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Messages - Showrav.Yazdani

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286
BBA Discussion Forum / Marketing Definitions & Glossary (Part-2)
« on: August 30, 2015, 12:17:20 PM »
after-market
    - The potential future sales generated by owners of equipment for repair and replacement parts.
agency theory
    - A theory of the firm that seeks to explain corporate activities as arising out of the natural conflicts between the principals (stockholders) and agents (managers) of a firm.
antitrust laws
    - Federal antitrust policy is set forth in four laws: the Sherman Antitrust Act, the Clayton Act, the Federal Trade Commission Act, and the Robinson-Patman Act. These laws are negative in character and outlaw restraints of trade, monopolizing, attempting to monopolize, unfair methods of competition, and, where they may substantially lessen competition or tend to create a monopoly, price discrimination, exclusive dealing, and mergers.
area of dominant influence (ADI)
    - The geographic area surrounding a city in which the broadcasting stations based in that city account for a greater share of the listening or viewing households than do broadcasting stations based in other nearby cities.
assortment
    - 1. (retailing definition) The range of choice offered to the consumer within a particular classification of merchandise. In terms of men's shirts, for example, it is the range of prices, styles, colors, patterns, and materials that is available for customer selection. 2. (retailing definition) The range of choice among substitute characteristics of a given type of article. 3. (channels of distribution definition) A combination of similar and/or complementary products that, taken together, have some definite purpose for providing benefits to specific markets.
attraction model
    - A market share model that predicts a particular brand's market share as the quotient of that brand's "attraction" divided by the sum of the "attraction" level for all brands in the market. The attraction level for a brand is often in turn expressed as a function of customer characteristics, the marketing mix, and the competitive environment. Conditions under which an attraction model can be expected to hold have been described by Bell, Keeney, and Little (1975).
attribution theory
    - A theory, or group of several theories, stemming from Heider's (1958) belief in the importance of understanding individuals' "naive theories" of causality. Attribution theory assumes that individuals attempt to understand their environments in an analytical fashion, arriving at explanations of causality through a fairly logical process. Kelly (1967, 1972) provided an influential elaboration of the process by which individuals infer causality. Based on this, attribution theory suggests that individuals make inferences of causality based on the extent to which events co-vary across individuals, situations, and over time.
augmented product
    - This is the view of a product that includes not only its core benefit and its physical being, but adds other sources of benefits such as service, warranty, and image. The augmented aspects are added to the physical product by action of the seller, e.g., with company reputation or with service.
average cost per unit
    - Total cost, i.e., the sum of fixed costs and variable costs at a given level of output, divided by the number of units.
average-cost pricing
    - A practice of adding a "fair" or "reasonable" markup to the average cost of a product.


287
Business Administration / GLOSSARY OF MARKETING DEFINITIONS (part-1)
« on: August 30, 2015, 12:14:26 PM »
ABC analysis
    - An approach for classifying accounts based on their attractiveness. A accounts are the most attractive while C accounts are the least attractive. 

ABC inventory classification
    - A classification scheme used to implement inventory management strategies. Products are segmented into groups based upon unit sales or some other criterion. (For example, class A might be items with the highest frequency of sales, etc.) Inventory management is then guided by this segmentation.
AIDA
    - An approach to understanding how advertising and selling supposedly work. The assumption is that the consumer passes through several steps in the influence process. First, Attention must be developed, to be followed by Interest, Desire, and finally Action as called for in the message. Another, but similar, scheme was developed by Lavidge and Steiner in 1961, later to be dubbed the AIDA: Hierarchy of Effects Model by Palda in 1966. This approach involves the hierarchy of effects: awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, and finally purchase in that order. Note the similarity to the adoption process.

adaptation
    - The process of adjusting to environmental stimuli such that the stimuli become less noticed.

adaptive product
    - Also called adapted product, this market entry acquires its uniqueness by variation on another, more pioneering product. The degree of adaptation is more than trivial (to avoid being an emulative product or "me-too" product) but it varies greatly in significance.


288
Business and Economics / Banks get access to national ID database
« on: August 30, 2015, 12:00:43 PM »
Commercial banks are now getting access to the national identity database, which bankers said would help them check authenticity of clients' information and reduce forgeries.

The Election Commission yesterday signed an agreement with Dutch-Bangla Bank and Brac Bank, allowing the two to enjoy national identity (NID) verification services.

