategic management. However, the key difference between those who succeed and those who fail is that the way in which strategic management is done and strategic planning is carried out makes the difference between success and failure. Of course, there are still firms that do not engage in strategic planning or where the planners do not receive the support from management. These firms ought to realize the benefits of strategic management and ensure their longer-term viability and success in the marketplace.

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The strategic management process means defining the organization’s strategy. It is also defined as the process by which managers make a choice of a set of strategies for the organization that will enable it to achieve better performance.

Strategic management is a continuous process that appraises the business and industries in which the organization is involved; appraises it’s competitors; and fixes goals to meet all the present and future competitor’s and then reassesses each strategy.

Strategic management process has following four steps:

    Environmental Scanning- Environmental scanning refers to a process of collecting, scrutinizing and providing information for strategic purposes. It helps in analyzing the internal and external factors influencing an organization. After executing the environmental analysis process, management should evaluate it on a continuous basis and strive to improve it.

    Strategy Formulation- Strategy formulation is the process of deciding best course of action for accomplishing organizational objectives and hence achieving organizational purpose. After conducting environment scanning, managers formulate corporate, business and functional strategies.

    Strategy Implementation- Strategy implementation implies making the strategy work as intended or putting the organization’s chosen strategy into action. Strategy implementation includes designing the organization’s structure, distributing resources, developing decision making process, and managing human resources.

    Strategy Evaluation- Strategy evaluation is the final step of strategy management process. The key strategy evaluation activities are: appraising internal and external factors that are the root of present strategies, measuring performance, and taking remedial / corrective actions. Evaluation makes sure that the organizational strategy as well as it’s implementation meets the organizational objectives.

These components are steps that are carried, in chronological order, when creating a new strategic management plan. Present businesses that have already created a strategic management plan will revert to these steps as per the situation’s requirement, so as to make essential changes.

Components of Strategic Management Process
Components of Strategic Management Process

Strategic management is an ongoing process. Therefore, it must be realized that each component interacts with the other components and that this interaction often happens in chorus.

517
Business Administration / International Human Resource Management
« on: March 13, 2016, 04:11:35 PM »
The effective management and development of human resources is a challenging task in any work organization. As the pace of technological change increases and organisations develop a greater international focus, the management and development of people in order to adapt to these changing conditions becomes ever more important.

International Human Resource Management MSc aims to enable students to progress in any career linked with the management and development of people.

518
Business Administration / Strategic-HRM
« on: March 13, 2016, 04:09:11 PM »
This discipline covers the concepts and practices that guide and align Human Resource Management philosophy, tactical planning and practice with the strategic and long term goals of the organization, with a particular focus on human capital. It deals with the macro-concerns of the organization regarding structure, quality, culture, values, commitment, matching resources to future needs and other longer term people issues.

Strategic HRM gives direction on how to build the foundation for strategic advantage by creating an effective organizational structure and design, culture, employee value proposition, systems thinking, an appropriate communication strategy and preparing an organization for a changing landscape, which includes downturns and mergers & acquisitions. Sustainability and corporate social responsibility come within the ambit of this discipline, especially with reference to organizational values and their expression in business decision making.

Strategic HRM emphasizes organizational codes of ethics, managing the societal impact of business decisions, philanthropy and the role of the human resource professional in improving the quality of life of employees, their families and the community at large. - See more at: https://shrm.org/india/hr-topics-and-strategy/strategic-hrm/pages/default.aspx#sthash.PKbKM5ql.dpuf

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Business Administration / HR: Functions
« on: March 13, 2016, 04:07:37 PM »
     Hiring
    Promotions
    Reassignments
    Position classification and grading
    Salary determination
    Performance appraisal review and processing
    Awards review and processing
    Personnel data entry and records maintenance
    Consultation and advisory services to management and employees
        Conduct problems
        Performance problems
    Policy development
    Technical policy interpretation
    Work Permitting Immigration Visa Program
    Benefits
        Health care insurance
        Life insurance
        Disability insurance
        Retirement
        Voluntary accidental death and dismemberment insurance
        Leave Transfer Program
        Tuition Assistance Plan
        Training opportunities
        Combined Federal Campaign
    Employee assistance referral
    Workers' compensation

