A set-up where two or more parties (also called buyers and sellers) are engaged in transaction of goods and services in exchange of money is called a market.
At the market place the sellers sell their goods to the consumers (buyers) in exchange of money.
Let us go through the following examples:
Nokia offers wide range of handsets for both males as well as females.
The handset for females would be sleeker and more colourful as compared to sturdy handsets for males. Males generally do not prefer stylish handsets.
The organizations canâ€™t have similar products for all individuals.
Perfumes and deodorants for females have a sweet fragrance whereas perfumes for males have a strong fragrance.
A marketer canâ€™t have similar strategies for all consumers.
The process of creating small segments comprising of like minded individuals within a broad market refers to market segmentation. Market segmentation helps in the division of market into small segments including individuals who show inclination towards identical brands and have similar interests, attitudes and perception.
Need for Market Segmentation (Why Market Segmentation?)
Not all individuals have similar needs. A male and a female would have varied interests and liking towards different products. A kid would not require something which an adult needs. A school kid would have a different requirement than an office goer. Market Segmentation helps the marketers to bring together individuals with similar choices and interests on a common platform.
Market Segmentation helps the marketers to devise appropriate marketing strategies and promotional schemes according to the tastes of the individuals of a particular market segment. A male model would look out of place in an advertisement promoting female products. The marketers must be able to relate their products to the target segments.
Market segmentation helps the marketers to understand the needs of the target audience and adopt specific marketing plans accordingly. Organizations can adopt a more focussed approach as a result of market segmentation.
Market segmentation also gives the customers a clear view of what to buy and what not to buy. A Rado or Omega watch would have no takers amongst the lower income group as they cater to the premium segment. College students seldom go to a Zodiac or Van Heusen store as the merchandise offered by these stores are meant mostly for the professionals. Individuals from the lower income group never use a Blackberry. In simpler words, the segmentation process goes a long way in influencing the buying decision of the consumers.
An individual with low income would obviously prefer a Nano or Alto instead of Mercedes or BMW.
Market segmentation helps the organizations to target the right product to the right customers at the right time. Geographical segmentation classifies consumers according to their locations. A grocery store in colder states of the country would stock coffee all through the year as compared to places which have defined winter and summer seasons.
Segmentation helps the organizations to know and understand their customers better. Organizations can now reach a wider audience and promote their products more effectively. It helps the organizations to concentrate their hard work on the target audience and get suitable results.