Important Literary Theories

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Offline Md. Nuruzzaman Moral

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« Reply #15 on: December 24, 2011, 03:40:16 PM »
                                                        Postmodernism
Postmodernism literally means 'after the modern'. It is used in critical theory to refer to a point of departure for works of literature, drama, architecture, and design, as well as in marketing and business and the interpretation of history, law and culture in the late 20th century.
Postmodernism was originally a reaction to modernism. Largely influenced by the Western European disillusionment induced by World War II, postmodernism tends to refer to a cultural, intellectual, or artistic state lacking a clear central hierarchy or organizing principle and embodying extreme complexity, contradiction, ambiguity, diversity, interconnectedness or interreferentiality,[1] in a way that is often indistinguishable from a parody of itself. It has given rise to charges of fraudulence.[2]
Postmodernity is a derivative referring to non-art aspects of history that were influenced by the new movement, namely developments in society, economy and culture since the 1960s.[3] When the idea of a reaction or rejection of modernism was borrowed by other fields, it became synonymous in some contexts with postmodernity. The term is closely linked with poststructuralism (cf. Jacques Derrida) and with modernism, in terms of a rejection of its bourgeois, elitist culture.[4]
« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:28:41 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »

Offline Md. Nuruzzaman Moral

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« Reply #16 on: December 24, 2011, 03:45:26 PM »
                                Philosophical Movements and contributors
Influencer    Year   Influence
                                Karl Barth
1925            fideist approach to theology brought a rise in subjectivity
 
                                 Martin Heidegger
1927           rejected the philosophical grounding of the concepts of "subjectivity" and "objectivity"   
                                 W.V.O. Quine
1951           developed the theses of indeterminacy of translation and ontological relativity, and argued    against the possibility of a priori knowledge. Argued that we can never satisfactorily know what a word "means."   
                                 Ludwig Wittgenstein
1953            anti-foundationalism, on certainty, a philosophy of language
 
                                 Thomas Samuel Kuhn
1962            posited the rapid change of the basis of scientific knowledge to a provisional consensus of scientists, popularized the term "paradigm shift"
 
                                  Jacques Derrida
1967      re-examined the fundamentals of writing and its consequences on philosophy in general; sought to undermine the language of western metaphysics (deconstruction)
 
                                  Michel Foucault
1975     examined discursive power in Discipline and Punish, with Bentham's panopticon as his model, and also known for saying "language is oppression" (Meaning that language was developed to allow only those who spoke the language not to be oppressed. All other people that don't speak the language would then be oppressed.)   
                                   Jean-François Lyotard
1979           opposed universality, meta-narratives, and generality
 
                                    Richard Rorty
1979           argues philosophy mistakenly imitates scientific methods; advocates dissolving traditional philosophical problems; anti-foundationalism and anti-essentialism
 
                                   Jean Baudrillard
1981      Simulacra and Simulation - reality disappears underneath the interchangeability of signs   
« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:28:55 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »

Offline Md. Nuruzzaman Moral

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« Reply #17 on: December 24, 2011, 03:49:34 PM »
                                                     Deconstruct

