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Messages - Md. Anwar Hossain

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BCS Cadre / Interpol
« on: January 03, 2017, 04:29:02 PM »
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টারপোল বলতে কি বুঝায়?
উত্তরঃ International Policing Agency.
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টারপোল নামকরণ হয়েছে কিভাবে?
উত্তরঃ ইন্টারপোল নামকরণ হয়েছে International এর Inter এবং Police এর pol নিয়ে।
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টারপোল পরিচালিত হয় কোন কমিটির মাধ্যমে?
উত্তরঃ ‘জেনারেল অ্যাসেম্বলি’ নামক কমিটির মাধ্যমে।
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টারপোল প্রতিষ্ঠিত হয় কবে?
উত্তরঃ 1923 সালে।
প্রশ্নঃ Interpol এর দাপ্তরিক (Official) নাম কী?
উত্তর‌ঃ International Criminal Police Organization.
প্রশ্নঃ Interpol –এর পূর্ব নাম কী?
উত্তর‌ঃ International Criminal Police Commission.
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টারপোল কি ধরনের সংস্থা?
উত্তরঃ পুলিশ ও অপরাধ সংক্রান্ত আন্তর্জাতিক সংস্থা।
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টাপোলের (বর্তমান) সদর দপ্তর কোথায় অবস্থিত?
উত্তরঃ লিও, ফ্রান্স।
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টারপোলের প্রতিষ্ঠাকালীন সদর দপ্তর কোথায় ছিল?
উত্তরঃ ভিয়েনা, অস্ট্রিয়া।
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টারপোলের সদর দপ্তর ফ্রান্সের প্যারিসে স্থানান্তর করা হয়?
উত্তরঃ 1946 সালে।
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টারপোলের সদর দপ্তর ফ্রান্সের লিওতে স্থানান্তর করা হয়?
উত্তরঃ 1989 সালে।
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টারন্যাশনাল ক্রিমিনাল পুলিশ সংস্থা এর বর্তমান সদস্য রাষ্ট্র?
উত্তরঃ 190 টি।
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টারপোলের প্রতিষ্ঠাকালীন সদস্য দেশ কত ছিল?
উত্তর‌ঃ 50টি।
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টারপোলের 190তম সদস্য দেশ কোনটি?
উত্তরঃ দক্ষিন সুদান (31 অক্টোবর 2011)।
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টারপোলের অফিসিয়াল ভাষা কয়টি ও কি কি?
উত্তরঃ চারটি। যথা- ইংরেজী, ফরাসি, স্প্যানিশ ও আরবী।
প্রশ্নঃ বাংলাদেশ ইন্টারপোলের সদস্যপদ লাভ কবে?
উত্তরঃ 14 অক্টোবর 1976।
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টারপোল কর্তৃক প্রকাশিত পত্রিকার নাম কী?
উত্তরঃ International Criminal Police Review.
প্রশ্নঃ ইন্টারন্যাশনাল ক্রিমিনাল পুলিশ সংস্থা এর সংক্ষেপন?
উত্তরঃ ICPO.

ICT / Technology Bank
« on: December 25, 2016, 01:23:15 AM »
The United Nations (UN) member states unanimously decided to establish a Technology Bank for the Least Developed Countries (LDCs).

The Technology Bank would be situated in Gebze of Turkey, according to a release of the Permanent Mission of Bangladesh to the UN.

For the first time in the history of the United Nations, the General Assembly has established an entity to foster technological leapfrogging of LDCs.

"The adoption of the charter symbolises the strong commitment and political will of the international community to realise the 2030 agenda," Ambassador Masud Bin Momen, Permanent Representative of Bangladesh to the UN and the Chair of the Global Coordination Bureau of the LDCs said, reports BSS on Saturday.

He said it paves the way for implementing the other goals and targets, many of which are deeply contingent upon leveraging modern and clean technologies".

This is a milestone achievement for the LDCs under the chairmanship of Bangladesh. Bangladesh delegation played a major role in forging consensus among the 193 members of the General Assembly on the resolution.

While introducing the resolution for adopting the Charter, the President of General Assembly acknowledged with appreciation the role played by Bangladesh in drafting the resolution and also in the entire process.

This institution of the United Nations opens up a new horizon of opportunities for the 48 least developed countries of the world to get access to modern technologies and to build their homegrown capacities in promoting science, technology and Innovations. The establishment of the Bank marks the realization of the first target of the SDGs to be achieved.

