The primary themes common to most codes of journalistic standards and ethics are the following.
Accuracy and standards for factual reporting
1. Reporters are expected to be as accurate as possible given the time allotted to story preparation and the space available, and to seek reliable sources.
2. Events with a single eyewitness are reported with attribution. Events with two or more independent eyewitnesses may be reported as fact. Controversial facts are reported with attribution.
3. Independent fact-checking by another employee of the publisher is desirable.
4. Corrections are published when errors are discovered
5. Defendants at trial are treated only as having "allegedly" committed crimes, until conviction, when their crimes are generally reported as fact (unless, that is, there is serious controversy about wrongful conviction).
6.Opinion surveys and statistical information deserve special treatment to communicate in precise terms any conclusions, to contextualize the results, and to specify accuracy, including estimated error and methodological criticism or flaws.
Slander and libel considerations
1. Reporting the truth is almost never libel, which makes accuracy very important.
2. Private persons have privacy rights that must be balanced against the public interest in reporting information about them. Public figures have fewer privacy rights in U.S. law, where reporters are immune from a civil case if they have reported without malice. In Canada, there is no such immunity; reports on public figures must be backed by facts.
3. Publishers vigorously defend libel lawsuits filed against their reporters, usually covered by libel insurance.
Harm limitation principle
During the normal course of an assignment a reporter might go about—gathering facts and details, conducting interviews, doing research, background checks, taking photos, video taping, recording sound—harm limitation deals with the questions of whether everything learned should be reported and, if so, how. This principle of limitation means that some weight needs to be given to the negative consequences of full disclosure, creating a practical and ethical dilemma. The Society of Professional Journalists' code of ethics offers the following advice, which is representative of the practical ideals of most professional journalists. Quoting directly:
•Show compassion for those who may be affected adversely by news coverage. Use special sensitivity when dealing with children and inexperienced sources or subjects.
•Be sensitive when seeking or using interviews or photographs of those affected by tragedy or grief.
•Recognize that gathering and reporting information may cause harm or discomfort. Pursuit of the news is not a license for arrogance.
•Recognize that private people have a greater right to control information about themselves than do public officials and others who seek power, influence or attention. Only an overriding public need can justify intrusion into anyone's privacy.
•Show good taste. Avoid pandering to lurid curiosity.
•Be cautious about identifying juvenile suspects or victims of sex crimes.
•Be judicious about naming criminal suspects before the formal filing of charges.
•Balance a criminal suspect's fair trial rights with the public's right to be informed.