Deconstruction is a term which is used to denote the application of postmodern ideas of criticism, or theory, to a "text" or "artifact", based on architectural deconstructivism. A deconstruction is meant to undermine the frame of reference and assumptions that underpin the text or the artifact.
The term "deconstruction" comes from Martin Heidegger, who calls for the destruction or deconstruction (the German "Destruktion" connotates both English words) of the history of ontology. The point, for Heidegger, was to describe Being prior to its being covered over by Plato and subsequent philosophy. Thus, Heidegger himself engaged in "deconstruction" through a critique of post-Socratic thought (which had forgotten the question of Being) and the study of the pre-Socratics (where Being was still an open question).
In later usage, a "deconstruction" is an important textual "occurrence" described and analyzed by many postmodern authors and philosophers. They argue that aspects in the text itself would undermine its own authority or assumptions and that internal contradictions would erase boundaries or categories which the work relied on or asserted. Poststructuralists beginning with Jacques Derrida, who coined the term, argued that the existence of deconstructions implied that there was no intrinsic essence to a text, merely the contrast of difference. This is analogous to the idea that the difference in perception between black and white is the context. A deconstruction is created when the "deeper" substance of text opposes the text's more "superficial" form. This idea is not isolated to poststructuralists but is related to the idea of hermeneutics in literature; intellectuals as early as Plato asserted it and so did modern thinkers such as Leo Strauss. Derrida's argument is that deconstruction proves that texts have multiple meanings and the "violence" between the different meanings of text may be elucidated by close textual analysis.
Popularly, close textual analyses describing deconstruction within a text are often themselves called deconstructions. Derrida argued, however, that deconstruction is not a method or a tool but an occurrence within the text itself. Writings about deconstruction are therefore referred to in academic circles as deconstructive readings.
Deconstruction is far more important to postmodernism than its seemingly narrow focus on text might imply. According to Derrida, one consequence of deconstruction is that the text may be defined so broadly as to encompass not just written words but the entire spectrum of symbols and phenomena within Western thought. To Derrida, a result of deconstruction is that no Western philosopher has been able to escape successfully from this large web of text and reach that which is "signified", which they imagined to exist "just beyond" the text.
The more common use of the term is the more general process of pointing to contradictions between the intent and surface of a work and the assumptions about it. A work then "deconstructs" assumptions when it places them in context. For example, someone who can pass as the opposite sex may be said to "deconstruct" gender identity, because there is a conflict between the superficial appearance and the reality of the person's gender.
« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:29:09 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »

Offline Md. Nuruzzaman Moral

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« Reply #18 on: December 24, 2011, 03:51:17 PM »
                                                        Realism
Realism, Realist or Realistic may refer to:
The arts

•   Realism (arts), the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life
•   Realism (dramatic arts), a movement towards greater fidelity to real life
•   Realism (visual arts), a style of painting that depicts what the eye can see
•   Classical Realism, an artistic movement in late 20th Century that valued beauty and artistic skill
•   Hyperrealism (painting), a genre of painting that resembles high resolution photography
•   Kitchen sink realism, an English cultural movement in the 1950s and 1960s that concentrated on    contemporary social realism
•   Literary realism, a 19th century literary movement
•   Magic realism, an artistic genre in which magical elements appear in an otherwise realistic setting
•   Nazi heroic realism or the art of the third Reich, a style of propaganda art associated with Nazi Germany
•   New Realism, an artistic movement founded in 1960 by Pierre Restany and Yves Klein
« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:29:23 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »

Offline Md. Nuruzzaman Moral

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« Reply #19 on: December 24, 2011, 03:52:25 PM »
                                                       Impressionism

Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s. The name of the movement is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review published in Le Charivari.
Characteristics of Impressionist painting include visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
The emergence of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous movements in other media which became known as Impressionist music and Impressionist literature.
Impressionism also describes art created in this style, but outside of the late 19th century time period.
« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:29:36 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »

Offline Md. Nuruzzaman Moral

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« Reply #20 on: December 24, 2011, 03:53:53 PM »
                                                         Expressionism

Expressionism is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an emotional effect; it is a subjective art form. Expressionism is exhibited in many art forms, including painting, literature, theatre, film, architecture and music. The term often implies emotional angst. In a general sense, painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco can be called expressionist, though in practice, the term is applied mainly to 20th century works.
« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:29:48 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »

Offline Md. Nuruzzaman Moral

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« Reply #21 on: December 24, 2011, 03:54:54 PM »
                                                        Cubism