Earlier, the Secretary-General of the UN had formed a 13-member High-level Multi-stakeholder Governing Council which formulated the Charter of the Bank. The Council remains responsible for strategic plan, the annual work programme, operational principles, policies and guidelines and the budget of the Technology Bank.

A dedicated Trust Fund has also been established to support the preparatory phase of the Technology Bank in the lead up to its establishment by the General Assembly.

Story, Article & Poetry / Keeping trust in the glow of humanity
« on: November 22, 2016, 02:15:34 AM »
Saying the world is fast being devoured by a seemingly endless spate of violence and savageries do not sound exaggerating. In the present world, the weak and the poor suffer in silence; the stronger ones vulgarly flaunt their power and might. It's part of the universal rule. But this trait of human nature has for some time been holding sway over the largely neutral mankind, be it a highly developed and so-called enlightened society or the ever-struggling ones.

The optimists never lose their trust in the glow of humanity. To them, man never is a doomed creature. In spite of the scourges gripping societies from all sides, people are there who will be found beside the persecuted or the vanquished. Those are not left in the lurch in times of woes. No matter how thick the darkness is lights keep blinking somewhere. All this has to do with is the never-dying humanity in man. Maybe, this is why in these dreadful times of self-spun cocoons and insouciance, a few people, or communities, commit themselves to selfless service for others. Great instances of this selflessness have emerged in the Mediterranean rescue operations involving refugees fleeing their violence- and war-torn countries. They are from the Middle East, northern Africa and western Asia. The people or the organisations coming to their rescue after a boat-sink or on being left by human traffickers at mid-sea are from different lands. They belong to the greater Europe, including Germany and the Nordic countries, the dream destinations of the refugees. The rescued people have no kinship with them in the contexts of culture, values or social mores. Yet thousands of the constantly battered and near-dead people are picked up, given food and clothes and taken to shelters. Not long ago, most of them were allowed to stay in the European countries free of the shadows of death and violence.

The undying virtue of humanity was found at play that allayed the unfounded fears of trouble centring the aliens in the host countries. Saner people nurturing the rare quality of humanity are omnipresent. In the fraught global scenario created by those soon to-be-at-the-helm of powerful states, the Good Samaritans must make their presence vocal. It's these people with conscience --- be they in the USA or in a European country, who can help bring a change to the chauvinistic policies of powerful states.

In the fast deteriorating socio-economic plight of the trouble-torn regions, the exodus of afflicted humanity will go on. The preferred destinations of people deserting their lands on being hounded by hunger and hostilities will be the developed and apparently peaceful countries. It has been happening repeatedly in world history.  Examples include the aftermaths of the Second World War and the Vietnam War. Browbeating the helpless refuge-seekers could not prevent their streams. Chauvinism and veiled xenophobia were at play in the Western developed countries even in the late 1940s and mid-1970s. But people advocating these attitudes were overpowered by the saner segments in government and the civil societies. In the event of a flare-up of anti-immigrant rhetoric in any mighty country, e.g. the USA, in the near future, the baffled humanity may have no immediate way out before it. Like in the Europe of 2015, the jittery immigration-seekers may have to desperately wait for the Good Samaritans.

Despite being an essentially poor country, Bangladesh has been accommodating Rohingya refugees since the early 1990s. There are nearly a dozen middle- and low-income countries today that host refugees displaced by regional conflicts. Lately, there have been signs in Myanmar for yet another onrush of Rohingyas into Bangladesh. Given the economic condition of the country, it is not supposed to stand up to the pressure of refugees. But Bangladesh in the past took the task upon itself being prompted by the urge to serve a segment of the oppressed mankind.

Presidential Speeches / PM assures 100pc safe water supply, sanitation
« on: November 20, 2016, 10:54:28 PM »
The Prime Minister on Sunday vowed to ensure 100 per cent safe water supply to all and said Bangladesh could be presented as a role model for the world for attaining SDG-6 of safe water and sanitation.   

"I believe in both the sectors, Bangladesh would become an example across the globe," she said in a statement.

The statement was read out by Agriculture Minister Matia Chowdhury at the inaugural session of the National Workshop for preparing the country paper on Sustainable Development Goal 6 at the Prime Minister's Office.

The premier could not attend the programme, organised by Water Resources Ministry and Geographic Information Service (CEGIS), due to illness, reports agencies.

Bangladesh by now embarked into a new era by successfully ensuring safe drinking water and sanitation to the people across the country and now "we want to ensure safe water for hundred per cent of our population", read the statement.

Hasina said 98 per cent of the country's people are currently getting safe water, adding 61 per cent are under sanitation system.