520
Business Administration / Importance of Human Resource Management
« on: March 13, 2016, 04:06:08 PM »
An organisation cannot build a good team of working professionals without good Human Resources. The key functions of the Human Resources Management (HRM) team include recruiting people, training them, performance appraisals, motivating employees as well as workplace communication, workplace safety, and much more. The beneficial effects of these functions are discussed here:

Recruitment and Training
This is one of the major responsibilities of the human resource team. The HR managers come up with plans and strategies for hiring the right kind of people. They design the criteria which is best suited for a specific job description. Their other tasks related to recruitment include formulating the obligations of an employee and the scope of tasks assigned to him or her. Based on these two factors, the contract of an employee with the company is prepared. When needed, they also provide training to the employees according to the requirements of the organisation. Thus, the staff members get the opportunity to sharpen their existing skills or develop specialised skills which in turn, will help them to take up some new roles.

Performance Appraisals
HRM encourages the people working in an organisation, to work according to their potential and gives them suggestions that can help them to bring about improvement in it. The team communicates with the staff individually from time to time and provides all the necessary information regarding their performances and also defines their respective roles. This is beneficial as it enables them to form an outline of their anticipated goals in much clearer terms and thereby, helps them execute the goals with best possible efforts. Performance appraisals, when taken on a regular basis, motivate the employees.

Maintaining Work Atmosphere
This is a vital aspect of HRM because the performance of an individual in an organisation is largely driven by the work atmosphere or work culture that prevails at the workplace. A good working condition is one of the benefits that the employees can expect from an efficient human resource team. A safe, clean and healthy environment can bring out the best in an employee. A friendly atmosphere gives the staff members job satisfaction as well.

Managing Disputes
In an organisation, there are several issues on which disputes may arise between the employees and the employers. You can say conflicts are almost inevitable. In such a scenario, it is the human resource department which acts as a consultant and mediator to sort out those issues in an effective manner. They first hear the grievances of the employees. Then they come up with suitable solutions to sort them out. In other words, they take timely action and prevent things from going out of hands.

Developing Public Relations
The responsibility of establishing good public relations lies with the HRM to a great extent. They organise business meetings, seminars and various official gatherings on behalf of the company in order to build up relationships with other business sectors. Sometimes, the HR department plays an active role in preparing the business and marketing plans for the organisation too.

Any organisation, without a proper setup for HRM is bound to suffer from serious problems while managing its regular activities. For this reason, today, companies must put a lot of effort and energy into setting up a strong and effective HRM.

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Recruitment

The success of recruiters and employment specialists generally is measured by the number of positions they fill and the time it takes to fill those positions. Recruiters who work in-house -- as opposed to companies that provide recruiting and staffing services -- play a key role in developing the employer's workforce. They advertise job postings, source candidates, screen applicants, conduct preliminary interviews and coordinate hiring efforts with managers responsible for making the final selection of candidates.
Safety

Workplace safety is an important factor. Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, employers have an obligation to provide a safe working environment for employees. One of the main functions of HR is to support workplace safety training and maintain federally mandated logs for workplace injury and fatality reporting. In addition, HR safety and risk specialists often work closely with HR benefits specialists to manage the company's workers compensation issues.
Employee Relations

In a unionized work environment, the employee and labor relations functions of HR may be combined and handled by one specialist or be entirely separate functions managed by two HR specialists with specific expertise in each area. Employee relations is the HR discipline concerned with strengthening the employer-employee relationship through measuring job satisfaction, employee engagement and resolving workplace conflict. Labor relations functions may include developing management response to union organizing campaigns, negotiating collective bargaining agreements and rendering interpretations of labor union contract issues.
Compensation and Benefits