Cubism was a 20th century avant-garde art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. The first branch of cubism, known as Analytic Cubism, was both radical and influential as a short but highly significant art movement between 1908 and 1911 in France. In its second phase, Synthetic Cubism, the movement spread and remained vital until around 1919, when the Surrealist movement gained popularity.
English art historian Douglas Cooper describes three phases of Cubism in his seminal book The Cubist Epoch. According to Cooper there was Early Cubism, (from 1906-1908) during which time the movement was initially developed in the studios of Picasso and Braque; the second phase being called High Cubism, (from 1909 to 1914) during which time Juan Gris emerged as an important exponent; and finally Cooper referred to Late Cubism (from 1914 to 1921) as the last phase of Cubism as a radical avant-garde movement.[1]
In cubist artworks, objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Often the surfaces intersect at seemingly random angles, removing a coherent sense of depth. The background and object planes interpenetrate one another to create the shallow ambiguous space, one of cubism's distinct characteristics.
« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:30:01 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »

Offline Md. Nuruzzaman Moral

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« Reply #22 on: December 24, 2011, 03:55:57 PM »
                                                        Dada or Dadaism

Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in neutral Zürich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1920. The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature (poetry, art manifestoes, art theory), theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti war politic through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. Dada activities included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals. Passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture filled their publications. The movement influenced later styles, Avant-garde and Downtown music movements, and groups including Surrealism, Nouveau Réalisme, Pop Art and Fluxus.
“   Dada is the groundwork to abstract art and sound poetry, a starting point for performance art, a prelude to postmodernism, an influence on pop art, a celebration of antiart to be later embraced for anarcho-political uses in the 1960s and the movement that lay the foundation for Surrealism. Marc Lowenthal, Translator's introduction to Francis Picabia's I Am a Beautiful Monster: Poetry, Prose, And Provocation (MIT Press 2007)   â€
« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:30:14 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »

Offline Md. Nuruzzaman Moral

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« Reply #23 on: December 24, 2011, 03:56:56 PM »
                                                            Surrealism

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members.
Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.
Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities of World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s on, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music, of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, and philosophy and social theory.
« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:30:25 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »

Offline Md. Nuruzzaman Moral

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« Reply #24 on: December 24, 2011, 03:57:42 PM »
                                                            Imagism

Imagism was a movement in early 20th-century Anglo-American poetry that favored precision of imagery, and clear, sharp language. The Imagists rejected the sentiment and discursiveness typical of much Romantic and Victorian poetry. This was in contrast to their contemporaries, the Georgian poets, who were by and large content to work within that tradition. Group publication of work under the Imagist name appearing between 1914 and 1917 featured writing by many of the most significant figures in modernist poetry in English, as well as a number of other Modernist figures prominent in fields other than poetry.
Based in London, the Imagists were drawn from Great Britain, Ireland and the United States. Somewhat unusually for the time, the Imagists featured a number of women writers among their major figures. Imagism is also significant historically as the first organised Modernist English language literary movement or group. In the words of T. S. Eliot: "The point de repère usually and conveniently taken as the starting-point of modern poetry is the group denominated 'imagists' in London about 1910."[1] At the time Imagism emerged, Longfellow and Tennyson were considered the paragons of poetry, and the public valued the sometimes moralising tone of their writings. In contrast, Imagism called for a return to what were seen as more Classical values, such as directness of presentation and economy of language, as well as a willingness to experiment with non-traditional verse forms. The focus on the "thing" as "thing" (an attempt at isolating a single image to reveal its essence) also mirrors contemporary developments in avant-garde art, especially Cubism. Although Imagism isolates objects through the use of what Ezra Pound called "luminous details", Pound's Ideogrammic Method of juxtaposing concrete instances to express an abstraction is similar to Cubism's manner of synthesizing multiple perspectives into a single image.
« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:30:40 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »

Offline Md. Nuruzzaman Moral

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« Reply #25 on: December 24, 2011, 04:00:48 PM »
                                               The Symbolist Manifesto