Five government organisations --DPHE, DoE, WARPO, BWDB and DBHWD – in association with relevant departments and agencies backed by expert assistances prepared six draft concept papers along with the action plan on six SDG 6 targets.

The draft action plan will be finalised after considering the feedback from the participants of the workshop and thereafter, a country paper will be prepared.

Out of the 17 SDGs, the Prime Minister said, the number six goal is ensuring safe water and sanitation. "We'll have to achieve a success in this regard like the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals)."

Highlighting some steps of the government to materialise SDG 6, she said they spent nearly Tk 149 billion over the last seven years for safe water and sanitation while various projects worth Tk 320 billion are going on.

Bangladesh already formulated a national policy on water, water supply and sewerage policy, environment protection rules and Water Act to facilitate implementation of the SDG 6.

The government has adopted a water management policy by taking into account all related phenomenon of the country, she added.

Hasina said the government has taken initiative for "Delta Plan- 2100" outlining the water resources management strategy for the next 100 years.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a 15-year universal development plan adopted by the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in 2015 on conclusion of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Seventeen 17 SDGs with a total of 169 targets would guide the international development agenda.

Water Resources Minister Anisul Islam Mahmud, State Minister for Water M Nazrul Islam, Bir Pratik, Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister Abul Kalam Azad, PMO Secretary Suraiya Bagum and Senior Secretary of the Water Resources Minister Jafar Ahmed Khan also spoke on the occasion.

Environment and Forests Minister Anwar Hossain Manju has said that Bangladesh would play an active role in raising the climate change issues in the Conference of the Parties (COP 22) to find a solution to this fast spreading problem.

"We are already playing a significant role in implementing the decisions taken in the Paris conference last year," said the environment and forests minister ahead of the world climate conference to be held in Marrakech, Morocco, next week.

This year the COP 22 parties would begin implementation of the Paris Agreement, signed and ratified by the member states.

"We have submitted 39 climate change related projects in the planning ministry to be negotiated at the ERD. Some 27 projects were submitted for Green Climate Fund globally, of which one Bangladeshi project was approved in the Climate Change Fund worth of $ 80 million," Anwar Hossain Manju said.

He said the Green Climate Fund was raised to $ 10.4 billion, of which 27 projects involving $1.2 billion were submitted, adding, "the COP 22, is an initiative of United Nations and climate change issue is a problem for the world, not only for Bangladesh," according to a news agency

The global accord to combat climate change agreed in Paris last year officially entered into force Friday, putting pressure on nearly 200 countries to start executing plans to slash their greenhouse gas emissions.

"This is a moment to celebrate," said United Nations climate chief Patricia Espinosa. "It is also a moment to look ahead with the sober assessment and renewed will over the task ahead."

The Paris Agreement seeks to wean the world economy off fossil fuels in the second half of the century, limiting the rise in average world temperatures to "well below" 2.0 degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit) above preindustrial times.

It takes effect as greenhouse gas emissions are projected by 2030 to exceed by 12 billion to 14 billion tons what is needed to keep global warming to the internationally agreed target, the United Nations said this week.

Representatives from nearly 200 countries on Monday will convene in Marrakesh, Morocco for two weeks to discuss the nuts and bolts of the Paris accord and the policies, technology, and finance needed to ensure the Paris goals are achieved.

"The timetable is pressing because globally greenhouse gas emissions which drive climate change and its impacts are not yet falling – a fact which the Marrakesh meeting must have at the front of its concerns and collective resolve," said Espinosa.

World Bank President Jim Yong Kim said the milestone also serves as a reminder to rich countries that pledged to help developing countries combat climate change.

"Donor countries made a strong commitment in Paris. And now we must turn those commitments into action," he said, according to Reuters

BCS Cadre / The world economy without China
« on: November 01, 2016, 01:58:13 AM »
Is the Chinese economy about to implode? With its debt overhangs and property bubbles, its zombie state-owned enterprises and struggling banks, China is increasingly portrayed as the next disaster in a crisis-prone world.

I remain convinced that such fears are overblown, and that China has the strategy, wherewithal, and commitment to achieve a dramatic structural transformation into a services-based consumer society while successfully dodging daunting cyclical headwinds. But I certainly recognize that this is now a minority opinion.

For example, US Treasury Secretary Jacob J. Lew continues to express the rather puzzling view that the United States "can't be the only engine in the world economy." Actually, it's not: the Chinese economy is on track to contribute well over four times as much to global growth as the US this year. But maybe Lew is already assuming the worst for China in his assessment of the world economy.

