A child who has never seen a pink elephant can still describe one — unlike a computer. “The computer learns from data,” says Jiajun Wu, a PhD student at MIT. “The ability to generalize and recognize something you’ve never seen before — a pink elephant — is very hard for machines.”
Deep learning systems interpret the world by picking out statistical patterns in data. This form of machine learning is now everywhere, automatically tagging friends on Facebook, narrating Alexa’s latest weather forecast, and delivering fun facts via Google search. But statistical learning has its limits. It requires tons of data, has trouble explaining its decisions, and is terrible at applying past knowledge to new situations; It can’t comprehend an elephant that’s pink instead of gray.
To give computers the ability to reason more like us, artificial intelligence (AI) researchers are returning to abstract, or symbolic, programming. Popular in the 1950s and 1960s, symbolic AI wires in the rules and logic that allow machines to make comparisons and interpret how objects and entities relate. Symbolic AI uses less data, records the chain of steps it takes to reach a decision, and when combined with the brute processing power of statistical neural networks, it can even beat humans in a complicated image comprehension test.
For more : http://news.mit.edu/2019/teaching-machines-to-reason-about-what-they-see-0402?utm_campaign=Artificial%2BIntelligence%2BWeekly&utm_medium=web&utm_source=Artificial_Intelligence_Weekly_103