Symbolists believed that art should aim to capture more absolute truths which could only be accessed by indirect methods. Thus, they wrote in a highly metaphorical and suggestive manner, endowing particular images or objects with symbolic meaning. The Symbolist manifesto ("Le Symbolisme", Le Figaro, 18 Sept 1886) was published in 1886 by Jean Moréas. Moréas announced that Symbolism was hostile to "plain meanings, declamations, false sentimentality and matter-of-fact description," and that its goal instead was to "clothe the Ideal in a perceptible form" whose "goal was not in itself, but whose sole purpose was to express the Ideal":
Ainsi, dans cet art, les tableaux de la nature, les actions des humains, tous les phénomènes concrets ne sauraient se manifester eux-mêmes ; ce sont là des apparences sensibles destinées à représenter leurs affinités ésotériques avec des Idées primordiales.
(In this art, scenes from nature, human activities, and all other real world phenomena will not be described for their own sake; here, they are perceptible surfaces created to represent their esoteric affinities with the primordial Ideals.)
Symbolism in literature is distinct from Symbolism in art although the two overlapped on a number of points. In painting, Symbolism was a continuation of some mystical tendencies in the Romantic tradition, which included such artists as Caspar David Friedrich, Fernand Khnopff and John Henry Fuseli and it was even more closely aligned with the self-consciously dark and private Decadent Movement.
There were several, rather dissimilar, groups of Symbolist painters and visual artists, among whom Gustave Moreau, Gustav Klimt, Odilon Redon, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Henri Fantin-Latour, Edvard Munch, Félicien Rops, and Jan Toorop were numbered. Symbolism in painting had an even larger geographical reach than Symbolism in poetry, reaching Mikhail Vrubel, Nicholas Roerich, Victor Borisov-Musatov, Martiros Saryan, Mikhail Nesterov, Leon Bakst in Russia, as well as Frida Kahlo in Mexico, Elihu Vedder, Remedios Varo, Morris Graves, David Chetlahe Paladin, and Elle Nicolai in the United States. Auguste Rodin is sometimes considered a Symbolist in sculpture.
The Symbolist painters mined mythology and dream imagery for a visual language of the soul, seeking evocative paintings that brought to mind a static world of silence. The symbols used in Symbolism are not the familiar emblems of mainstream iconography but intensely personal, private, obscure and ambiguous references. More a philosophy than an actual style of art, the Symbolist painters influenced the contemporary Art Nouveau movement and Les Nabis. In their exploration of dreamlike subjects, symbolist painters are found across centuries and cultures, as they are still today; Bernard Delvaille has described René Magritte's surrealism as "Symbolism plus Freud".

« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:30:51 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »

Offline Md. Nuruzzaman Moral

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« Reply #26 on: December 24, 2011, 04:03:14 PM »
                                                    Symbolists

Precursors

•   William Blake (1757-1827)
•   Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840)
•   Gérard de Nerval (1808-55)
•   Edgar Allan Poe (1809-49)
•   Christina Rossetti (1830-1894)
•   Charles Baudelaire (1821-67)
•   Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-82)
•   Isidore Ducasse, comte de Lautréamont (1846-70)
•   Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880)

Authors

•   Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam (1838-89)
•   Stéphane Mallarmé (1842-98)
•   Paul Verlaine (1844-96)
•   Arthur Rimbaud (1854-91)
•   Georges Rodenbach (1855-98)
•   Innokenty Annensky (1855-1909)
•   Emile Verhaeren (1855-1916)
•   Jean Moréas (1856-1910)
•   Albert Samain (1858-1900)
•   Rémy de Gourmont (1858-1915)
•   Gustave Kahn (1859-1936)
•   Albert Giraud (1860-1929)
•   Jules Laforgue (1860-87)
•   Antoni Lange (1861-1929)    
•   Paul Adam (1862-1920)
•   Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949)
•   Stuart Merrill (1863-1915)
•   Fyodor Sologub (1863-1927)
•   Adolphe Retté (1863-1930)
•   Francis Viélé-Griffin (1863-1937)
•   Henri de Régnier (1864-1936)
•   Albert Aurier (1865-1892)
•   Dmitry Merezhkovsky (1865-1941)
•   Albert Mockel (1866-1945)
•   Vyacheslav Ivanov (1866-1949)
•   Konstantin Bal'mont (1867—1942)
•   Zinaida Gippius (1869-1945)
•   Paul Valéry (1871-1945)    
•   Paul Fort (1872-1960)
•   Alfred Jarry (1873-1907)
•   Tadeusz Miciński (1873-1918)
•   Valery Bryusov (1873–1924)
•   Jurgis BaltruÅ¡aitis (1873-1944)
•   Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (1875-1911)
•   Stanisław Korab-Brzozowski (1876-1901)
•   Maximilian Voloshin (1877-1932)
•   Renée Vivien (1877-1909)
•   Josip Murn Aleksandrov (1879-1901)
•   Ã‰mile Nelligan (1879-1941)
•   Alexander Blok (1880–1921)
•   Andrei Bely (1880-1934)
•   George Bacovia (1881-1957)
•   Dimcho Debelyanov (1887-1916)