So what if the China doubters are right? What if China's economy does indeed come crashing down, with its growth rate plunging into low single digits, or even negative territory, as would be the case in most crisis economies? China would suffer, of course, but so would an already-shaky global economy. With all the handwringing over the Chinese economy, it's worth considering this thought experiment in detail.

For starters, without China, the world economy would already be in recession. China's growth rate this year appears set to hit 6.7% - considerably higher than most forecasters have been expecting. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) - the official arbiter of global economic metrics - the Chinese economy accounts for 17.3% of world gross domestic product or GDP (measured on a purchasing-power-parity basis). A 6.7% increase in Chinese real GDP thus translates into about 1.2 percentage points of world growth. Absent China, that contribution would need to be subtracted from the IMF's downwardly revised 3.1% estimate for world GDP growth in 2016, dragging it down to 1.9% - well below the 2.5% threshold commonly associated with global recessions.

Of course, that's just the direct effect of a world without China. Then there are cross-border linkages with other major economies.

The so-called resource economies - namely, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Russia, and Brazil - would be hit especially hard. As a resource-intensive growth juggernaut, China has transformed these economies, which collectively account for nearly 9.0% of world GDP. While all of them argue that they have diversified economic structures that are not overly dependent on Chinese commodity demand, currency markets say otherwise: whenever China's growth expectations are revised - upward or downward - their exchange rates move in tandem. The IMF currently projects that these five economies will contract by a combined 0.7% in 2016, reflecting ongoing recessions in Russia and Brazil and modest growth in the other three. Needless to say, in a China implosion scenario, this baseline estimate would be revised downward significantly.

The same would be the case for China's Asian trading partners - most of which remain export-dependent economies, with the Chinese market their largest source of external demand. That is true not only of smaller Asian developing economies such as Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand, but also of the larger and more developed economies in the region, such as Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Collectively, these six China-dependent Asian economies make up another 11% of world GDP. A China implosion could easily knock at least one percentage point off their combined growth rate.

The United States is also a case in point. China is America's third-largest and most rapidly growing export market. In a China-implosion scenario, that export demand would all but dry up - knocking approximately 0.2-0.3 percentage points off already subpar US economic growth of around 1.6% in 2016.

Finally, there is Europe to consider. Growth in Germany, long the engine of an otherwise sclerotic Continental economy, remains heavily dependent on exports. That is due increasingly to the importance of China - now Germany's third-largest export market, after the European Union (EU) and the United States. In a China implosion scenario, German economic growth could also be significantly lower, dragging down the rest of a German-led Europe.

Interestingly, in its just-released October update of the World Economic Outlook, the IMF devotes an entire chapter to what it calls a China spillover analysis - a model-based assessment of the global impacts of a China slowdown. Consistent with the arguments above, the IMF focuses on linkages to commodity exporters, Asian exporters, and what they call "systemic advanced economies" (Germany, Japan, and the US) that would be most exposed to a Chinese downturn. By their reckoning, the impact on Asia would be the largest, followed closely by the resource economies; the sensitivity of the three developed economies is estimated to be about half that of China's non-Japan Asian trading partners.

The IMF research suggests that China's global spillovers would add about another 25% to the direct effects of China's growth shortfall. That means that if Chinese economic growth vanished into thin air, in accordance with our thought experiment, the sum of the direct effects (1.2 percentage points of global growth) and indirect spillovers (roughly another 0.3 percentage points) would essentially halve the current baseline estimate of 2016 global growth, from 3.1% to 1.6%. While that would be far short of the record 0.1% global contraction in 2009, it wouldn't be much different than two earlier deep world recessions, in 1975 (1% growth) and 1982 (0.7%).

I may be one of the only China optimists left. While I am hardly upbeat about prospects for the global economy, I think the world faces far bigger problems than a major meltdown in China. Yet I would be the first to concede that a post-crisis world economy without Chinese growth would be in grave difficulty. China bears need to be careful what they wish for.

Stephen S. Roach, a faculty member at Yale University and a former chairman of Morgan Stanley Asia, is the author of Unbalanced: The Codependency of America and China. Project Syndicate, 2016.

BCS Cadre / poverty elimination progress in Bangladesh
« on: October 26, 2016, 08:56:02 PM »
World Bank President Jim Yong Kim arrived in Dhaka to see firsthand the progress that Bangladesh made in eliminating poverty.

Finance Minister AMA Muhith received him when an Emirates aircraft carrying the chief of the global lender touched down at Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport on Sunday afternoon, reports

The last time a World Bank (WB) chief visited Dhaka was in 2007, when Robert Zoellick headed the global lending agency.