Earlier, Bangladesh Bank, the National Board of Revenue, and the Department of Immigration and Passports gained the access to the NID database.

Banks and telecom operators have long been demanding the access.

“The scope for verification will authenticate information of individuals and ensure transparent financial transactions. Frauds and forgeries will come down drastically,” Bangladesh Bank Governor Atiur Rahman said at the agreement signing ceremony at Radisson hotel in the city.

Johannes Zutt, World Bank's country director for Bangladesh, and Sirajul Islam, secretary of the Election Commission, were also present.

The governor said the two banks will now verify NIDs of their existing and upcoming customers regularly.
Rahman said banks will use the NID database for mobile banking services as well.

Election Commission officials said they will have to manage multiple network connectivity from multiple service providers to provide the NID verification services to all banks and financial institutions.


The BB governor proposed a solution to the multiple network connectivity issue. “The Election Commission may consider providing the access via the central bank,” Rahman said, adding that it would help the commission manage ICT security effectively.

Abul Kashem Mohammad Shirin, deputy managing director of Dutch-Bangla Bank, said the access to the NID database will help them detect accounts with false identity.

“Providing mobile banking services will be easier as many people open accounts with fake NID cards,” Shirin said. “We will get genuine information from the Election Commission as its NID database is 99.7 percent accurate,” he added.

A bank has to give the Election Commission Tk 2 for a single verification service in addition to the specific usage fees.

289
Business and Economics / Private banks' credit rollout grows faster
« on: August 30, 2015, 11:59:38 AM »
Credit rollout by local private banks grew at a faster rate than foreign and state-run lenders last fiscal year due to their aggressive push for more profit.

The private banks, whose share in total credit stands at 71.91 percent, saw their credit grow 15.65 percent year-on-year in fiscal 2014-15.

State-owned and foreign banks, which together account for 24.64 percent of total loans, saw their year-on-year credit growth turn positive, according to data from the central bank.

In fiscal 2014-15, credit disbursement by state-owned commercial banks increased 6.95 percent and that by foreign banks 2.47 percent.

Four state-owned specialised banks registered 4.44 percent growth year-on-year in fiscal 2014-15.

Although the pace of credit disbursement by the three categories of commercial banks slowed down, their disbursement situation improved compared to the previous year.

At the end of June, total credit stood at Tk 553,396.78 crore, with almost half of it being industrial credit that comprises working capital and term-loans. The amount is 12.66 percent higher from a year earlier.
MA Halim Chowdhury, managing director of Pubali Bank, said credit disbursement by private commercial banks increased at the end of the year because of higher loan disbursement to the SME sector in the suburban areas through non-governmental organisations.

The suburban branches of the banks disbursed lots of loans to small entrepreneurs, although they could not give loans to big entrepreneurs in the urban areas, he added.

SME loans grew 16 percent in March this year, according to central bank statistics.

Golam Hafiz Ahmed, managing director of NCC Bank, said credit disbursement by the private commercial banks increased mainly due to a big push at the end of the year. “After all, we have to pay higher dividends to our shareholders.”

The big corporate houses have distributors all over the country and the private commercial banks gave loans to those companies as SME loans.

Credit from private commercial banks increased in the power, textiles and garment sectors, according to the NCC Bank chief.

Also, people meet a lot of their demands through credit cards, due to which the private banks' consumer loans increased significantly, Ahmed added. The target for private credit growth for fiscal 2014-15 was 15.5 percent but it grew at 13.19 percent.

Many of the big companies have been borrowing from foreign sources, due to which credit growth of the domestic banks has declined, Chowdhury said.

The reduction in prices of petroleum products and other basic commodities is another reason for the low demand for credit, according to Ahmed of NCC Bank.

A senior official of Sonali Bank said a good amount of the bank's credit goes to Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation and Bangladesh Chemical Industries Corporation for importing petroleum products and fertilisers every year.

But this year, the demand for credit from them is low and hence the low growth figures, he said.

The state banks are very cautious now due to previous financial scams at banks, said an official of state-owned Agrani Bank.

These banks are slow in loan disbursement, he also said.

Both Chowdhury and Ahmed said the interest rate declined to less than 12 percent. However, in case of good borrowers the rate is 10 percent, they said.