Like employee and labor relations, the compensation and benefits functions of HR often can be handled by one HR specialist with dual expertise. On the compensation side, the HR functions include setting compensation structures and evaluating competitive pay practices. A comp and benefits specialist also may negotiate group health coverage rates with insurers and coordinate activities with the retirement savings fund administrator. Payroll can be a component of the compensation and benefits section of HR; however, in many cases, employers outsource such administrative functions as payroll.
Compliance

Compliance with labor and employment laws is a critical HR function. Noncompliance can result in workplace complaints based on unfair employment practices, unsafe working conditions and general dissatisfaction with working conditions that can affect productivity and ultimately, profitability. HR staff must be aware of federal and state employment laws such as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Fair Labor Standards Act, the National Labor Relations Act and many other rules and regulations.
Training and Development

Employers must provide employees with the tools necessary for their success which, in many cases, means giving new employees extensive orientation training to help them transition into a new organizational culture. Many HR departments also provide leadership training and professional development. Leadership training may be required of newly hired and promoted supervisors and managers on topics such as performance management and how to handle employee relations matters at the department level. Professional development opportunities are for employees looking for promotional opportunities or employees who want to achieve personal goals such as finishing a college degree. Programs such as tuition assistance and tuition reimbursement programs often are within the purview of the HR training and development area.

522
Business Administration / Human resource management
« on: March 13, 2016, 04:03:27 PM »
Human resource management (HRM, or simply HR) is a function in organizations designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives. HR is primarily concerned with the management of people within organizations, focusing on policies and on systems.

523
Business Administration / Green Management Program
« on: March 13, 2016, 04:02:34 PM »
The Green Management graduate certificate program provides students with an advantage in a very competitive business environment. Indicators are that leaders of forward-thinking, progressive, successful and global organizations are looking to reduce their social and environmental impacts, contribute to the development of innovative solutions, and gain market advantage in the new, emerging sustainable economy. Graduates of this program will be well placed to address those needs.

In the program, students will learn the project and change-management skills needed to help an organization implement environmental sustainability into its bottom line. As part of their learning experiences, students will develop and implement a sustainability action plan that will lead to greater value creation, improved productivity and enhanced corporate responsibility for the organization.

524
Business Administration / Green Management
« on: March 13, 2016, 04:01:05 PM »
Green Management is an initiative aiming at continuously improving the foundation of environmental management, such as the development of personnel responsible for environmental activities, environmental management systems, and environmental communication as well as conservation of biodiversity.