Soon after Bangladesh's emergence in 1971 following a war with Pakistan, the then World Bank chief Robert McNamara visited Bangladesh.

Former World Bank chiefs Paul Wolfowitz and James Wolfensohn also came to Bangladesh during their respective tenures.

Kim left for Dhaka after attending the annual meetings of the World Bank Group and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in Washington.

During his visit the WB president will participate in the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty celebrations on Monday and also deliver a public lecture.

Finance Minister Muhith considers the WB chief’s visit as a recognition of Bangladesh's success in its campaign against poverty.

He said that the visit of the WB president was the right opportunity to showcase Bangladesh's success in the fight against poverty so far.

Among other engagements, Kim will participate in a public discussion on poverty elimination in the country on Tuesday. The prime minister will be present at the meeting.

He will then speak at a panel discussion titled, "End global poverty by 2030, the Bangladesh experience.'

On the same day he will head for Barisal to inspect a few World Bank financed projects there.

He will 'see firsthand the progress Bangladesh has made in transitioning successfully to a lower-middle income country, despite daunting development challenges', the World Bank release said in a statement.

BCS Cadre / Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in FY16
« on: October 26, 2016, 08:46:07 PM »
United States of America (USA) became the top source of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Bangladesh in the last fiscal year (FY16) outbidding United Kingdom (UK).

Bangladesh Bank updated statistics on FDI revealed that net inflow of FDI from the US doubled in the last fiscal year to $449.74 million from $224.60 million in FY15.

UK was the top source of FDI in Bangladesh in FY15 when net inflow of FDI stood at $273.55 million.

FDI from UK also rose by 41 per cent to $307 million in the last fiscal year.

While the major portion of the foreign investment from UK came as reinvested earnings in the last fiscal year, more than 50 per cent of the USA originated FDI came as equity capital.

Central bank data showed that FDI worth $222 million from the US came as fresh investment followed by $188.17 million as intra-company loans and $39.63 million as reinvested earnings of the exiting multinational entities.

Around 90 per cent of the US investment is concentrated on energy sector (comprising gas, petroleum, and power).

On the other hand, around 60 per cent of the UK investment came to the financial sector, banking to be precise.

Article on Entrepreneurship / Paying tax
« on: October 26, 2016, 08:38:15 PM »
Starting a new business becomes costlier and paying tax becomes more difficult in Bangladesh.

The World Bank Doing Business Index 2017, released on Wednesday across the world, has identified these things reflecting the fact that Bangladesh is still far behind on ease of doing business.

The global ranking puts the country on 176th among 190 countries, showing that Bangladesh has advanced two steps over last year’s comparable ranking (178th).

Nevertheless, the country is the seventh among eight countries in South Asia in the index.

The report mentioned that the country earlier made paying taxes less costly for companies by reducing the corporate income tax rate.

But now the country made paying taxes more complicated for companies by increasing the time it takes to prepare VAT and corporate income tax returns.

গারো    ময়মনসিংহ          
চাকমা    রাঙ্গামাটি ও খাগড়াছড়ি          
সাঁওতাল    রাজশাহী ও দিনাজপুর          
রাখাইন    পটুয়াখালী          
মারমা    কক্সবাজার, বান্দরবান ও পটুয়াখালী          
হাজং    ময়মনসিংহ ও নেত্রকোনা          
রাজবংশী    রংপুর          
মুরং    বান্দরবানের গভীর অরণ্যে          
কুকি    সাজেক ভেলী (রাঙ্গামাটি)          
হুদি    নেত্রকোনা          
পাংখো    বান্দরবান          
খাসিয়া    সিলেট          
ওরাও    বগুড়া, রংপুর          
টিপরা    খাগড়াছড়ি, পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রাম          
লুসাই    পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রাম          
খুমি    বান্দরবান          
মনিপুরী    সিলেট          
তনচংগা    রাঙ্গামাটি          
রনজোগী    বান্দরবানের গভীর অরণ্যে