They are hopeful that this year's private sector credit growth target of 15 percent would be achieved, provided there is a stable political situation

290
Toma Construction and Company yesterday got the contract to build eight of the 240 buildings for the Uttara apartment project, taken up by the government to provide housing for the low- and middle-income group.

The company will construct 672 flats at the complex located at Uttara sector 18, according to the proposal from the public works and housing ministry.

The government will give Tk 356.28 crore to the company to construct the flats, which have to be completed within two and a half years from the date of signing the agreement.

The approval came at yesterday's meeting of the cabinet committee on purchase chaired by Industries Minister Amir Hossain Amu.

Besides, the government has selected a Malaysian company for building 8,400 flats under the same project taken up in 2011.

The ministry recently sent the proposal to the purchase committee and draft agreement with the Malaysian company has been forwarded to the law ministry for further scrutiny.

Also at yesterday's meeting, the committee gave the nod to a proposal from the bridges division for appointing a non-governmental organisation named Eco-Social Development Organisation to rehabilitate those affected by the Padma bridge project.
The project's expected outlay is Tk 13.15 crore.

Meanwhile, the cabinet committee on economic affairs yesterday also approved a proposal for taking a $50 million “commodity credit” from Belarus with low interest rates for procuring maintenance equipment for city corporations.

The rate of interest on the loan will be 1 percent and no extra service charge or fee will be applicable, according to a proposal from the local government division.

The government will have to pay 15 percent of the price of the commodities to Belarus in advance and the remaining 85 percent can be paid in 11 years, including a three-year grace period.

Alongside, the Belarus government will provide two years' warranty on the imported equipment; all maintenance cost during the period will be borne by the Belarusian exporter.

The exporter will also send engineers and mechanics to Bangladesh at its own expense to train the workers how to use the machineries. After the expiry of the warranty period, the exporter will supply the necessary spare parts at factory price. It will also set up a service centre for providing services in this regard.

The purchase committee also approved a proposal from the Directorate General of Food, allowing Dubai-based Phoenix Commodities to supply 50,000 tonnes of wheat at $243.69 a tonne to Bangladesh.

291
Bangladesh Bank yesterday warned it would curtail the functions of BASIC Bank as per laws if the problem-ridden lender did not improve its deteriorating capital situation.

The central bank held a meeting with the BASIC board in which it conveyed its dissatisfaction over the state bank's capital deficit for three years in a row.

In June, the government gave the bank Tk 400 crore for recapitalisation, but it could not fulfill the minimum capital requirement.

The meeting was part of the central bank's efforts to improve banks' financial health by increasing their capital adequacy ratio (CAR) in line with Basel III requirements.

Basel III, which is set to take effect next year, is a comprehensive list of reform measures, developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, to strengthen regulation and supervision and reduce risks of the banking sector globally.

BB General Manager SM Rabiul Hassan, Deputy General Manager Ibrahim Bhuiyan and Joint Director Shabari Islam made a presentation of the overall financial condition of BASIC Bank.

BASIC Bank Chairman Alauddin A Majid led the bank's team, which comprised other directors and high officials, at the meeting held at its head office.
The bank's CAR has been in the negative since December 31, 2013 and in June 2015 it hit minus 15.53 percent, according to central bank statistics.

The minimum capital requirement for banks is 10 percent of their risk-weighted assets.

During the period, BASIC's capital deficit was Tk 2,916 crore against its risk-weighted assets of Tk 11,423 crore.

At the meeting, the BASIC board blamed the serious irregularities during the tenure of the previous management for the bank's worsening financial condition.

The new board took over in July last year and realising default loans overnight is not possible, they said, adding that the condition of the bank has been improving gradually.
In all of 2014, the bank realised Tk 126 crore against its bad loans, whereas in three months this year Tk 336 crore was recovered.

The number of loss-making branches too came down to 30 at the end of March from 37 in December 2014.

Once the government provides Tk 2,000 crore as capital in December, the deficit will come to zero. And by December 2016, the bank will be able to maintain the required capital, said its board members.

The presentation also highlighted some other negative sides of BASIC Bank's financial condition.

The bank suffered a net loss of Tk 1,100 crore last year. It already ran up losses of Tk 56 crore in the first three months of this year.

The realisation of Tk 2,999 crore of its loans is uncertain, so it put the amount in a block account after taking BB's permission. But the central bank instructed BASIC to also show the amount as classified loans, which it has yet to do.

