Risks in investment and available treatment for such risks.

### Author Topic: Risks in investment and available treatment for such risks.  (Read 846 times)

#### rayhanul.bba

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##### Risks in investment and available treatment for such risks.
« on: March 25, 2019, 05:27:20 AM »
Different Definitions of Risk
• Risk: Uncertainty concerning the occurrence of a
loss
• Loss Exposure: Any situation or circumstance in
which a loss is possible, regardless of whether a
loss occurs
• Objective Risk vs. Subjective Risk
– Objective risk is defined as the relative variation of actual
loss from expected loss
– Subjective risk is defined as uncertainty based on a
person’s mental condition or state of mind.

Chance of Loss
• Chance of loss: The probability that an event will
occur
• Objective Probability vs. Subjective Probability
– Objective probability refers to the long-run relative
frequency of an event based on the assumptions of an
infinite number of observations and of no change in the
underlying conditions
– Subjective probability is the individual’s personal estimate
of the chance of loss.

Chance of Loss vs. Objective Risk
• Chance of loss is the probability that an event that
causes a loss will occur.
• Objective risk is the relative variation of actual loss
from expected loss
The chance of loss may be identical for two different
groups, but objective risk may be quite different!

Peril and Hazard
• A peril is defined as the cause of the loss
– In an auto accident, the collision is the peril
• A hazard is a condition that increases the
chance of loss
– A physical hazard is a physical condition that
increases the frequency or severity of loss
– Moral hazard is dishonesty or character defects
in an individual that increase the frequency or
severity of loss.

Peril and Hazard
– Attitudinal Hazard (Morale Hazard) is
carelessness or indifference to a loss, which
increases the frequency or severity of a loss
– Legal Hazard refers to characteristics of the legal
system or regulatory environment that increase
the frequency or severity of loss.

Classification of Risk
• Pure and Speculative Risk
– A pure risk is a situation in which there are only
the possibilities of loss or no loss (earthquake)
– A speculative risk is a situation in which either
profit or loss is possible (gambling).
• Diversifiable Risk and Nondiversifiable Risk
– A diversifiable risk affects only individuals or
small groups (car theft). It is also called
nonsystematic or particular risk.
– A nondiversifiable risk affects the entire economy
or large numbers of persons or groups within the
economy (hurricane). It is also called systematic
risk or fundamental risk.
– Government assistance may be necessary to
insure nondiversifiable risks.

• Enterprise risk encompasses all major risks
faced by a business firm, which include:
pure risk, speculative risk, strategic risk,
operational risk, and financial risk
– Strategic Risk refers to uncertainty regarding the
firm’s financial goals and objectives.
– Operational risk results from the firm’s business
operations.
– Financial Risk refers to the uncertainty of loss
because of adverse changes in commodity
prices, interest rates, foreign exchange rates,
and the value of money.

• Enterprise Risk Management combines into
a single unified treatment program all major
risks faced by the firm:
– Pure risk
– Speculative risk
– Strategic risk
– Operational risk
– Financial risk

• As long as all risks are not perfectly
correlated, the firm can offset one risk
against another, thus reducing the firm’s
overall risk.
• Treatment of financial risks requires the use
of complex hedging techniques, financial
derivatives, futures contracts and other
financial instruments.

Major Personal Risks
• Personal risks are risks that directly affect
and individual or family. They involve the
possibility of a loss or reduction in income,
extra expenses or depletion of financial
assets, due to:
– Premature death of family head
– Insufficient income during retirement
– Poor health (catastrophic medical bills and loss
of earned income)
– Involuntary unemployment

• Property risks involve the possibility of
losses associated with the destruction or
theft of property
• Direct loss vs. indirect loss
– A direct loss is a financial loss that results from
the physical damage, destruction, or theft of
the property, such as fire damage to a home
– An indirect or consequential loss is a financial
loss that results indirectly from the occurrence
of a direct physical damage or theft loss, e.g.,
the additional living expenses after a fire
• Liability risks involve the possibility of being
held legally liable for bodily injury or
property damage to someone else
– There is no maximum upper limit with respect to
the amount of the loss
– A lien can be placed on your income and
financial assets
– Legal defense costs can be enormous

