Nature and concepts of curriculum in General
Concepts of the curriculum are grounded firmly in this notion that curriculum is a racecourse of subject matters. This is some concept of curriculum :
1.Curriculum as the program of studies. It means the curriculum includes about school subject or more specifically a listing of the titles of the course offered by school.
2. Curriculum as Course Context. It is such a conception of curriculum limits planning to the selection and organization of information that learners acquire.
3. Curriculum as Planned Learning experiences. A curriculum conceived of as planed experiences is one of the most prevalent concepts. Te commonly excepted definition of the curriculum has change from content of courses os study and lists subjects and courses to all the experiences which are offered to learners under the auspices or direction of the school.
4. Curriculum as experiences had under the auspices of the school. The definition of the curriculum sometimes refer to the invisile curriculum, those aspects of the curriculum that are unplanned or unintended and there for offer looked. The point out that certain planed curriculum experiences are designed, for example to teach students t read but as a result of experiencess had by the students.
5. Curriculum as structure series of intended learning outcome. Among the writers who view planed learning experiences to broad definition of the curriculum maintains the curriculum can consist only of a structure series of intended learning outcome.
6. Curriculum as written plane for action. The problem of distinction between curriculum and instruction that John deals with also is treated by Macdonald, another prominent curriculum theorist. In the process of arriving at solution, this specialist achieves tentative definition not only for curriculum and instruction but for teaching and learning as well.
Definition Curriculum and Syllabus
Curriculum is an organized set of formal educational and/training intentions in written form but not activities. Curriculum is an organized set of formal educational and/or training intentions. in written form or blueprint in order to increase schools quality. It means that curriculum is setting in a paper not activities. but, a curriculum is a plan for scholl activities.
1. Dualist model
In this model, curriculum and instruction is clearly has relationship but never the twain shall meet. Under this model the curriculum or the instructional processes may change without significantly affecting one another. What take place in the classroom under the direction of the teacher seems to have little relationship to what the master plan says should go on in the classroom. Discussions of curriculum are divorced from their practical application to the classroom.
2. Interlocking model
In this model the seperation of one from the other would do serious harm to both. It would be difficult to curriculum planner to regard instruction as paramount to curriculum and to determine teaching methods before program objectives. On the other hand, some faculties proceed as if instruction were primary by dispensing with anvance planning of the curriculum and by leting it more or less develop as it unfolds in the classroom.
3. Concentric models
Mutual dependence is the key feature of concentric models.
Syllabus is an specification of the content and the ordering of what is to be taught. In the wider sense it refers to all aspects of the planning, implementation, and evaluation of an educational program, the why, how and how together with the what of the teaching-learning process.
.According to experts, syllabus is :
a. In wilikins’ (1981) words, syllabus are “specifications of the content of language teaching which have been submitted to some degree of structuring or ordering with the aim of making teaching and learning a more effective process.”
b. Bren (1984) “ a plan or what is to be achieved through our teaching and our student learning.
c. Prabhu (1984), function of syllabus is “ to specify what is to be taught and in what order.
d. Yalden (1987) “ summary of the content to which learners will be exposed.”
Social construction, produced interdependently in classrooms by teacher and learners…there are concerned with the specification and planning of what is to be learned, frequently set down in some written form as prescription for action by teacher and learners.”(candling 1984)
Relationship between curriculum and instruction
Curriculum and instruction is very close one. And it is relationship each other. We know that curriculum is a design or road mapping and which is taught and focuses on knowledge and skills that important to learn and instruction mean by which that learning will be achieved. For the simplify curriculum is “what” and instruction is the “how” which is have very close relationship. Specifically, instruction may be think as “the planned interaction between instructors and students that (hopefully) results in desirable learning”. Sometimes, serious questions may be raised as to what exactly constitutes curriculum and what constitutes instruction. Some educators feel that any curriculum includes instruction; others contend that sound instruction includes a sound curriculum. So, the curriculum is about plans or programs thus are “programmatic” and instruction is implementation thus are “methodological” which is like two subsystem or sub dimensions of a larger system called education.
Curriculum Development and Curriculum Design (differences and similarities )
Curriculum development is like a curriculum construction, refers to the process. Curriculum development is a process which determines how curriculum construction will proceed and implementing curricula. Exactly, curriculum development is the way how the system to be improved and increase according of the curricula. The idea of curriculum development is to show how curriculum evolves or is planned, implemented , and evaluated. It means curriculum development is the whole way process the curriculum build and become the generally of education.