BCS Cadre / ৬ দফা ও গন অভ্যুথান
« on: August 21, 2016, 07:45:29 PM »
শেখ মুজিব ছয় দফা কর্মসুচী কবে ব্যক্ত করেন?    উঃ ১৩ ফেব্রুয়ারী ১৯৬৬ সালে।    
আগরতলা ষড়যন্ত্র মামলা দায়ের করা হয়?    উঃ জানুয়ারী, ১৯৬৮।          
আগরতলা ষড়যন্ত্র মামলার বিশেষ আদালতের বিচারক ছিলেন?    উঃ পাকিস্তানের প্রধান বিচারপতি এস.এ. রহমান।          
আগরতলা ষড়যন্ত্র মামলার বিচার হয়?    উঃ জুন, ১৯৬৮।          
আগরতলা ষড়যন্ত্র মামলার আসামী কত জন ছিল?    উঃ ৩৫ জন।          
‘আগরতলা ষড়যন্ত্র’ মামলার প্রধান আসামী ছিলেন?    উঃ শেখ মুজিবর রহমান।          
আগরতলা ষড়যন্ত্র মামলা কবে প্রত্যাহার করা হয়?    উঃ ২২ ফেব্রুয়ারী ১৯৬৯।          
কবে আগরতলা ষড়যন্ত্র মামলার আসামী সার্জেন্ট জহুরুল হককে হত্যা করে?    উঃ ১৫ ফেব্রুয়ারী ১৯৬৯।          
আইয়ুব খান কবে কেন পদত্যাগ করতে বাধ্য হয়?    উঃ ২৫ মার্চ, ১৯৬৯ সালে। রাজনৈতিক সংকটের জন্য।          
পুলিশের গুলিতে শহীদ আসাদ কবে নিহত হন?    উঃ ২০ জানুয়ারী, ১৯৬৯।          
তিনি কোন ঢাকা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ের কোন বিভাগের ছাত্র ছিলেন?    উঃ আইন বিভাগের।          
পুলিশের গুলিতে শহীদ মতিউর কবে নিহত হন?    উঃ ২৪ জানুয়ারী, ১৯৬৯।          
তিনি কোন বিদ্যালয়ের ছাত্র ছিলেন?    উঃ নবকুমার ইনষ্টিটিউশনের, নবম শ্রেনীর ছাত্র।          
শহীদ ড. শামসুজ্জোহা কবে কোথায় হত্যা করা হয়েছিল?    উঃ ১৮ ফেব্রুয়ারী, ১৯৬৯, রাজশাহী বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় প্রাঙ্গনে।          
আইয়ুব খান কবে কার নিকট পাকিস্তানের ক্ষমতা হস্তান্তর করেন?    উঃ ২৫ মার্চ, ১৯৬৯। আগা মুহম্মদ ইয়াহিয়া খান।          
শেখ মুজিবর রহমানকে কবে বঙ্গবন্ধুকে উপাধিতে ভুষিত করা হয়?    উঃ ১৯৬৯ সালের ২৩ ফেব্রুয়ারী।          
কখন শেখ মুজিবর রহমানকে জাতির জনক ঘোষনা দেয়া হয়?    উঃ ০৩ মার্চ ১৯৭১।          
বঙ্গবন্ধু শেখ মুজিবর রহমান কে প্রথমে জাতির পিতা ঘোষনা দেন?    উঃ আ.স.ম আবদুর রব।          
১৯৭০ সালের নির্বাচনে আওয়ামী লীগ জাতীয় পরিষদের কয়টি আসন পেয়েছিল?    উঃ ১৬৭ টি আসন।

