Models of public relations were proposed by James E. Grunig, a noted public relations theorist who has to his credit several books, articles, chapters and awards in the field of public relations.
According to James E.Grunig, there are four models of public Relations:
Press Agentry Publicity model is also called P.T Barnum model. Press Agentry Publicity model follows one way communication where the flow of information is only from the sender to the receiver. The sender is not much concerned about the second partyâ€™s feedback, reviews and so on.
In Press Agentry publicity model, public relations experts enhance the reputation of the organization among the target audiences, stakeholders, employees, partners, investors and all others associated with it through manipulation. According to this model, organizations hire public relations experts who create a positive image of their brand in the minds of target audiences through arguments and reasoning. They influence their potential customers by simply imposing their ideas, thoughts, creative stories of their brand, USPs of the products and so on. Flow of information takes place only from the public relations experts to the target audiences. (One way communication)
Public Information Model
As the names suggests public information model, emphasizes on maintaining and enhancing the image of an organization simply by circulating relevant and meaningful information among the target audience/public. Public relations experts depend on press release, news release, video release or any other recorded communication often directed at the media to circulate information about their brand among the public. Newsletters, brochures, magazines with information about the organization, its key people, products, benefits of the products, testimonials, success stories are distributed at regular intervals among target audiences for brand positioning. In such a model, public relations experts need to be creative and ought to have a flair for writing. They should be really good at putting their thoughts into meaningful words which influence the customers and end-users. Public information model also revolves around one way communication where information primarily flows from sender(organization and public relations experts) to the receiver(target audience, employees, stake holders, employees, investors and so on).
Two Way Asymmetrical Model
Two way asymmetrical model of public relations revolves around two way communication between both the parties but the communication is somewhat not balanced. In this type of model, public relations experts position their organization and brand on the whole in the minds of their target audiences through manipulation and force the public to behave the same way they would want them to do. In two way asymmetrical model of public relations, organizations do not utilize much of their manpower and resources to find out the reaction of the stakeholders, investors or for that matter public.
Two way Symmetrical Model
Two way symmetrical model of public relations is an ideal way of enhancing an organizationâ€™s reputation among the target audience. According to two way symmetrical model, public relations experts depend on two way communication to position their brand among end-users. Free flow of information takes place between the organization and its stake holders, employees, investors and vice-a-versa. Conflicts and misunderstandings are resolved through mutual discussions and communication. A two way communication takes place between both the parties and information flows in its desired form. The feedback from stakeholders and target audiences are also taken into consideration.