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যুক্তরাষ্ট্রের ফেডারেল রিজার্ভ ব্যাংক অব নিউইয়র্কে রক্ষিত বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের রিজার্ভের অর্থ থেকে প্রায় ৯৫০ মিলিয়ন বা ৯৫ কোটি ডলার চুরির চেষ্টা হয়েছিল। প্রতি ডলারের বিনিময় মূল্য ৮০ টাকা ধরে বাংলাদেশি মুদ্রায় যার পরিমাণ প্রায় ৭ হাজার ৬০০ কোটি টাকা।
বাংলাদেশের বিপুল বৈদেশিক মুদ্রা সরিয়ে নিতে বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের সুইফটের সংকেতলিপি (কোড) থেকে অর্থ স্থানান্তরের ৩৫টি ‘পরামর্শ বা অ্যাডভাইস’ পাঠানো হয়েছিল যুক্তরাষ্ট্রের ফেডারেল রিজার্ভ ব্যাংক অব নিউইয়র্কে। সেখান থেকে কার্যকর হয়েছিল মোট ৫টি পরামর্শ।
বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংক ও অর্থ মন্ত্রণালয়ের একাধিক সূত্রে এ তথ্য নিশ্চিত হওয়া গেছে। তবে তদন্তের স্বার্থে এ বিষয়ে আনুষ্ঠানিকভাবে কেউ কোনো মন্তব্য করেননি।
বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের পক্ষ থেকে গতকাল বুধবার আনুষ্ঠানিকভাবে সাংবাদিকদের জানানো হয়, যুক্তরাষ্ট্রের ব্যাংক থেকে রিজার্ভের মোট ১০১ মিলিয়ন বা ১০ কোটি ১০ লাখ ডলার দেশের বাইরে থেকে ‘হ্যাকড’ করে শ্রীলঙ্কা ও ফিলিপাইনে স্থানান্তর করা হয়। এর মধ্যে শ্রীলঙ্কায় গেছে ২০ মিলিয়ন বা ২ কোটি ডলার আর ফিলিপাইনে গেছে ৮১ মিলিয়ন বা ৮ কোটি ১০ লাখ ডলার। গত ৫ ফেব্রুয়ারি এ ঘটনা ঘটে।
বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংক বলছে, ‘হ্যাকড’ করে বিপুল অর্থ চুরি করার ঘটনায় নিজেদের কেউ জড়িত কি না, তা খতিয়ে দেখা হচ্ছে। অর্থ চুরির এ ঘটনার তদন্তের সঙ্গে যুক্ত তথ্যপ্রযুক্তি বিশেষজ্ঞ, বিশ্বব্যাংকের সাবেক তথ্যপ্রযুক্তি পরিচালক রাকেশ আস্তানা গতকাল সাংবাদিকদের বলেছেন, মাঝপথে থাকা তদন্তে এখন পর্যন্ত যে তথ্য মিলেছে, তাতে বাইরে থেকেই ‘হ্যাকড’ করে এ ঘটনা ঘটানো হয়েছে।
তবে সুইফট কর্তৃপক্ষও গতকাল এক বার্তায় বলেছে, ‘তাদের নেটওয়ার্ক অপব্যবহার হয়েছে, এমন কোনো লক্ষণ এখনো পাওয়া যায়নি।’
আন্তর্জাতিক সংবাদমাধ্যম রয়টার্সের এক প্রতিবেদনে বেলজিয়ামভিত্তিক আন্তব্যাংক আর্থিক লেনদেনের নেটওয়ার্ক সুইফটের (সোসাইটি ফর ওয়ার্ল্ডওয়াইড ইন্টারব্যাংক ফিন্যান্সিয়াল টেলিকমিউনিকেশন) এক বিবৃতি উদ্ধৃত করে বলা হয়েছে, ‘সুইফট কর্তৃপক্ষও বিষয়টি খতিয়ে দেখছে। প্রেরণকারী ও গ্রহণকারী প্রতিষ্ঠানের মধ্যে যে বার্তা বিনিময় হয়েছে, সেটি ছিল বিশ্বাসযোগ্য (অথেনটিক)। এখন পর্যন্ত আমাদের নেটওয়ার্ক অপব্যবহার হয়েছে, এ রকম কোনো লক্ষণ পাওয়া যায়নি।’