The three BB officials also advised the BASIC board to take several steps to increase its capital in preparation of BASEL III

292
Business and Economics / Fitch forecasts stable GDP growth of Bangladesh
« on: August 30, 2015, 11:55:09 AM »
Fitch, a leading global credit rating agency, forecast Bangladesh's gross domestic product would grow 6.5 percent in the current fiscal year against the government's target of 7 percent.

Fitch on Friday released its latest outlook, saying: “Bangladesh's rating balances high, stable real GDP growth and persistently strong foreign-currency earnings from remittances and garment exports, against weak structural features, most prominently significant political and banking-sector risks.”

Fitch assigned the country long-term credit rating of BB- and short-term rating of B and a country ceiling of BB-, which was the same a year ago.

“Bangladesh's real GDP growth is high at a five-year average of 6.3 percent compared with the BB category median of 4.3 percent.”

Fitch said GDP growth has been remarkably stable over the years when Bangladesh was hit by both political turmoil and natural disasters.

The severe political turmoil in the first quarter of 2015, in which more than 100 people were killed, had a relatively small impact on the official GDP data, Fitch said.

It said strong political polarisation is negative for Bangladesh's credit profile. Normalcy has returned to the streets for now, but after two consecutive years marked by months of severe political violence, blockades and general strikes, a recurrence or escalation cannot be ruled out.
Fitch said the main risk to the sovereign credit profile is that the political turmoil would deter foreign investors and buyers, especially of garments, from doing business in Bangladesh.

Bangladesh scores poorly on a broad range of governance indicators, including the World Bank governance indicator (21st percentile versus the BB median of 46th percentile), it said.

The general level of development remains low, as illustrated by weak UN human development indicators.

293
Google can treat workers well and offer this stuff because, you know, it's Google. What are some amazing benefits that any little company can do?
This is going to sound crazy, but maternity leave. We give five months with full pay: salary, bonus, stock. If you have more than 10 or 20 employees you can do this.

We used to do 12 weeks of salary, and women who came back from leave quit at twice the rate of men. Now it’s the same as men. We have a similar program for paternity leave and same-sex parents.

On the face of it, you’re losing two months of a worker’s productive time. But someone can pick up the slack. It more than pays for itself in not having to go recruit someone brand new. The reality is: Most people don’t have that many babies. Anyone can duplicate this.

What’s the business case for treating workers well?
The bottom line is you sleep well at night by treating people the way you want to be treated.

You can only get so far by yelling at people and managing tightly. A lot of what [Google employees] do involves discretionary effort. You don’t get that unless they want to be there.

Employee retention is incredibly high. It’s been same since the company went public.

Any advice for a company like a Walmart or McDonald's, where there are shift workers and it’s less about discretionary effort?
I don’t know these companies, but I do know that if you treat people better and you give them freedom -- some small measure of freedom -- they’ll do amazing things.

The less they have today, the less you have to give them for them to think it’s amazing. At this point at Google, I have no idea what we’d have to do next to wow them.

If you’re a traditional company, a service company, you can do a suggestion box. And say, at the end of the month we’ll put $200 toward implementing the best suggestion, people go, “That’s amazing! No one ever cared what I thought.” That’s where you start.

Are people constantly asking if you can get them a job here?
Three or five times a week. More lately. I’ve already had like a dozen people today.

What’s the one thing that would kill someone’s chances of getting hired?
There are no hard and fast rules, but some simple things, like typos in your resume. Except if you’re a non-native candidate. If you’re a French person applying in France with typos, you’re disqualified. If you’re a British person applying in France, in French, I’m not too worried.

There used to be [college] majors we’d give a funny eye. We used to care about what school you went to. We really don’t anymore. We found it doesn’t predict performance. How you do on the interview questions predicts performance.

Can you ask me an interview question?
"Gimme an example of an intellectually difficult problem you solved?"

I’d then write down the question, your answer and my assessment. The hiring committee can see if the answer is something that demonstrates your skill. They also get to learn about me as an interviewer. Then I get feedback and I get better. And we hire better people

294
In today's knowledge economy, people are often a company's most valuable asset, and losing talented employees can be extremely expensive.

Laszlo Bock, the SVP of Google's People Operations and author of new book "Work Rules!," told Stephanie Ruhle in a panel interview at Bloomberg on Tuesday that most companies don't know how to hold onto their best people.