Major Commercial Risks
• Firms face a variety of pure risks that can
have serious financial consequences if a loss
occurs:
– Property risks, such as damage to buildings, furniture and
office equipment
– Liability risks, such as suits for defective products,
pollution, and sexual harassment
– Loss of business income, when the firm must shut down for
some time after a physical damage loss
– Other risks to firms include crime exposures, human
resource exposures, foreign loss exposures, intangible
property exposures, and government exposures

Burden of Risk on Society
• The presence of risk results in three major
burdens on society:
– In the absence of insurance, individuals and
business firms would have to maintain large
emergency funds to pay for unexpected losses
– The risk of a liability lawsuit may discourage
innovation, depriving society of certain goods
and services
– Risk causes worry and fear

Techniques for Managing Risk
• Risk Control refers to techniques that
reduce the frequency or severity of losses:
– Avoidance
– Loss prevention refers to activities to reduce the
frequency of losses
– Loss reduction refers to activities to reduce the
severity of losses

• Risk Financing refers to techniques that
provide for payment of losses after they occur:
– Retention means that an individual or business firm
retains part or all of the losses that can result from
a given risk.
– Active retention means that an individual is aware of the
risk and deliberately plans to retain all or part of it
– Passive retention means risks may be unknowingly
retained because of ignorance, indifference, or laziness
– Self Insurance is a special form of planned retention by
which part or all of a given loss exposure is retained by
the firm
• A Noninsurance transfer transfers a risk to
another party.
– A transfer of risk by contract, such as through a
service contract or a hold-harmless clause in a
contract
– Hedging is a technique for transferring the risk of
unfavorable price fluctuations to a speculator by
purchasing and selling futures contracts on an
organized exchange
– Incorporation of a business firm transfers to the
creditors the risk of having
• For most people, insurance is the most
practical method for handling major risks
– Risk transfer is used because a pure risk is
transferred to the insurer.
– The pooling technique is used to spread the
losses of the few over the entire group
– The risk may be reduced by application of the
law of large numbers
Md. Rayhanul Islam
Senior Lecturer
Department of Real Estate
Daffodil International University

#### Anhar Sharif

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##### Re: Risks in investment and available treatment for such risks.
« Reply #1 on: March 25, 2019, 02:12:22 PM »
Informative
Md Anhar Sharif Mollah

Assistant Professor of Finance

&

Assistant Proctor

Daffodil International University

Cell: +8801758883609

#### rayhanul.bba

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##### Re: Risks in investment and available treatment for such risks.
« Reply #2 on: March 26, 2019, 12:10:39 PM »
Thanks
Md. Rayhanul Islam
Senior Lecturer
Department of Real Estate
Daffodil International University

#### fahmidasiddiqa

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##### Re: Risks in investment and available treatment for such risks.
« Reply #3 on: March 27, 2019, 12:14:11 PM »

#### nusrat.eee

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##### Re: Risks in investment and available treatment for such risks.
« Reply #4 on: July 14, 2019, 08:46:56 PM »
Nice post.

#### Jasia.bba

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##### Re: Risks in investment and available treatment for such risks.
« Reply #5 on: July 15, 2019, 11:37:19 AM »
Nice sharing.....
Thanks
Jasia Mustafa
Senior Lecturer,
Daffodil International University

#### Tapasy Rabeya

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• Always be happy and thankful to Allah with what yo
##### Re: Risks in investment and available treatment for such risks.
« Reply #6 on: December 04, 2019, 11:21:38 AM »
Informative
Tapasy Rabeya
Lecturer,
Department of Computer Science & Engineering.
Daffodil International University (DIU)

#### murshida

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##### Re: Risks in investment and available treatment for such risks.
« Reply #7 on: February 17, 2020, 03:34:26 PM »

#### sayma

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##### Re: Risks in investment and available treatment for such risks.
« Reply #8 on: February 18, 2020, 05:14:08 PM »
good post