Causes of fire:
Loose wiring /Electric short circuit.
Careless disposal of burning cigarette and match stick.
Spark from chimney.
Miss fire of engine.
Flash of Lightning.
Careless use of calender.
Friction of machineries.
Hot dust & hot meterial
Fire fighting method:
a. Cooling: By means of water, foam and carbon dioxide.
b. Smothering: Stopping oxygen supply to the area of fire.
c. Starvation: Removing combustible materials from burning area.
d. Poisoning the flame: Through dry chemical powder extinguisher.
The simple medical treatment that is given to casualties by a first aider before a doctor comes or they can be taken to a hospital.
Principles of First Aid :-
To remove the patient from the cause or cause from the patient.
To render artificial respiration
To stop bleeding.
To treat for the suffocation and shock.
To use splint/bandage in case of wound and fracture.
To supply pure air.
To remove the crowd from the casualty.
To send the casualty to hospital.
Object of First Aid:
1. To save life of victim.
2. To prevent further aggravation of the casualty.
3. To immobilize the broken bone of casualties.
4. To ease pain.
Qualities of a First aider: HUMAN BODY SYSTEM: DOCTOR PENDS-
D - Dexterous. O - Observant
C â€“ Careful. T â€“ Tactful.
O â€“ Omit. R â€“ Resourceful.
P â€“ Persevering. E â€“ Explicit.
N â€“ Not a doctor. D â€“ Discriminating
S â€“ Sympathetic.
Special sense organ System.
Blood Circulatory System
The system by which blood is circulated throughout the body is called circulatory system.
Organs of blood circulation : -
Heart â€“ It is the pumping chamber which propels blood throughout the body.
Artery â€“ Blood vessel to carry oxygenated (pure blood) blood from heart to different parts of the body.
Vein â€“ Blood vessel to carry deoxygenated (impure blood) blood form different parts of the body to the heart.
Capillaries â€“ are the tiny blood vessels which connect arteries and veins providing network.
Functions of blood:
Convey temperature throughout the body.
Convey nutrition produced from the food in different part of the body.
Bear the waste substances from the tissue to the kidney.
Carry oxygen from lungs to different parts of the body.
Carry carbon-dioxide from different parts of the body to the lungs.
Destroy germs with the help of white blood corpuscles.
Bear hormones, enzymes, lipid etc. to the organs.
Control blood pressure.
Stop bleeding by being clot.
Increase the ability of prevention of the body.
Keep the cells alive.
Keep balance of water throughout the body.
Wound is a break in the continuity of the tissues of the body which thus permits the escape of blood and entrance of disease-producing germs or other injurious agents.
Classification of wounds:
Wounds may be classified with the help of the abbreviation-
A â€“ Amputation â€“ The removal of a limb or other appendage of the body by surgical knife.
A â€“ Avulsion â€“ The wrenching away of a part
C â€“ Contused wound â€“ Produced by blunt instruments or by crushing.
L â€“ Lacerated wound â€“ Produced by machinery, claws of animal etc.
I â€“ Incised wound â€“ Produced by sharp instruments such as razor.
P â€“ Punctured wound â€“ Produced by needle, knife or bayonet (stab).
P â€“ Penetrating wound â€“ Produced by bullet of splinter.
P â€“ Perforated wound â€“ Produced by bullet of splinter.
Danger from wounds: -
Treatment of wound:
Do not disturb any blood clot already formed.
Apply dressing, pad and bandage
Immobilize the injured part.
Use tourniquet in case of damage of artery or vein.
Apply and maintain pressure.
Fracture is a term when a bone is broken or cracked.
Causes of Fracture
Direct Violence â€“ By direct impact.
Indirect Violence â€“ By indirect impact.
Muscular Action â€“ Generally occurred during running .
Plan of Evacuation:
During peace time a plan should be made how to evacuate persons systematically in case of emergency. According to exits/emergency exits divide the entire person into several groups. Give instruction to the group of every floor to move towards nearest exit as slowly as possible in disciplinary way one after another to get down during using emergency exits, so that they can evacuate themselves without any confusion. During emergency fire & safety personnel must use emergency torch/search light. Nobody should try to overtake other whimsically to avoid collision and to escape from trampling. Remember that for successful evacuation demonstration and exercise must be followed at least once in three months. Follow the advice given bellow-
If fire is breakout in the 3rd floor of a ten story building -
Evacuate the persons from â€“ 3rd to 10th floor step by step and
Then from level 2 to 1.
If fire is breakout in the 5th floor of a ten story building â€“
Evacuate the persons from â€“ 5th to 10th floor step by step and
Then from floor 4 to 1.
NB. Never try to rush simultaneously during evacuation.
Priority of evacuation
The children & expected mother.
The aged person
The head of the wings
The safety & security personnel.