‘Learning to learn’ is the ability to pursue and persist in learning, to organise one's own learning, including through
effective management of time and information, both individually and in groups. This competence includes awareness
of one's learning process and needs, identifying available opportunities, and the ability to overcome obstacles in order
to learn successfully. This competence means gaining, processing and assimilating new knowledge and skills as well as
seeking and making use of guidance. Learning to learn engages learners to build on prior learning and life experiences
in order to use and apply knowledge and skills in a variety of contexts: at home, at work, in education and training.
Motivation and confidence are crucial to an individual's competence.
Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence:
Where learning is directed towards particular work or career goals, an individual should have knowledge of the
competences, knowledge, skills and qualifications required. In all cases, learning to learn requires an individual to
know and understand his/her preferred learning strategies, the strengths and weaknesses of his/her skills and
qualifications, and to be able to search for the education and training opportunities and guidance and/or support
Learning to learn skills require firstly the acquisition of the fundamental basic skills such as literacy, numeracy and ICT
skills that are necessary for further learning. Building on these skills, an individual should be able to access, gain,
process and assimilate new knowledge and skills. This requires effective management of one's learning, career and
work patterns, and, in particular, the ability to persevere with learning, to concentrate for extended periods and to
reflect critically on the purposes and aims of learning. Individuals should be able to dedicate time to learning
autonomously and with self-discipline, but also to work collaboratively as part of the learning process, draw the
benefits from a heterogeneous group, and to share what they have learnt. Individuals should be able to organise their
own learning, evaluate their own work, and to seek advice, information and support when appropriate.
A positive attitude includes the motivation and confidence to pursue and succeed at learning throughout one's life. A
problem-solving attitude supports both the learning process itself and an individual's ability to handle obstacles and
change. The desire to apply prior learning and life experiences and the curiosity to look for opportunities to learn and
apply learning in a variety of life contexts are essential elements of a positive attitude.