"People don't stay for the money," Bock said, noting that more than a third of Google's first 100 employees are still working at the company despite making boatloads of money in its IPO.

According to Bock, people stay for the following two reasons:

1. The quality of the people they work with
"That's why hiring is so important," he said. Google sets a high standard for everyone it hires. Whether you're applying for an administrative assistant position or that of senior engineer, every candidate is screened by their potential boss, potential colleagues, a hiring committee, and finally Google CEO Larry Page.

2. The feeling that the work they do is meaningful
"People want to do more than just make a buck," Bock said. "People want to do something that means something." Plus, giving employees a sense of purpose has benefits beyond retention. He cited research by Wharton professor Adam Grant that found when people are able to connect their jobs to something meaningful, their productivity increases as much as five times.

Interestingly, the lavish perks that Google is known for — free gourmet meals, in-house massages, and dry cleaning on campus — are nice-to-haves but ultimately not game-changers.

"The dirty secret of all these perks is it doesn't actually retain people or even attract people," Bock said. While the perks may provide efficiency, community, and an inviting atmosphere, he believes they ultimately won't swing people who are thinking about leaving


295
Business and Economics / Cut annual fees on BO account: stockbrokers
« on: August 20, 2015, 02:19:27 PM »
Stockbrokers yesterday requested the Central Depository of Bangladesh Ltd to slash the annual maintenance fee on beneficiary owner's accounts, considering the current market situation.

They also urged CDBL to consider their proposal of withdrawing the minimum share transaction fee that is Tk 5 at present, and to revise the fixed charge on bond transactions, now set at Tk 50.

They made the pleas at a meeting with CDBL, which operates the central depository system for electronic share transaction. Officials of the stock exchanges were also present.

“We informed CDBL about the problems we are facing now in the context of the current market situation,” said Ahsanul Islam, president of DSE Brokers Association of Bangladesh.

The annual maintenance fee on each BO account is Tk 500, of which a depository participant gets Tk 100, CDBL Tk 150, Bangladesh Securities and Exchange Commission Tk 50 and the government gets the rest Tk 200.

The number of active BO accounts stands at 30.65 lakh, according to the CDBL website.

The brokers did not mention how much the BO maintenance fee should be cut.
STOCKS FLAT

Stocks closed almost flat yesterday, with the benchmark index of Dhaka Stock Exchange, DSEX, increasing by only 7.7 points or 0.16 percent to close at 4,816.97 points.

Turnover, another important indicator of the market, rose 4.1 percent to Tk 550.19 crore on the transaction of 14.26 crore shares and mutual fund units.

Of the traded issues, 155 advanced and 116 declined with 48 securities closing unchanged on the premier bourse.

Square Pharma dominated the turnover chart with 10.13 lakh shares worth Tk 24.46 crore changing hands, followed by Apex Tannery, United Power Generation and Distribution Company, Islami Bank and RSRM Steel.

Apex Spinning and Knitting Mills was the day's best performer, gaining 9.89 percent, while Eastern Lubricants was the worst loser with a 6.9 percent fall.

Chittagong stocks also rose with the bourse's benchmark index, CSCX, increasing 27.55 points or 0.3 percent to stand at 8,991.07.

Gainers beat losers as 121 advanced and 98 declined, while 34 finished unchanged on the Chittagong Stock Exchange.

The port city bourse traded 1.23 crore shares and mutual fund units, generating a turnover of Tk 86.27 crore.

296
Faculty Sections / Banks get access to national ID database
« on: August 20, 2015, 02:09:26 PM »
Commercial banks are now getting access to the national identity database, which bankers said would help them check authenticity of clients' information and reduce forgeries.

The Election Commission yesterday signed an agreement with Dutch-Bangla Bank and Brac Bank, allowing the two to enjoy national identity (NID) verification services.

Earlier, Bangladesh Bank, the National Board of Revenue, and the Department of Immigration and Passports gained the access to the NID database.

Banks and telecom operators have long been demanding the access.

“The scope for verification will authenticate information of individuals and ensure transparent financial transactions. Frauds and forgeries will come down drastically,” Bangladesh Bank Governor Atiur Rahman said at the agreement signing ceremony at Radisson hotel in the city.

Johannes Zutt, World Bank's country director for Bangladesh, and Sirajul Islam, secretary of the Election Commission, were also present.