এদিকে বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংক গতকাল জানিয়েছে, শ্রীলঙ্কার ২ কোটি ডলার এরই মধ্যে উদ্ধার করা গেছে। আর ফিলিপাইনের ৮ কোটি ১০ লাখ ডলার উদ্ধারের চেষ্টা চলছে। অচিরেই এসব অর্থ ফেরত আনা সম্ভব হবে বলেও সাংবাদিকদের জানান কেন্দ্রীয় ব্যাংকের শীর্ষস্থানীয় কর্মকর্তারা। ‘অর্থ পরিশোধের লেনদেন ব্যবস্থার সাইবার নিরাপত্তা’ নিয়ে দেশের তফসিলি সব ব্যাংকের শীর্ষ নির্বাহী এবং প্রধান প্রযুক্তি কর্মকর্তাদের সঙ্গে বৈঠক শেষে সাংবাদিকদের সঙ্গে কথা বলেন ডেপুটি গভর্নর আবু হেনা মো. রাজি হাসান, নির্বাহী পরিচালক ও কেন্দ্রীয় ব্যাংকের মুখপাত্র শুভঙ্কর সাহা এবং তথ্যপ্রযুক্তি বিশেষজ্ঞ রাকেশ আস্তানা। এ সময় আরও উপস্থিত ছিলেন ডেপুটি গভর্নর নাজনীন সুলতানা।
এদিকে, নাম প্রকাশে অনিচ্ছুক অর্থ মন্ত্রণালয় ও বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের একাধিক নির্ভরশীল সূত্রে জানা গেছে, শ্রীলঙ্কা থেকে উদ্ধার করা দুই কোটি ডলার গিয়েছিল সে দেশের একটি ব্যাংকে নতুন খোলা এনজিও (বেসরকারি সংস্থা) হিসাবে। কনসালট্যান্সি বা পরামর্শক ফি হিসেবে ওই অর্থ স্থানান্তরের ‘পরামর্শ’ গিয়েছিল বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের সংকেতলিপি থেকে। কিন্তু শ্রীলঙ্কায় মানি লন্ডারিং প্রতিরোধ আইন শক্তিশালী হওয়ায় নতুন একটি হিসাবে বড় অঙ্কের অর্থের লেনদেনের বিষয়টি সংশ্লিষ্ট ব্যাংক সন্দেহের চোখে দেখে। তখন ওই ব্যাংকের পক্ষ থেকে বিষয়টি শ্রীলঙ্কার কেন্দ্রীয় ব্যাংকের নজরে আনা হলে সেই অর্থ আটকে দেওয়া হয়। তাতে ওই টাকা উদ্ধার করা সম্ভব হয়।
সূত্রটি আরও জানায়, ফিলিপাইনেও কয়েকটি প্রতিষ্ঠানের নামে খোলা ব্যাংক হিসাবে যুক্তরাষ্ট্রের নিউইয়র্কের ব্যাংক থেকে অর্থ স্থানান্তর হয়ে জমা হয়। পরে সেখান থেকে অন্য হিসাবে সেসব অর্থ সরিয়ে নিয়ে যাওয়া হয়েছে। ফিলিপাইনের মানি লন্ডারিং প্রতিরোধ আইনের দুর্বলতা এবং ঘটনার সঙ্গে ব্যাংকের কিছু কর্মকর্তা জড়িত থাকায় বড় অঙ্কের বৈদেশিক লেনদেন সত্ত্বেও তা অনায়াসে এক হিসাব থেকে অন্য হিসাবে চলে যায়। ফিলিপাইনের সংবাদমাধ্যমের তথ্য অনুযায়ী, চুরি করা অর্থের বড় অংশই কয়েকটি ক্যাসিনোর হাত ঘুরে ফিলিপাইন থেকে বেরিয়ে হংকংয়ে চলে গেছে।
কেন্দ্রীয় ব্যাংকের একাধিক সূত্র জানিয়েছে, চুরি যাওয়া অর্থ ফিরিয়ে আনতে ফিলিপাইনের কেন্দ্রীয় ব্যাংক, অ্যান্টি মানি লন্ডারিং কর্তৃপক্ষের বেশ সহায়তা পাওয়া যাচ্ছে। এ ছাড়া চুরি যাওয়া অর্থ ফেরত আনতে যুক্তরাষ্ট্রের ফেডারেল রিজার্ভ ব্যাংক অব নিউইয়র্ক কর্তৃপক্ষের সঙ্গেও বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের যোগাযোগ অব্যাহত রয়েছে। আজ বৃহস্পতিবারও এ দুই ব্যাংকের শীর্ষ পর্যায়ের কর্মকর্তাদের সঙ্গে তথ্যপ্রযুক্তির সহায়তায় মতবিনিময়ের