কৌশলে বাংলাদেশের সংবিধানের ১১টি ভাগ মনে রাখার উপায়ঃ
মনে রাখুনঃ
(প্র রা মৌ নি আ বি নি ম বাং জ সং বি)
→আসুন, মিলিয়ে নেই-
১। প্র- প্রজাতন্ত্র
২। রা-রাষ্ট্র পরিচালনার মূলনীতি
৩। মৌ- মৌলিক অধিকার
৪। নি- নির্বাহী বিভাগ
৫। আ- আইন সভা
৬। বি- বিচার বিভাগ
৭। নি- নির্বাচন
৮। ম- মহাহিসাব নিরীক্ষক ও নিয়ন্ত্রক
৯। বাং- বাংলাদেশের কর্মবিভাগ
৯ক। জ- জরুরী বিধানাবলী
১০। সং-সংবিধান সংশোধন
১১। বি- বিবিধ
চলুন, এইবার আলাদা ভাবে অনুচ্ছেদ গুলোর দিকে দৃষ্টি
→অনুচ্ছেদ ১-১২
অনুচ্ছেদ ১-১২ মোটামুটি এমনি মনে থাকে। এই অনুচ্ছেদ
গুলোর মধ্যে গুরুত্তপূর্ন অনুচ্ছেদ গুলো হল-
২- প্রজাতন্ত্রের রাষ্ট্রীয় সীমানা
২ক- রাষ্ট্রধর্ম ( মনে রাখবেন কোন সংশোধনীর মাধ্যমে
এটি হয়েছে)
৪ক- প্রতিকৃতি (১৫ তম সংশোধনীতে পরিবর্তন হয়েছে
৬- নাগরিকত্ব
৭- সংবিধানের প্রাধান্য
৮- মূলনীতিসমূহ ( সংবিধান সংশোধন হয়েছে এইখানে)
৯- স্থানীয় শাসন সংক্রান্ত প্রতিষ্ঠান সমূহের উন্নয়ন
( সংবিধান সংশোধন হয়েছে এইখানে)
১০- জাতীয় জীবনে মহিলাদের অংশগ্রহন
১১- গনতন্ত্র
১২- ধর্মনিরপেক্ষতা ( সংবিধান সংশোধন হয়েছে
অনুচ্ছেদ ১৩-২৫
মনে রাখুনঃ
(মালি কৃষককে মৌ গ্রামে নিয়ে গিয়ে অবৈতনিক
জনস্বাস্থ্যের জন্য সুযোগের সমতা সৃষ্টি করে।
এতে অধিকার ও কর্তব্য রূপে নাগরিকরা নির্বাহী
বিভাগ থেকে জাতীয় সংস্কৃতি ও জাতীয় স্মৃতি
নিদর্শনের জন্য আন্তর্জাতিক শান্তির
অংশীদার হলেন।)
→চলুন, ছন্দের সাথে অনুচ্ছেদ গুলো মিলিয়ে নেই-
১৩-মালি- মালিকানার নীতি
১৪-কৃষক- কৃষক ও শ্রমিকের মুক্তি
১৫- মৌ- মৌলিক প্রয়োজনের ব্যবস্থা
১৬- গ্রাম- গ্রামীন উন্নয়ন ও কৃষি বিপ্লব
১৭- অবৈতনিক- অবৈতনিক ও বাধ্যতা মূলক শিক্ষা
১৮। জনস্বাস্থ্য- জনস্বাস্থ্য ও নৈতিকতা
১৯। সুযোগের সমতা- সুযোগের সমতা
২০- অধিকার ও কর্তব্য রূপে- অধিকার ও কর্তব্যরূপে কর্ম
২১- নাগরিক- নাগরিক ও সরকারী কর্মচারীদের কর্তব্য
২২- নির্বাহী বিভাগ থেকে- নির্বাহী বিভাগ হইতে
বিচার বিভাগের পৃথকীকরন
২৩- জাতীয় সংস্কৃতি- জাতীয় সংস্কৃতি
২৪- জাতীয় স্মৃতি নিদর্শন -জাতীয় স্মৃতি নিদর্শন প্রভৃতি
২৫-আন্তর্জাতিক শান্তি- আন্তর্জাতিক শান্তি,
নিরাপত্তা ও সংহতির উন্নয়ন

ইইউ সদস্য রাষ্ট্র : ১লা মে ২০০৪।
রাজধানী: বুদাপেষ্ট।
ভেৌগলিক আকার: ৯৩০১১ বর্গ কি.মি.
জনসংখ্যা: ৯৮৫৫৫৭১ (২০১৫)
মুদ্রা: হাঙ্গেরিয়ান ফরিন্ট।
ইউরোজোনের সদস্য: নন ইউরোজোন।

ইইউ সদস্য রাষ্ট্র : ১লা জানুয়ারী ১৯৭৩।
রাজধানী: ডাবলিন।
ভেৌগলিক আকার: ৬৯৭৯৭৮ বর্গ কি.মি.
জনসংখ্যা: ৪৬২৮৯৪৯(২০১৫)
মুদ্রা: ইউরো ।
ইউরোজোনের সদস্য: ১লা জানুয়ারী ১৯৯৯।

ইইউ সদস্য রাষ্ট্র : ১লা জানুয়ারী ১৯৫৮।
রাজধানী: রোম।
ভেৌগলিক আকার: ৩০২০৭৩ বর্গ কি.মি.
জনসংখ্যা: ৬০৭৯৫৬১২ (২০১৫)
মুদ্রা: ইউরো ।
ইউরোজোনের সদস্য: ১লা জানুয়ারী ১৯৯৯।

ইইউ সদস্য রাষ্ট্র : ১লা মে ২০০৪।
রাজধানী: রিগা।
ভেৌগলিক আকার: ৬৪৫৭৩ বর্গ কি.মি.
জনসংখ্যা: ১৯৮৬০৯৬ (২০১৫)
মুদ্রা: ইউরো ।
ইউরোজোনের সদস্য: ১লা জানুয়ারী ২০১৪।