Influence in English literature

English language authors that influenced, or were influenced by Symbolism include:
•   George MacDonald (1824-1905)
•   Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909)
•   Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)
•   Eric Stenbock (1860-95)
•   William Butler Yeats (1865-1939)
•   Arthur Symons (1865-1945)
•   John Gray (1866-1934)
•   Ernest Dowson (1867-1900)
•   Wallace Stevens (1879-1955)
•   Ezra Pound (1885-1972)
•   Edith Sitwell (1887-1964)
•   T. S. Eliot (1888-1965)
•   Conrad Aiken (1889-1973)
•   Clark Ashton Smith (1893-1961)
•   Hart Crane (1899-1932)
•   Geoffrey Hill (1932-)

« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:31:04 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »

Offline Md. Nuruzzaman Moral

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« Reply #27 on: December 24, 2011, 04:04:16 PM »
                                                                  Structuralism

Structuralism is an approach to the human sciences that attempts to analyze a specific field (for instance, mythology) as a complex system of interrelated parts. It began in linguistics with the work of Ferdinand de Saussure. But many French intellectuals perceived it to have a wider application, and the model was soon modified and applied to other fields, such as anthropology, psychoanalysis, literary theory and structuralism (architecture). This ushered in the dawn of structuralism as not just a method, but also an intellectual movement that came to take existentialism’s pedestal in 1960s France.
Structuralism enjoyed much popularity, and its general stance of antihumanism was in sheer opposition to the Sartrean existentialism that preceded it. But in the 1970s, it came under internal fire from critics who accused it of being too rigid and ahistorical. However, many of structuralism’s theorists, from Michel Foucault to Jacques Lacan, continue to assert an influence on continental philosophy, and many of the fundamental assumptions of its critics, that is, of adherents of poststructuralism, are but a continuation of structuralism.
Structuralism isn’t only applied within literary theory. There are also structuralist theories that exist within mathematics, philosophy of science, anthropology and in sociology. According to Alison Assiter, there are four common ideas regarding structuralism that form an ‘intellectual trend’. Firstly, the structure is what determines the position of each element of a whole. Secondly, structuralists believe that every system has a structure. Thirdly, structuralists are interested in ‘structural’ laws that deal with coexistence rather than changes. And finally structures are the ‘real things’ that lie beneath the surface or the appearance of meaning.
« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:31:19 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »

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« Reply #28 on: December 24, 2011, 04:05:17 PM »
                                                 Structuralism in linguistics