কথা রয়েছে। তবে সুইফটের কাছ থেকে যথাযথ সহায়তা পাওয়া যাচ্ছে না বলে জানা গেছে। বাংলাদেশে সুইফটের নিয়ন্ত্রণ হয় ভারত থেকে। অর্থ চুরির ঘটনার পরপর বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের দিক থেকে ভারতে সুইফটের কর্মকর্তাদের সঙ্গে যোগাযোগ করে তাঁদের কর্মকর্তাদের দ্রুত এ দেশে আসার আহ্বান জানানো হয়। প্রয়োজনে বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের দিক থেকে অন অ্যারাইভেল ভিসার ব্যবস্থার কথা জানানো হয়। কিন্তু তাতেও প্রত্যাশিত সাড়া মেলেনি।
বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের আনুষ্ঠানিক বক্তব্য: ৭ মার্চ বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংক লিখিত এক বিবৃতির মাধ্যমে দেশে-বিদেশে আলোচিত এ ঘটনার সত্যতা স্বীকার করে। এরপর গতকাল বুধবার আনুষ্ঠানিকভাবে ঘটনার বিষয়ে সাংবাদিকদের মুখোমুখি হন কেন্দ্রীয় ব্যাংকের কর্মকর্তারা। এ সময় রাকেশ আস্তানা বলেন, ‘আমরা এখন তদন্তের মাঝপথে আছি। এ ঘটনার সঙ্গে বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের নিজস্ব লোক, নাকি বাইরের লোক জড়িত ইত্যাদি বিষয় পুঙ্খানুপুঙ্খভাবে খতিয়ে দেখা হচ্ছে। তবে এখন পর্যন্ত যেসব নমুনা (সাইন) পাওয়া গেছে, তাতে দেখা যাচ্ছে, বাইরে থেকে (এক্সটারনাল) এ ঘটনা ঘটানো হয়েছে। তদন্ত মাঝপথে থাকায় এর বেশি কিছু আর বলা সম্ভব হচ্ছে না।’
এ সময় কেন্দ্রীয় ব্যাংকের মুখপাত্র শুভঙ্কর সাহা বলেন, ‘ফিলিপাইনে যে অর্থ গেছে, তার পুরোটাই অচিরেই ফেরত পাব, এ আশা রাখছি। কারণ, দেশটির অ্যান্টি মানি লন্ডারিং কর্তৃপক্ষের সঙ্গে আমাদের সমঝোতা চুক্তি রয়েছে। এ ছাড়া ফিলিপাইনের কেন্দ্রীয় ব্যাংকও বিষয়টিকে খুবই গুরুত্বের সঙ্গে নিয়েছে। ফিলিপাইনের আদালতও অর্থ উদ্ধারে সর্বাত্মক উদ্যোগ গ্রহণের আদেশ দিয়েছেন।’
আর্থিক লেনদেনের ক্ষেত্রে ব্যবহৃত সুইফট কোড হ্যাকড করা যায় কি না, এমন প্রশ্নের জবাবে শুভঙ্কর সাহা বলেন, ‘আমরা এখনো এটিকে “হ্যাকড” মনে করছি।’ বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের কয়েকজন কর্মকর্তার পাসপোর্ট জব্দের কোনো ঘটনা ঘটেছে কি না, এমন প্রশ্নের জবাবে মুখপাত্র বলেন, ‘এ ধরনের কোনো ঘটনা বা খবর আমাদের জানা নেই।’
ডেপুটি গভর্নর আবু হেনা মো. রাজি হাসান বলেন, বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের দিক থেকে যেসব অ্যাডভাইস গেছে, সেগুলো কার্যকরের ক্ষেত্রে ফেডারেল রিজার্ভ ব্যাংক অব নিউইয়র্ক যথাযথ প্রক্রিয়া বা ব্যবস্থা অনুসরণ করেছে কি না, বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের পক্ষ থেকে তা পর্যালোচনা করে দেখা হচ্ছে।

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