We all are familiar with the classical theories of motivation, but they all are not empirically supported. As far as contemporary theories of motivation are concerned, all are well supported with evidences. Some of the contemporary / modern theories of motivation are explained below:ERG Theory of Motivation:
To bring Maslowâ€™s need hierarchy theory of motivation in synchronization with empirical research, Clayton Alderfer redefined it in his own terms. His rework is called as ERG theory of motivation. He recategorized Maslowâ€™s hierarchy of needs into three simpler and broader classes of needs:Existence needs-
These include need for basic material necessities. In short, it includes an individualâ€™s physiological and physical safety
These include the aspiration individualâ€™s have for maintaining significant interpersonal relationships (be it with family,
peers or superiors), getting public fame and recognition. Maslowâ€™s social needs and external component of esteem needs fall under this class of
These include need for self-development and personal growth and advancement. Maslowâ€™s self-actualization needs and intrinsic component of esteem needs fall under this category of need.
The significance of the three classes of needs may vary for each individual.Difference between Maslow Need Hierarchy Theory and Alderferâ€™s ERG Theory
A. ERG Theory states that at a given point of time, more than one need may be operational.
B. ERG Theory also shows that if the fulfillment of a higher-level need is subdued, there is an increase in desire for satisfying a lower-level
C. According to Maslow, an individual remains at a particular need level until that need is satisfied. While according to ERG theory, if a higher-
level need aggravates, an individual may revert to increase the satisfaction of a lower- level need. This is called frustration- regression
aspect of ERG theory. For instance- when growth need aggravates, then an individual might be motivated to accomplish the relatedness
need and if there are issues in accomplishing relatedness needs, then he might be motivated by the existence needs. Thus,
frustration/aggravation can result in regression to a lower-level need.
D. While Maslowâ€™s need hierarchy theory is rigid as it assumes that the needs follow a specific and orderly hierarchy and unless a lower-level
need is satisfied, an individual cannot proceed to the higher-level need; ERG Theory of motivation is very flexible as he perceived the
needs as a range/variety rather than perceiving them as a hierarchy. According to Alderfer, an individual can work on growth needs even
if his existence or relatedness needs remain unsatisfied. Thus, he gives explanation to the issue of â€œstarving artistâ€ who can struggle for
growth even if he is hungry.Implications of the ERG Theory
Managers must understand that an employee has various needs that must be satisfied at the same time. According to the ERG theory, if the manager concentrates solely on one need at a time, this will not effectively motivate the employee. Also, the frustration- regression aspect of ERG Theory has an added effect on workplace motivation. For instance- if an employee is not provided with growth and advancement opportunities in an organization, he might revert to the relatedness need such as socializing needs and to meet those socializing needs, if the environment or circumstances do not permit, he might revert to the need for money to fulfill those socializing needs. The sooner the manager realizes and discovers this, the more immediate steps they will take to fulfill those needs which are frustrated until such time that the employee can again pursue growth.