Ferdinand de Saussure was the originator of the 20th century structuralism, and evidence of this can be found in Course in General Linguistics, written by Saussure's colleagues after his death and based on student notes, where he focused not on the use of language (parole, or speech), but rather on the underlying system of language (langue) and called his theory semiology. However, the discovery of the underlying system had to be done via examination of the parole (speech). As such, Structural Linguistics are actually an early form of corpus linguistics (quantification). This approach focused on examining how the elements of language related to each other in the present, that is, 'synchronically' rather than 'diachronically'. Finally, he argued that linguistic signs were composed of two parts, a signifier (the sound pattern of a word, either in mental projection - as when we silently recite lines from a poem to ourselves - or in actual, physical realization as part of a speech act) and a signified (the concept or meaning of the word). This was quite different from previous approaches which focused on the relationship between words and things in the world that they designate.
Key notions in Structural Linguistics are the notions of paradigm, syntagm and value, though these notions were not yet fully developed in De Saussure's thought. A structural paradigm is actually a class of linguistic units (lexemes, morphemes or even constructions) which are possible in a certain position in a given linguistic environment (like a given sentence), which is the syntagm. The different functional role of each of these members of the paradigm is called value (valeur in French). Structuralist criticism relates the literary text to a larger overarching structure which may be a particular genre, a range of intertextual connections, a model of a universal narrative structure or a notion of the narrative being a system of recurrent patterns or motifs.
Saussure's Course influenced many linguists between World War I and WWII. In America, for instance, Leonard Bloomfield developed his own version of structural linguistics, as did Louis Hjelmslev in Denmark and Alf Sommerfelt in Norway. In France Antoine Meillet and Émile Benveniste would continue Saussure's program. Most importantly, however, members of the Prague School of linguistics such as Roman Jakobson and Nikolai Trubetzkoy conducted research that would be greatly influential.
The clearest and most important example of Prague School structuralism lies in phonemics. Rather than simply compile a list of which sounds occur in a language, the Prague School sought to examine how they were related. They determined that the inventory of sounds in a language could be analyzed in terms of a series of contrasts. Thus in English the sounds /p/ and /b/ represent distinct phonemes because there are cases (minimal pairs) where the contrast between the two is the only difference between two distinct words (e.g. 'pat' and 'bat'). Analyzing sounds in terms of contrastive features also opens up comparative scope - it makes clear, for instance, that the difficulty Japanese speakers have differentiating /r/ and /l/ in English is because these sounds are not contrastive in Japanese. While this approach is now standard in linguistics, it was revolutionary at the time. Phonology would become the paradigmatic basis for structuralism in a number of different forms.
« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:31:31 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »

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« Reply #29 on: December 24, 2011, 04:06:27 PM »
                                    Structuralism in literary theory and literary critics
 
In literary theory, structuralism is an approach to analyzing the narrative material by examining the underlying invariant structure. For example, a literary critic applying a structuralist literary theory might say that the authors of West Side Story did not write anything "really" new, because their work has the same structure as Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. In both texts a girl and a boy fall in love (a "formula" with a symbolic operator between them would be "Boy + Girl") despite the fact that they belong to two groups that hate each other ("Boy's Group - Girl's Group" or "Opposing forces") and conflict is resolved by their death.
The versatility of structuralism is such that a literary critic could make the same claim about a story of two friendly families ("Boy's Family + Girl's Family") that arrange a marriage between their children despite the fact that the children hate each other ("Boy - Girl") and then the children commit suicide to escape the arranged marriage; the justification is that the second story's structure is an 'inversion' of the first story's structure: the relationship between the values of love and the two pairs of parties involved have been reversed.
Structuralistic literary criticism argues that the "novelty value of a literary text" can lie only in new structure, rather than in the specifics of character development and voice in which that structure is expressed. One branch of literary structuralism, like Freudianism, Marxism, and transformational grammar, posits both a deep and a surface structure. In Freudianism and Marxism the deep structure is a story, in Freud's case the battle, ultimately, between the life and death instincts, and in Marx, the conflicts between classes that are rooted in the economic "base."
Literary structuralism often follows the lead of Vladimir Propp and Claude Levi-Strauss in seeking out basic deep elements in stories and myths, which are combined in various ways to produce the many versions of the ur-story or ur-myth. As in Freud and Marx, but in contrast to transformational grammar, these basic elements are meaning-bearing.
There is considerable similarity between structural literary theory and Northrop Frye's archetypal criticism, which is also indebted to the anthropological study of myths. Some critics have also tried to apply the theory to individual works, but the effort to find unique structures in individual literary works runs counter to the structuralist program and has an affinity with New Criticism.
The other branch of literary structuralism is semiotics, and it is based on the work of Ferdinand de Saussure.
« Last Edit: December 24, 2011, 04:31:42 PM by Md.Nuruzzaman Moral »