Curriculum design refers to the way we conceptualize the curriculum and arrange its major components ( subject matter or content, instructional methods and materials, learner experiences or activities to provide and guidance as we develop the curriculum. The curriculum design is to develop priorities to guide selection of performed. In other words, we can conclude that the curriculum design is how the way to frame and arrange the curriculum in one major from components, like subject matter, instructional methods, and materials and learners experiences or activities. So, the differences of curriculum design and curriculum development is, the curriculum development is object to plan and construct the curriculum generally, but the curriculum design more specifically to making the concept of curriculum will be use at the school. Then, curriculum development to be likely technical and scientific, but curriculum design is moreE. Language Curriculum Development, because it is based in curriculum values and beliefs about education, priorities of schooling, and views of how student learn. Curriculum development just till plan and a total system but curriculum design more than plan, it was provide a basic frame of reference for planning for developing curriculum. There are many opinion about similarities of curriculum development and curriculum design
1. Robert s zais: curriculum development and curriculum design their have components or elements.
2. Allan c ortistern: their have model
3. David Prah : curriculum development was the term must frequently encountered. must recently the activities of curriculum workers have been increase referred to is curriculum design. Both terms, curriculum developmend and curriculum design, are used frequently and to an extent interchangeably throughout this book.
Language curriculum development is an aspect of a broader field of educational activity known as curriculum development or curriculum studies. Language curriculum development refers to the field applied linguistics that addresses the issues and describe an interrelated set of processes that focuses on designing, revising, implementing, and evaluating language programs.Language curriculum development is the processes which is include, developing, implementing and evaluating language programs and language teaching material. Language curriculum development is an aspect of a broader field of educational activity that we knows as curriculum development or curriculum studies. Curriculum development focuses on determining what knowledge, skills, and values students learn in school, what experiences should be provided to bring about intended learning outcomes, and how teaching and in schools or educational system can be planned, measured, and evaluated. Because curriculum development refers to a process, so language curriculum development refers to the field of applied linguisticts that addresses these issues that describe an interrelated set of prosesses that focuses on designing, revising, implementing, and evaluating language programs.
Historical background of Language Curriculum Development
The history of curriculum development in language teaching starts with the notion of syllabus design. Syllabus design is one aspect of curriculum development but is not identical with it.A syllabus is a specification of the content of a course of instruction and lists what will be taught and tested. Thus the syllabus for a speaking course might specify the kinds of oral skills that will be taught and practiced during the course, the functions ,topics or other aspect of conversation that will be taught, and the order in which they will appear in the course. Syllabus design is the process of developing a syllabus. Curriculum development is a more comprehensive process than syllabus design. It include the processes that are use to determine the needs of a program to address those needs, to determine and appropriate syllabus, course structure, teaching methods, and material, and to carry out an evaluation of the language program that result from these processes.
If we look back of the history of language teaching throughout the twentieth century, much of the impetus for changes in approaches to language teaching came about from changes in teaching methods. The methods concept in teaching the notion of a systematic set of teaching practices based on a particular theory of language learning is a powerful one and the guest for better methods has been a preoccupation of many teachers and applied linguistics since the beginning of the twentieth century.
Once a consensus had emerged concerning he principles underlying and or – based methodology, applied linguistics then turned their attention to issues of the content and syllabus design underlying the structural methods.
All teaching, of course, demands a choice of what will be taught from the total field of the subject ,and the teaching of a language at any level and under any circumstances requires the selection of certain features of the language and the international and international exclusion of others. Two aspetcs of selection received primary attention in the first few decades of the twentieth century : vocabulary selection and grammar selection. Approaches to these two aspects of selection laid the foundations for a syllabus design in language teaching. Many method have come and gone in the last 100 years in pursuit of the “best method”, as the:
a. Grammar translation method 1800-1900
b. Direct method 1890-1930
c. Structural method 1930-1960
d. Reading method 1920-1950
e. Audio lingual method 1950-1970
f. Situational method 1950-1970
g. Communicative approach 1970- presentCONCLUSION
Nature and concepts of curriculum in general concepts of the curriculum are grounded firmly in this notion that curriculum is a racecourse of subject matters. This is some concept of curriculum, curriculum as the program of studies, curriculum as course context, curriculum as planned learning experiences, curriculum as experiences had under the auspices of the schoo, curriculum as structured series of intended learning outcomes, and curriculum as a written plan fo action. That ‘s the first conception of curriculum. Curriculum is an organized set of formal educational and/or training intentions. in written form or blueprint in order to increase schools quality. It means that curriculum is setting in a paper not activities. but, a curriculum is a plan for scholl activities. Then, the curriculum in language teaching starts with the notion of syllabus design. Syllabus is aspecification of the content of a course of instruction and lists what will be taught and tested.
Curriculum and instruction is very close one. And it is relationship each other. We know that curriculum is a design or road mapping and which is taught and focuses on knowledge and skills that important to learn and instruction mean by which that learning will be achieved. For the simplify curriculum is “what” and instruction is the “how” which is have very close relationship. Specifically, instruction may be think as “the planned interaction between instructors and students that (hopefully) results in desirable learning”. So, the differences of curriculum design and curriculum development is, the curriculum development is object to plan and construct the curriculum generally, but the curriculum design more specifically to making the concept of curriculum will be use at the school. Then, curriculum development to be likely technical and scientific, but curriculum design is more varied, because it is based in curricularist values and beliefs about education, priorities of schooling, and views of how student learn.