A Nanofluid is a fluid containing nanometer-sized particles, called nanoparticles. These fluids are engineered colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in a base fluid.The nanoparticles used in nanofluids are typically made of metals, oxides, carbides, or carbon nanotubes. Common base fluids include water, ethylene glycol and oil.
Nanofluids have new properties that make them potentially useful in many applications in heat transfer, including microelectronics, fuel cells, pharmaceutical processes, and hybrid-powered engines, engine cooling thermal management, inland refrigerator, hair-raiser, heat exchanger,in grinding, machining and in boiler flue gas temperature reduction. They exhibit enhanced thermal conductivity and the convective heat transfer coefficient compared to the base fluid. Knowledge of the rheological behaviour of nanofluids is found to be very critical in deciding their suitability for convective heat transfer applications.
In this new age of energy awareness, our lack of abundant sources of clean energy and the widespread dissemination of battery operated devices, such as cell-phones and laptops, have accented the necessity for a smart technological handling of energetic resources. Nanofluids have been demonstrated to be able to handle this role in some instances as a smart fluid.