The governor said the two banks will now verify NIDs of their existing and upcoming customers regularly.
ADVERTISEMENT

Rahman said banks will use the NID database for mobile banking services as well.

Election Commission officials said they will have to manage multiple network connectivity from multiple service providers to provide the NID verification services to all banks and financial institutions. The BB governor proposed a solution to the multiple network connectivity issue. “The Election Commission may consider providing the access via the central bank,” Rahman said, adding that it would help the commission manage ICT security effectively.

Abul Kashem Mohammad Shirin, deputy managing director of Dutch-Bangla Bank, said the access to the NID database will help them detect accounts with false identity.

“Providing mobile banking services will be easier as many people open accounts with fake NID cards,” Shirin said. “We will get genuine information from the Election Commission as its NID database is 99.7 percent accurate,” he added.

A bank has to give the Election Commission Tk 2 for a single verification service in addition to the specific usage fees.

297
Bangladesh Bank (BB) has observed that the current political unrest has cast a shadow of uncertainty over achieving the target.Bangladesh Bank has set a target to reduce bank interest rate spread during January-June period of the current fiscal year, aimed at spurring the capital market of the country.
bangladeshbank:

Higlights :
? Despite some upside risks, inflation will be kept under control to reach the target of 6.5
percent by June 2015.
? The economy is poised to achieve a respectable growth rate between 6.5 and 6.8 percent
in the fiscal year 2015 if political stability prevails. The bottlenecks of infrastructure and
energy must be addressed promptly.
? Over the last 20 years Bangladesh evidenced the highest amount of stability in inflation
and economic growth in the South Asian region that includes India, Pakistan and Sri
Lanka.
? Bangladesh’s growth performance is the second best (5.73 percent) after India (6.77
percent) and its inflation is the lowest (6.45 percent) in the region over the last two
decades.
? Bangladesh Bank will pursue a monetary policy of prudence to strike the balance
between objectives of moderate inflation and respectable growth. Money supply and
policy rates will be controlled accordingly while opening further avenues to promote
investment through greater financial inclusion.
? Banking governance will be up scaled further to clamp down on loan delinquencies.
While the cases of credit worthy borrowers will be reviewed, habitual defaulters will face
lawful consequences.
? Bangladesh Bank will endeavor to iron out excessive fluctuations in the exchange rate
which will remain largely market based.
? The central bank will continue to maintain comfortable amount of foreign currency
reserves to cover imports of 5 to 10 months. This safety net is required to avoid any
sudden collapse in the value of Taka and to ensure a healthy growth of imports of
productive inputs.
? Bangladesh Bank aims at supplying reserve money at the growth rate of 15.9 percent and
broad money at 16.5 percent at the end of FY2015.
? Private sector credit growth has been targeted to grow at 15.5 percent at the end of
FY2015.
? At the retail level both deposit and lending rates fell in July-December of FY2015 and the
interest spread has on average decreased from 5.31 percent in June 2014 to 5.17 percent
in December 2015. Bangladesh Bank will continue its effort to reduce this spread.

The target was set at the central bank’s monetary policy announced Thursday for the second half of the fiscal year (FY) 2014-15.

The policy was adopted to bring down the inflation rate to 6.5% from current 6.99% (12-month average) and achieve an economic growth within a range between 6.5% and 6.8%.

“I hope that our monetary policy issued today will play the same effective role as the previous issues in instilling and strengthening public confidence on Bangladesh Bank’s actions aimed at containing and stabilising CPI inflation,” Governor Dr Atiur Rahman said, releasing the Monetary Policy Stance (MPS) at Bangladesh Bank headquarters in Dhaka.

“I also believe that its attendant inclusive, environmental sustainability supportive credit and financial policies will make meaningful contribution in supporting the government’s pursuit of on the country’s path towards prosperity.”

Atiur said Bangladesh Bank’s attention in support of capital market stability will continue in seccond half of FY2014-15.

He said the central bank has the statutory responsibility of enforcing compliance of banks with the legal limits on their capital market exposures; but further to this, Bangladesh Bank has continued liquidity support for capital market transactions in volumes permissible within Bangladesh Bank’s monetary programs.

In the first half of this fiscal year, he said Bangladesh Bank has introduced a number of new investor-friendly regulatory reforms facilitating external transactions of foreign and local businesses including investors in the capital market.

