Who are the Least Developed Countries (LDCs)

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Offline Md. Limon Hossain

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Who are the Least Developed Countries (LDCs)
« on: July 23, 2011, 07:20:18 AM »
The LDCs are defined as low-income countries that are suffering from long-term handicaps to growth, in particular low levels of human resource development and/or severe structural weaknesses.

In 1971, the international community recognized the existence of a category of countries whose distinctness lies in the profound poverty of their people and in the weakness of their economic, institutional and human resources, often compounded by geophysical handicaps. Currently, there are 49 countries identified as Least Developed Countries. These countries are particularly ill-equipped to develop their domestic economies which are so vulnerable to external shocks or natural disasters. Thus, the group represents the weakest segment of humanity and presents a major challenge to its development partners.

The United Nations General Assembly decides which countries are included in (or graduate from) the list of LDCs under the recommendation of ECOSOC.

The criteria

In its latest triennial review of the list of Least Developed Countries in 2006, the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations used the following three criteria for determining the new list, as proposed by the Committee for Development Policy:

Gross national income per capita: The threshold for inclusion was calculated at $745, a three-year (2002-2004) average Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of the low-income threshold established by the World Bank, based on the World Bank Atlas method[1]. The threshold for graduation was set at $900, or about 20 per cent above the threshold for inclusion, in order to effectively prevent graduating countries subsequently returning to the category owing to short-term declines in their GNI per capita caused by exogenous shocks, or exchange rate variations.

A Human assets index (HAI): The HAI used is a combination of four indicators, two for health and nutrition and two for education: (a) the percentage of population and undernourished; (b) the mortality rate for children aged five years or under; (c) the gross secondary school enrolment ration; and (d) the adult literacy rate. As in the 2003 review, the threshold for graduation was established at 10 per cent above the inclusion threshold. Thus, the threshold for inclusion in the list of LDC is an HAI value of 58 and the threshold for graduation is 64.

Economic vulnerability index (EVI): The EVI reflects the risk posed to a country’s development by exogenous shocks, the impact of which depends on the magnitude of the shocks and on structural characteristics that determine the extent to which the country would be affected by such shocks. The EVI is a combination of seven indicators: (a) population size; (b) remoteness; (c) merchandise export concentration; (d) share of agriculture, forestry and fisheries in gross domestic product; (e) homelessness owing to natural disasters; (f) instability of agricultural production; and (g) instability of exports of goods and services.>

The United Nations General Assembly decides which countries are included in (or graduate from) the list of LDCs under the recommendation of ECOSOC.

Eligibility to Graduate from the LDC List

Countries that meet two of the criteria for the first time become eligible for graduation and those that do so in two consecutive reviews qualify for graduation from the list.

 

The World Bank thresholds for low-income countries during these three years were $755, $745 and $735, respectively.

Source: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ldc/who.html
Md. Limon Hossain
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E-mail: limon-hossain@diu.edu.bd And limon.hossain@yahoo.com
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Offline Md. Limon Hossain

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Re: Who are the Least Developed Countries (LDCs)
« Reply #1 on: July 23, 2011, 07:21:20 AM »
LIST OF LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
Country Date of inclusion
On the list

1. Afghanistan 1971
2. Angola 1994
3. Bangladesh 1975
4. Benin 1971
5. Bhutan 1971
6. Burkina Faso 1971
7. Burundi 1971
8. Cambodia 1991
9. Central African Rep. 1975
10. Chad 1971
11. Comoros 1977
12. Dem. Rep. of the Congo 1991
13. Djibouti 1982
14. Equatorial Guinea 1982
15. Eritrea 1994
16. Ethiopia 1971
17. Gambia 1975
18. Guinea 1971
19. Guinea-Bissau 1981
20. Haiti 1971
21. Kiribati 1986
22. Lao People's Dem. Rep. 1971
23. Lesotho 1971
24. Liberia 1990
25. Madagascar 1991
26. Malawi 1971
27. Maldives1 1971
28. Mali 1971
29. Mauritania 1986
30. Mozambique 1988
31. Myanmar 1987
32. Nepal 1971
33. Niger 1971
34. Rwanda 1971
35. Samoa2 1971
36. Sao Tome and Principe 1982
37. Senegal 2000
38. Sierra Leone 1982
39. Solomon Islands 1991
40. Somalia 1971
41. Sudan 1971
42. Timor-Leste 2003
43. Togo 1982
44. Tuvalu 1986
45. Uganda 1971
46. United Rep. of Tanzania 1971
47. Vanuatu 1985
48. Yemen 1971
49. Zambia 1991


Source: http://www.un.org/esa/policy/devplan/profile/ldc_list.pdf
Md. Limon Hossain
Department of BBA
ID: 082-11-523
Cell: +8801717885679
E-mail: limon-hossain@diu.edu.bd And limon.hossain@yahoo.com
Daffodil International University