Literary Terms

Author Topic: Literary Terms  (Read 9767 times)

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #75 on: July 16, 2019, 02:50:30 PM »
Stanza
স্তবক


Definition:
The term stanza refers to a single, related chunk of lines in poetry. It basically refers to one unit or group of lines, which forms one particular faction in poetry. The most basic kind of stanza is usually 4 lines per group, with the simplest rhyme scheme “a-b-a-b” being followed.

Example:
“The greedy paddy cat,
Chased after the mice;
She got so round and fat,
But it tasted so nice”

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #76 on: July 16, 2019, 02:52:00 PM »
Stream of Consciousness
চেতনাপ্রবাহ


Definition:
The phrase ‘stream of consciousness’ refers to an uninterrupted and unhindered collection and occurrence of thoughts and ideas in the conscious mind. In literature, the phrase refers to the flow of these thoughts, with reference to a particular character’s thinking process. This literary device is usually used in order to provide a narrative in the form of the character’s thoughts instead of using dialogue or description.

Example:
All writings by Virginia Woolf are a good example of literary stream of consciousness.

“Life is not a series of gig lamps symmetrically arranged; life is a luminous halo, a semi-transparent envelope surrounding us from the beginning of consciousness to the end.” The Common Reader (1925)

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #77 on: July 16, 2019, 02:52:57 PM »
Suspense
উত্তেজনা


Definition:
Suspense is the intense feeling that an audience goes through while waiting for the outcome of certain events. It basically leaves the reader holding their breath and wanting more information. The amount of intensity in a suspenseful moment is why it is hard to put a book down. Without suspense, a reader would lose interest quickly in any story because there is nothing that is making the reader ask, “What’s going to happen next?” In writing, there has to be a series of events that leads to a climax that captivates the audience and makes them tense and anxious to know what is going to happen.

Example:
A cliffhanger is a great way to create suspense. You remember when you were a kid and very excited to watch those Saturday morning shows. You can probably recall the feeling you had at the pit of your stomach when, after about 25 minutes and lots of commercials, you were hoping to find out what happened to your favorite character. However, you didn’t get to find out. Instead they would make the “Tune In Next Week” announcement and you already knew that you would be there. Same time, same place. Suspense is a powerful literary tool because, if done correctly, you know your audience will be back for more and more.

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #78 on: July 16, 2019, 02:53:54 PM »
Symbol
প্রতীক


Definition:
A symbol is literary device that contains several layers of meaning, often concealed at first sight, and is representative of several other aspects, concepts or traits than those that are visible in the literal translation alone. Symbol is using an object or action that means something more than its literal meaning.

Example:
The phrase “a new dawn” does not talk only about the actual beginning of a new day but also signifies a new start, a fresh chance to begin and the end of a previous tiring time.

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #79 on: July 16, 2019, 02:55:59 PM »
Synecdoche
অংশপ্রতীক


Definition:
A synecdoche is a literary devices that uses a part of something to refer to the whole or vice versa. It is somewhat rhetorical in nature, where the entire object is represented by way of a fraction of it or a fraction of the object is symbolized by the whole.

Example:
“Weary feet in the walk of life”, does not refer to the feet actually being tired or painful; it is symbolic of a long, hard struggle through the journey of life and feeling low, tired, unoptimistic and ‘the walk of life’ does not represent an actual path or distance covered, instead refers to the entire sequence of life events that has made the person tired.

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #80 on: July 16, 2019, 02:57:41 PM »
Synesthesia
যৌগইন্দ্রিয়


Definition:
While the term synesthesia literally refers to a medical condition wherein one or many of the sensory modalities become joined to one another, in literature it refers to the depiction of a strong connection, link or bond between the different senses. Characters in literature are sometimes described to be experiences synesthesia. Synesthesia is the conflation of the senses.

Example:
The Sound of Blue by Hollu Payne which portrays synesthesia with respect to the Romantic ideal.

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #81 on: July 16, 2019, 02:59:03 PM »
Syntax
বাক্যগঠন


Definition:
Syntax in literature refers to the way in which words and sentences are placed together. Usually in the English language the syntax should follow a pattern of subject-verb-object agreement but sometimes authors play around with this to achieve a lyrical, rhythmic, rhetoric or questioning effect. It is not related to the act of choosing specific words or even the meaning of each word or the overall meanings conveyed by the sentences.

Example:
The sentence “The man drives the car” would follow normal syntax in the English language. By changing the syntax to “The car drives the man”, the sentence becomes awkward.

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #82 on: July 16, 2019, 02:59:58 PM »
Theme
বিষয়বস্তু


Definition:
The theme of any literary work is the base that acts as a foundation for the entire literary piece. The theme links all aspects of the literary work with one another and is basically the main subject. The theme can be an enduring pattern or motif throughout the literary work, occurring in a complex, long winding manner or it can be short and succinct and provide a certain insight into the story.

Example:
The main theme in the play Romeo and Juliet was love with smaller themes of sacrifice, tragedy, struggle, hardship, devotion and so on.

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #83 on: July 16, 2019, 03:02:41 PM »
Tone
দৃষ্টিভঙ্গি; অনুভূতি


Definition:
The tone of a literary work is the perspective or attitude that the author adopts with regards to a specific character, place or development. Tone can portray a variety of emotions ranging from solemn, grave, and critical to witty, wry and humorous. Tone helps the reader ascertain the writer’s feelings towards a particular topic and this in turn influences the reader’s understanding of the story.

Example:
In her Harry Potter series, author J.K. Rowling has taken an extremely positive, inspiring and uplifting tone towards the idea of love and devotion.