Atiur said deposit and lending interest rates of banks and financial institutions have been coming down in line with decline in CPI inflation; intermediation spreads between weighted average deposit and lending interest rates of banks and financial institutions have come down to five percent or lower in the state owned banks and the majority of private sector banks.

The spreads are higher in the foreign banks and in some private sector banks with high engagement in riskier small enterprise lending, he said.

“Bangladesh Bank’s attention towards rationalization of these higher spreads will continue.”

The governor said competitive lending interest setting behavior not having yet fostered well in the local financial market.

Bangladesh Bank resorted to setting ceilings on lending interest rates in two priority areas – pre-shipment export credit and agricultural credit.

In the context of general declining trend in interest rates, in H1 FY2014-15 Bangladesh Bank has revised the lending rate ceiling for agriculture downward from 13% to 11%. Competitive rate setting behavior in the market would have rendered prescription of such ceilings unnecessary.

“Bangladesh Bank will therefore pursue ways of fostering of competitive price setting, rate setting attitudes and practices in our financial markets.”

298
Be a Leader / The story behind : Sundar Pichai Became The CEO Of Google!
« on: August 20, 2015, 12:09:08 PM »
“At a restaurant, a cockroach suddenly flew from somewhere and sat on a lady. She started screaming out of fear. With a panic stricken face and trembling voice, she started jumping, with both her hands desperately trying to get rid of the cockroach.

Her reaction was contagious, as everyone in her group also got panicky. The lady finally managed to push the cockroach away but …it landed on another lady in the group. Now, it was the turn of the other lady in the group to continue the drama.

The waiter rushed forward to their rescue. In the relay of throwing, the cockroach next fell upon the waiter.

The waiter stood firm, composed himself and observed the behavior of the cockroach on his shirt.
When he was confident enough, he grabbed it with his fingers and threw it out of the restaurant.
Sipping my coffee and watching the amusement, the antenna of my mind picked up a few thoughts and started wondering, was the cockroach responsible for their histrionic behavior?
If so, then why was the waiter not disturbed? He handled it near to perfection, without any chaos.

It is not the cockroach, but the inability of the ladies to handle the disturbance caused by the cockroach that disturbed the ladies.

I realized that, it is not the shouting of my father or my boss or my wife that disturbs me, but it’s my inability to handle the disturbances caused by their shouting that disturbs me. It’s not the traffic jams on the road that disturbs me, but my inability to handle the disturbance caused by the traffic jam that disturbs me.

More than the problem, it’s my reaction to the problem that creates chaos in my life.
Lessons learnt from the story:
“Do not react in life. Always respond.“
Reactions are always instinctive whereas responses are always well thought of, just and right to save a situation from going out of hands, to avoid cracks in relationship, to avoid taking decisions in anger, anxiety, stress or hurry.”

299
সোশ্যাল বিজনেস ইয়ুথ সামিটে ড. ইউনূস
চাকরি খোঁজা হলো ‘আধুনিক দাসত্ব’

