SALT FREE REACTIVE DYEING OF COTTON -a newer technique of cotton dyeing without salt usage
Reactive dyes are very popular for cellulosic garments as they are environmentally safe and having good overall fastness properties. But application of these dyes requires a very high concentration of salt. The salt released from garment dyeing increases salinity in drain water stream which has a negative impact on environmental ecology. The present work aims to eliminate the usage of salt during dyeing of cotton goods with reactive dyes.
The methodology adopted here, for the elimination of salt in cotton dyeing, was based on the principle of cationisation (to develop a positive charge) of cotton. The same was achieved by subjecting the caustic pretreated cotton fabric samples to a treatment of 1, 2 dichloroethane followed by methylamine to introduce amino groups in the cellulose structure. The treated cotton when dyed from slightly acidic bath generates positive sites due to protonation in the amino group. The reactive dyes being anionic (negatively charged) in solution get attracted to the positive charges on the fibre which eliminates the salt requirements for satisfactory dye exhaustion.
A pretreatment to cotton which could eliminate the usage of salt in its dyeing with reactive dyes is revealed.
Both garment dyeing units and fabric/yarn finishing industries would thus be helpful.