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #84 on: July 16, 2019, 03:04:34 PM »
Tragedy
বিয়োগাত্মক সাহিত্যকর্ম


Definition:
In literature, the concept of tragedy refer to a series of unfortunate events by which one or more of the literary characters in the story undergo several misfortunes, which finally culminate into a disaster of ‘epic proportions’. Tragedy is generally built up in 5 stages: a) happy times b) the introduction of a problem c) the problem worsens to a crisis or dilemma d) the characters are unable to prevent the problem from taking over e) the problem results in some catastrophic, grave ending, which is the tragedy culminated.

Example:
In the play Julius Caesar, the lead character is an ambitious, fearless and power hungry king who ignores all the signs and does not heed the advice of the well-meaning: finally being stabbed to death by his own best friend and advisor Brutus. This moment has been immortalized by the phrase “Et tu Brute?”, wherein Caesar realizes that he has finally been defeated, and that too through betrayal.

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #85 on: July 16, 2019, 03:08:24 PM »
Understatement
অধবর্ণন; স্বল্পকথন


Definition:
This literary device refers to the practice of drawing attention to a fact that is already obvious and noticeable. Understating a fact is usually done by way of sarcasm, irony, wryness or any other form of dry humor. Understating something is akin to exaggerating its obviousness as a means of humor.

Example:
The phrase, “Oh! I wonder if he could get any later; I am free all day long”. Said in a sarcastic tone it indicates that the speaker obviously means the opposite of the literal meaning.

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #86 on: July 16, 2019, 03:10:00 PM »
Verisimilitude
সত্যপ্রতীতি


Definition:
Verisimilitude tends to be based around the appearance or proximity to being real, or the truth. It was a large part of the work of Karl Popper, and can be used in a variety of different ways to describe something, as well. It is a way of implying the believability or likelihood of a theory or narrative. However, just because something can be described as having Verisimilitude does not mean that it is true, only that merely appears to or seems to be true.

Example:
It can be used in a variety of ways, for example;

“While some dislike the content of the novel due to its graphic nature, you cannot deny that the content certainly gives the book some Verisimilitude”

An example of Verisimilitude in concept, though, could be a doubtful statement in a court of law or even a false testimonial for a restaurant. If something “seems” like it’s all well and good, but you can’t quite decide, then it can be said to have Verisimilitude.

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #87 on: July 16, 2019, 03:11:01 PM »
Verse
পদ্য


Definition:
The literary term ‘verse’ is used to refer to any single, lone line of a poetry composition. A metrical writing line is known as verse. The word can however, also refer to a stanza or any other part of the poetry.

Example:
A single line or stanza in a poem would be an example of verse.

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #88 on: July 16, 2019, 04:40:53 PM »
Action
মারদাঙ্গা; কর্মকাণ্ড


What is Action?
Also called “action-adventure,” action is a genre of film, TV, literature, etc., in which the primary feature is the constant slam-bang of fights, chases, explosions, and clever one-liners. Action stories typically do not explore complex relationships between human beings or the subtleties of psychology and philosophy. Instead, they are high-octane thrillers that simply aim to give the reader an exciting ride. (The word “thriller” is synonymous with “action” in this context.)

The Importance of Action:
Action stories work because they’re fun. People enjoy watching/reading them, even if they are not mentally stimulated by the genre. As for what makes action stories so popular, that’s tough to answer. On one level, the sheer simplicity of action stories may account for their popularity. Action stories are very easy to understand, and they work with themes that every human being can easily understand.

On another level, action stories get a lot of their power from archetypes, mythical figures that are common to all cultures and seem to be hard-wired into the human psyche. Every culture produces stories about heroes, monster-slayers, demons, mentors, temptresses, etc., and action stories frequently draw on this deep well of cultural ideas.

Examples of Action in Literature:
Example 1
Beowulf is a great work of literature and extremely important in the history of Old English, but it definitely has elements of an action story. The main archetype is Beowulf himself – the heroic monster-slayer who swims all the way to Denmark to try his hand at killing the monster Grendel. Over the course of the story, Beowulf fights tougher and tougher enemies until he finally has to face the great fire dragon.

Example 2
If you want to learn how to write effective fight scenes, The Golden Compass is a great book to start with. The final duel between the Panserbjorne is an extended fight that has a beginning-middle-end structure, along with changes in pace and repeated use of a wide variety of literary devices.

Offline Binoy

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Re: Literary Terms
« Reply #89 on: July 16, 2019, 04:45:53 PM »
Adage
সুবচন


The adage expresses a well-known and simple truth in a few words. Adages are also known as a proverbs or aphorisms.
Adages are brief statements which reflect commonly-held philosophical beliefs in a society. Because an adage has been passed down over time, it serves as a symbol of collected and accepted wisdom. For example, Eat, drink, and be merry reflects a society which also values fun and enjoyment. Stupid is as stupid does reflects the belief that we are our actions: a supposedly intelligent person acting stupidly is not truly intelligent. Adages provide us with simple guidelines with which to live. In literature, adages are a sign of wisdom and of a work’s universal appeal and truth.

Example 1:
For example, here are a few from Benjamin Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanac:

    There are no pains without gains.
    Have you something to do tomorrow? Do it today.
    What you would seem to be, be really.

Over time, these adages have found their modern forms in phrases like the athlete’s mantra “No pain, no gain!” Nike’s Just Do It slogan, and the advice we all give one another: Just be yourself.

Example 2:
For a second example, here are a few adages from Aesop’s Fables.

    From Beekeeper and the Bees: Things are not always what they seem.
    From Dog and His Reflection: Be content with what you have.
    From Man and His Sons: United we stand, divided we fall.

Aesop’s Fables are a source of numerous adages which have made it a classic treasury read to children in order to pass down simple stories with simple lessons of how to live well.