ইইউ সদস্য রাষ্ট্র : ১লা মে ২০০৪।
রাজধানী: ভিলনিয়াস।
ভেৌগলিক আকার: ৬৫২৮৬ বর্গ কি.মি.
জনসংখ্যা: ২৯২১২৬২ (২০১৫)
মুদ্রা: ইউরো ।
ইউরোজোনের সদস্য: ১লা জানুয়ারী ২০১৫।

ইইউ সদস্য রাষ্ট্র : ১লা জানুয়ারী ১৯৫৮।
রাজধানী: লুক্সেমবার্গ
ভেৌগলিক আকার: ২৫৮৬ বর্গ কি.মি.
জনসংখ্যা: ৫৬২৯৫৮ (২০১৫)
মুদ্রা: ইউরো ।
ইউরোজোনের সদস্য: ১লা জানুয়ারী ১৯৯৯।

BCS Cadre / Sustainable development through environmental protection
« on: August 05, 2016, 11:55:24 PM »
We now live in a modern, consumerist and largely urbanised world, where environmental protection is generally acknowledged as a prime concern while dealing with the future of humanity.

Economists, environmentalists, development professionals and academics these days are very much concerned about the problems that crop up while taking efforts to promote development ignoring the environmental dimensions of development. In the 1980s, the term 'sustainable development' began to be used to describe development which takes into account the environmental consequences for mankind. Now when we talk about 'sustainable development', we talk about using our intelligence and scientific knowledge to satisfy our needs while maintaining the physical environment. The Commonwealth publication 'Sustainable Development and Environmental Issues', a module, explores the need for the world to bring about sustainable development, which is a balance between development and environmental protection. As the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 1992 states: "In order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection should constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be in isolation from it". It also stresses that youths have an important role to play in bringing about environmental protection and sustainable development for ensuring a better future for all.

The module is divided into four units. The first unit aims to enhance our awareness of key concepts related to the natural environment and the major environmental problems facing the world today. Unfortunately, most of our developmental activities have simply exploited the earth's raw materials and released large quantities of waste energy and toxic materials back into the system. We are faced with many threats to our environment: the greenhouse gas effect, global warming, acid rain, ozone depletion, soil erosion and so on. This unit also aims to provide us with materials that we can use to start an education programme for young people to raise their awareness of the environment. A basic programme in environmental awareness provides a sound foundation for the young people to participate in projects that address environmental problems. Finally, the unit looks at the more complex concepts that are important for understanding sustainable development: inter-connectivity, sacredness, and renewable and non-renewable resources.

Unit-2 discusses the social environment and its relationship to the natural or physical environment. It examines different aspects of social environment that can affect the physical environment: value systems, legislation, and global economics. This unit also examines some of the issues that were raised at a world youth environmental meeting, Juventud (Youth)'92, held in San Jose, Costa Rica. Young people from all over the world discussed their concerns about the environment and raised the following issues at that meeting: poverty and the environment, external debt, population growth, and natural resource degradation. 'How can young people bring about a change?' Considering this question, this unit explores some of these complex and inter-related issues. The third unit of the module examines the major events that have caused the world to focus on the need for environmental protection, in particular the 1992 Earth Summit. The Earth Summit conference, held in Rio de Janeiro, was an important milestone in history. It helped awaken the world to the need for a development process that does not endanger future generations. This unit also discusses the role and opportunities of young people to participate in sustainable development activities.

Unit-4 further examines the meaning of sustainable development in its application to planning and evaluating projects. It starts by examining the elements of a sustainable development project, and then looks at how these have reflected the general objectives as laid out in the World Resources Institute's model. The World Resources Institute sets out a model containing the general objectives of a sustainable development plan for the earth. These objectives have been grouped into four categories - economic, human (social), environmental and technological. This unit also reflects on how the World Bank model evaluates sustainable development projects. The World Bank, one of the foremost financial organisations in the world today, now assesses the impact of programmes and applications for loans using two methods: the sustainability matrix, and sustainability as opportunity. Finally, this last unit concludes with some examples (case studies) of the practical approaches to sustainable development adopted by youth organisations in the Commonwealth.

The module 'Sustainable Development and Environmental Issues' is being used as study guide for the Commonwealth Youth Diploma in Development Work programme offered by many universities across the world, including Bangladesh Open University, Allama Iqbal Open University of Pakistan, Indira Gandhi Open National University of India, University Putra Malaysia and RMIT University of Australia. The module is highly useful for economists, environmentalists, development professionals, trainers, researchers, and academics.

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