Post Graduate Diploma in Information Science and Library Management
ISLM-103 (Information Sources and Services)
Date: Jan 12, 2018
1. Define information
Data that is (1) accurate and timely, (2) specific and organized for a purpose, (3) presented within a context that gives it meaning and relevance, and (4) can lead to an increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty.
Information is valuable because it can affect behavior, a decision, or an outcome. For example, if a manager is told his/her company's net profit decreased in the past month, he/she may use this information as a reason to cut financial spending for the next month. A piece of information is considered valueless if, after receiving it, things remain unchanged. For a technical definition of information see information theory.
Information is knowledge gained or given; facts; news or the communicating or receiving of knowledge.
• Information can mean different things to different people, depending on their particular circumstances, but most accept
• Information is a means of communicating knowledge, helping us to find out what we need to know. The information source we choose will always depend on the quantity and quality of information required.
2. Kinds of information
i. Factual information/ Accurate Information
• World Almanac
• Almanac of American Politics
• Encyclopedia Britannica
• Grove's Dictionary of Music
• McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology
ii. Biographical information
• Biographical and Genealogy Master Index
• Current Biography
• Dictionary of American Biography
• Who's Who in America
iii. Maps, images, and other graphical information
• National Geographic Atlas of the World
• Gray's Anatomy
• Dictionary of Art
• The Observer's sky atlas : with 50 stars charts covering the entire sky
iv. Statistical information
• Statistical abstract of the United States
• Agricultural statistics
• Housing construction statistics, 1889 to 1964
• United States Census of Population
• Thomas register of American manufacturers and Thomas register catalog file
• MacRae's blue book
• Vendor's Catalogs
vi. Patents / Copyright / Official documents
• US Patent and Trademark Office patent database
• Escape - Europe's Network of Patent Databases
• Trilateral Web Site (patent database of European, Japanese and US patents)
vii. Research information
• Educational Research
• Journal of Animal Science
• Environmental Ethics
3. Formats of Information
Information is published in a range of formats and it is important to select and use those appropriate to your needs. What you use will depend on your circumstances, including the time and technology available.
Below is a brief overview of the three main formats:
1. Print: Print is simply the paper (hard copy) form of information. Books, serials, official publications and some specialized sources are usually published in print form.
2. Electronic: Electronic information resources refer to anything that is recorded, stored and retrieved using computer technology. Examples of electronic information sources include CDs, DVDs and all online sources including searchable databases.
3. Audio-Visual: Audio-visual (AV) resources consist of sound and visual images. These include items such as television programmes, motion pictures, music recordings and slides.
4. Microfilm 5. Microfiche 6. Microform
4. Producers/Originators of Information
There are three main producers/originators of information. These are:
1. Government Agencies
2. Academic institutions
3. The private Sector
1. Government Agencies: Government departments and agencies publish lots of information in print and electronic formats. In various countries of the world, governments at all levels play an important role in producing information for the society they serve.
Example: i. National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA),
ii. National Bureau of Statistics (NBS),
2. Academic Institutions: Academic institutions such as universities and colleges are major producers of information in a society or country.
Example: i. University of Ibadan, Nigeria
ii. University of Zambia
iii. Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
iv. University of Zimbabwe
3. Private Sector: A third major producer of information in a country is the private sector. This consists of print and electronic media organizations, commercial business outfits, publishers/vendors.
Non-profit professional organizations
Profitable organizations and commercial agencies
Professional Associations or organizations
4. Private Individual: Individuals also create information. Many print and web documents available today are created by private individuals,
5. Why needs information for people / users
Information needs to reduces cost
Information save the time
Information improves decision making
Information Yields Customer Satisfaction
Information needs to making master plan
Information needs for researchers to collect real facts