IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE

I..Numeral : In Hindu Arabic system, we use ten symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 called digits to represent any number.

A group of digits, denoting a number is called a numeral.

We represent a number, say 689745132 as shown below :

Ten Crores (108) Crores(107) Ten Lacs (Millions) (106) Lacs(105) Ten Thousands (104) Thousands (103) Hundreds (102) Tens(101) Units(100)

6 8 9 7 4 5 1 3 2

We read it as : 'Sixty-eight crores, ninety-seven lacs, forty-five thousand, one hundred and thirty-two'.

II Place Value or Local Value of a Digit in a Numeral :

In the above numeral :

Place value of 2 is (2 x 1) = 2; Place value of 3 is (3 x 10) = 30;

Place value of 1 is (1 x 100) = 100 and so on.

Place value of 6 is 6 x 108 = 600000000

III.Face Value : The face value of a digit in a numeral is the value of the digit itself at whatever place it may be. In the above numeral, the face value of 2 is 2; the face value of 3 is 3 and so on.

IV.TYPES OF NUMBERS

1.Natural Numbers : Counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,..... are called natural

numbers.

2.Whole Numbers : All counting numbers together with zero form the set of whole

numbers. Thus,

(i) 0 is the only whole number which is not a natural number.

(ii) Every natural number is a whole number.

3.Integers : All natural numbers, 0 and negatives of counting numbers i.e.,

{…, -3,-2,-1, 0, 1, 2, 3,…..} together form the set of integers.

(i) Positive Integers : {1, 2, 3, 4, …..} is the set of all positive integers.

(ii) Negative Integers : {- 1, - 2, - 3,…..} is the set of all negative integers.

(iii) Non-Positive and Non-Negative Integers : 0 is neither positive nor

negative. So, {0, 1, 2, 3,….} represents the set of non-negative integers, while

{0, -1,-2,-3,…..} represents the set of non-positive integers.

4. Even Numbers : A number divisible by 2 is called an even number, e.g., 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, etc.

5. Odd Numbers : A number not divisible by 2 is called an odd number. e.g., 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, etc.

6. Prime Numbers : A number greater than 1 is called a prime number, if it has exactly two factors, namely 1 and the number itself.

Prime numbers upto 100 are : 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43,

47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97.