তরুণ প্রজন্ম চাকরি খোঁজার সংস্কৃতি থেকে বের হয়ে আসবে—এমন একটি বিশ্ব দেখতে চান নোবেল বিজয়ী প্রথম বাংলাদেশি ও গ্রামীণ ব্যাংকের প্রতিষ্ঠাতা ড. মুহাম্মদ ইউনূস। তাঁর মতে, শিক্ষাজীবন শেষে চাকরি খোঁজা হলো ‘আধুনিক দাসত্ব’।
ড. ইউনূস বলেছেন, ‘ভালো একটি বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় থেকে ভালো ডিগ্রি নিয়ে বেরিয়েই একজন শিক্ষার্থী বলছেন, আমাকে চাকরি দিন। কিন্তু এটা বলছেন না যে আমাকে ১০ হাজার ডলার দিন, আমি নিজের ভাগ্য নিজেই গড়ে তুলব। তাঁর ভাগ্যের নিয়ন্ত্রণ তিনি তুলে দিচ্ছেন আরেকজনের হাতে। এটা আধুনিক দাসত্ব।’
সোশ্যাল বিজনেস ইয়ুথ সামিট-২০১৫-এ ড. ইউনূস তরুণ উদ্যোক্তাদের উদ্দেশে এসব কথা বলেন। রাজধানীর ফার্মগেটে কৃষিবিদ ইনস্টিটিউট মিলনায়তনে গতকাল সোমবার দিনব্যাপী এই সম্মেলনের আয়োজন করে সোশ্যাল বিজনেস ইয়ুথ অ্যালায়েন্স, গ্লোবাল। ইউনূস সেন্টারের নির্দেশনা অনুযায়ী সোশ্যাল বিজনেস ইয়ুথ অ্যালায়েন্স পরিচালিত হয়।
ড. ইউনূস বলেন, প্রত্যেক মানুষই উদ্যোক্তা হয়ে জন্ম নেন। কিন্তু সমাজ তাকে এমনভাবে মগজধোলাই করে যে তিনি চাকরি খুঁজতে বাধ্য হন। সে জন্য বেকারত্ব দেখা দেয়।
তরুণ-তরুণীদের চাকরি খোঁজা থেকে বেরিয়ে আসার পথও বাতলে দিয়েছেন এই নোবেলজয়ী। বলেছেন, একটা সময় ছিল উদ্যোক্তারা মূলধনের সমস্যায় পড়তেন, ব্যবসা করার জন্য অর্থ পেতেন না। এখন আর সেই অবস্থা নেই। ভালো ব্যবসায়িক ধারণা হলে ব্যবসায় অর্থায়ন এখন আর সমস্যা না। তরুণদের উদ্দেশে তিনি বলেন, ‘তোমরা যেন উদ্যোক্তা হতে পারো, সে জন্য গ্রামীণ ব্যাংক প্রস্তুত। তোমরা ব্যবসাসংক্রান্ত ধারণা নিয়ে আসো, গ্রামীণ ব্যাংক তোমাদের টাকা দেবে।’
তরুণদের উৎসাহ দিয়ে গ্রামীণ ব্যাংকের এই প্রতিষ্ঠাতা বলেছেন, হাজার হাজার উদ্যোক্তা আছেন, যাঁরা শিক্ষার্থী অবস্থায় ব্যবসা শুরু করেছেন এবং সফলও হয়েছেন।
তরুণ উদ্যোক্তাদের সামাজিক ব্যবসায়ে আগ্রহী হওয়ার পরামর্শ দিয়ে ড. ইউনূস বলেন, ‘শুধু ব্যবসা দিয়ে বিশ্বকে বদলানো যাবে না। এ জন্য মুনাফার বাইরেও চিন্তা করতে হবে। তোমাদের সামাজিক ব্যবসার দিকে যেতে হবে।’
ড. ইউনূস কথা বলেন সায়েন্স ফিকশন নিয়েও। তিনি বলেন, সায়েন্স ফিকশন যা বলে, একসময় তা সত্যি হয়। যেমন স্মার্টফোন। একপর্যায়ে তিনি বলেন, বিশ্বটা যদি হয় সায়েন্স ফিকশনের, তাহলে তাকে কেন সোশ্যাল ফিকশনের বিশ্বে পরিণত করা যাবে না?
তরুণদের বিশ্ব বদলে দেওয়ার প্রধান শক্তি উল্লেখ করে ড. ইউনূস বলেন, ‘যদি আমরা একটি কাঙ্ক্ষিত সমাজ কিংবা বিশ্বের কল্পনা করতে না পারি, তাহলে তা কখনোই সত্যি হবে না। সে জন্য আমাদের একটি গন্তব্য দরকার, একটি নির্দেশনা দরকার। তুমি যদি জানো যে তোমাকে কোথায় যেতে হবে, তাহলে তুমি অবশ্যই সেখানে পৌঁছাতে পারবে। তোমার প্রযুক্তি, যোগাযোগ ক্ষমতা তোমাকে সেখানে নিয়ে যাবে।’
তরুণদের উদ্দেশে ড. ইউনূসের শেষ উক্তিটি ছিল, দারিদ্র্য, বেকারত্ব ও কার্বন নিঃসরণ শূন্যের পর্যায়ে থাকবে—এমন একটি বিশ্বের কথা কল্পনা করো। দেখবে একসময় তা সত্যিই হয়ে যাবে।
অনুষ্ঠানে ইউনূস সেন্টারের নির্বাহী পরিচালক লামিয়া মোর্শেদ বক্তব্য দেন। এর আগে বক্তব্য দেন মিডিয়া ব্যক্তিত্ব মুহাম্মদ জাহাঙ্গীর।

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