ISLM-103: Lecture#02

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ISLM-103: Lecture#02
« on: September 22, 2018, 03:49:04 PM »
Post Graduate Diploma in Information Science and Library Management
ISLM-103 (Information Sources and Services)
Date: September 22, 2018 (Saturday)

•   What is source-
•   Source means the origin of something where produced / created information which may be relevant / irrelevant.
•   A specific publication or other type of media where specific information was obtained. These are usually included in footnotes, endnotes, or a bibliography, and can be people.

•   What is Information Source- An Information Source is a source of information for somebody, i.e. anything that might informs a person about something on provide knowledge to somebody.
Information sources may be observations, people speeches, documents, pictures, organizations etc. Information can come from virtually anywhere — media, blogs, personal experiences, books, journal and magazine articles, expert opinions, encyclopedias, and web pages — and the type of information you need will change depending on the question you are trying to answer.

 Types of information sources- Different epistemology have different views regarding the importance of different kind of information sources. Empiricism regards sense data as the ultimate information sources, while other epistemology have different views (Kragh 1989)(4).

The various types of information sources can be divided into two broad categories.
A- Documentary Sources
B- Non-Documentary Sources

Types of Information Sources
A-   Documentary Sources:
•   Primary source
•   Secondary source
•   Tertiary source
B- Non-Documentary Sources
i.   Formal source         ii.     Informal source

Documentary sources- These are generally published or recorded documents of knowledge. Documentary sources may be as under-:



􀂾Research Report
􀂾Conference Proceedings

􀂾Trade Literature
􀂾Indexing Services
􀂾Abstracting Services
􀂾Review of Progress
􀂾Reference Works
􀂾    Monographs
􀂾Text Books
Yearbooks and Directories
􀂾Location list of periodicals
􀂾List of Indexing and abstracting services

􀂾List of Research in progress
􀂾Guide to professional organizations

Primary Sources- Primary sources of information are the first published records of original research and development or description of new application or new interpretation of an old theme or idea. There are original documents representing unfiltered original ideas.

Primary sources are unorganized sources, which are rather difficult to use by them, the secondary sources helps us to use these.
Primary source is a term used in a number of disciplines to describe source material that is closest to the person, information, period or idea being studied.

It serves as an original source of information about the topic. Similar definitions are used in library Science, and other areas of scholarship.

In journalism, a primary source can be a person with direct knowledge of a situation or a document created by such a person. Primary sources are distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources. Though the distinction is not a sharp one. “Primary and secondary are relative terms, with sources judged primary or secondary according to specific historical contexts and what is being studied.” (Kragh 1989).

For Example-:

Published sources:
•   Books
•   Periodicals
•   Conference Papers
•   Research Monographs
•   Research Reports
•   Patents
•   Standards
•   Thesis
•   Industrial and trade literature
•   Manuscripts

Unpublished Sources:-    

•   Memoranda Laboratory notebooks
•   Diaries
•   Company Files
•   Portraits
•   State Papers
•   Web sites
•   Video Recordings

o   Speeches
o   Works of Arts, architecture,
o   literature and music

Secondary Sources- Secondary sources of information are those which are either compiled from or refer to primary sources of information. The original information having been casually modified selected or reorganized so as to serve a definite purpose for group of users. Such sources contain information arranged and organized on the basis of some definite plan. These contain organized repackaged knowledge rather than new knowledge. The primary sources are the first to appear, these are followed by secondary sources. It is difficult to find information from primary sources directly. Therefore, one should consult the secondary sources in the first instance, which will lead one to specific primary sources.


“Bonn” has divided the secondary sources into three types which are as below
1. Index Type: (a) Index (b) Bibliography (c) Indexing periodicals (d) Abstracting Periodicals
2.   Survey Type: (a) Review (b) Treatise (c)Monograph
3. Reference Type: (a) Encyclopedia  (b) Dictionary (c)Hand book, Manual (d) Critical Tables

Tertiary Sources:- This is the most problematic category of all. However, people rarely expected to differentiate between secondary and tertiary sources. Materials in which the information from secondary sources has been digested- reformatted and condensed, to put it into a convenient, easy to read form.
Tertiary sources of information contain information distilled and collected from primary and secondary sources. The primary function of tertiary sources of information is to aid the searcher of information in the use of primary and secondary sources of information. Most of these sources do not contain subject knowledge. Due to increase in literature, tertiary sources are becoming increasingly important. Out of various kinds of sources, tertiary sources are the last to appear.

1. Bibliography of Bibliographies
2. Directories and yearbooks
3. Guide to literature
4. List of research in progress
Non-documentary sources- Non documentary sources of information form a substantial part of communication especially in science and technology.
Types- There is two kinds of sources:-
(1)Formal Sources: - -Research Organization
-Govt. dept.
Informal Sources
-Conversation with colleges
- Visitors
- Attendance at Professional Meetings.

Dr. Md. Milan Khan