In the administration of justice system, be that criminal or civil, complainants as well as their witnesses perform a very decisive and significant role, since to a great extent dispensation of justice profoundly relies on evidences put forward by them. However, witnesses are often vulnerable to threats, intimidation, coercion, duress, harassment, etc. by the offenders or their accomplices that prevent them from testifying before the investigating officers (in the stage of investigation) or from giving evidences before the Court or Tribunal during trial, thereby occasioning the probability of miscarriage of justice. Thus, to secure ends of justice, both victim’s testimony and evidences gathered from the witnesses are imperative elements in establishing any guilt or civil claim and also a congenial social atmosphere, which is a condition precedent, to relieve them from fear and pressure in support of administration of justice in the society at large. Hence, it has now-a-days become rudimentary for any State to ensure adequate protection to victims as well as witnesses so that cogent evidences in trials before the Court become available to avoid miscarriage of justice.
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