AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES OF BANGLADESH:
Bangladesh is a country of 1,47,570 sq.km including low and flat land except some hilly regions in the north east and southeast and some high lands in north and north western part and estaurine water surface. Although the country is predominantly a plain surface it is criss-crossed by a very high density of river systems. This gives the country a riverine nature. About 20 million acres are cultivable land and average household farm size is 1.5 acre. Over 58% of people are landless in Bangladesh.
The pressure of population on land is a crucial factor in the management of land resources in the country. Ours is delta region built up by the alluvial soil from the flow of rivers upstream in India and Nepal. This makes our soil highly fertile but in order to balance food population balance introduction of modern techniques caused to loss of fertility. Besides, availability of land becomes a crucial question with time.
The country lacks a comprehensive land use policy emphasizing the most appropriate and productive use of land. The driving force compelling people of Bangladesh to over exploit land are-
1. High population.
3. Improper land use.
4. Absence of land policy.
5. Ineffective implementation of laws and guidelines.
6. Unplanned agricultural practices.
7. Unplanned and unscientific rural infrastructure development.
8. Increasing urbanization.
RAINFALL AND AGRICULTURE:
The climate of Bangladesh is a subtropical with temperatures from mean maximum 21-380c and mean minimum 11-190c. Annual rainfall ranges from 2000 mm to 3000 mm. The country has mainly four seasons, the winter (December to February), summer (March to May), monsoon (June to September), and autumn (October to November).
Bangladesh has a humid warm climate that is tropical in some regions but lacks the range variability characteristic of nations with a more terrain. The geographical differences are not great but the higher temperature tends to occur in the West and north. Frost is particularly non existent in the country and is not a risk factor in agricultural production. Rainfall, which ranges from 55 to 140 inches on averages annually, is a highly critical risk factor in agricultural production.
Food grains in particular depend on the timely arrival of rains. Tenuous balance between rainfall and cereal production is a central concern of policy makers and government officials. A delay of seven to ten says in the arrival of monsoon rains can have a dramatic impact on the total grain harvest. Floods and draught are common consequences of the extreme weather patterns found in Bangladesh. The level of rainfall tends to decrease from east to west. The heaviest rains occur during the monsoon months from late May to early October. The months from December to March are the driest.
In general, the rainfall and temperature of Bangladesh provides excellent conditions for agricultural production. The year round seasonâ€™s offers considerable potential for multiple crops of cropping patterns and resources availability can be properly coordinated. Cropping cycles are closely related to the rainfall and climatic patterns. Among the major crops aman rice, jute and to some extent aush rice have production cycles to take advantage of the monsoon rains. Boro rice on the other hand has been developed to follow the heavy rains and required winter irrigations for optimal production. Wheat, potatoes, and most of the oil seeds, spice and vegetable crops, which are also grown during the winter months can benefit from irrigation. But irrigation is not widely applied to these crops.
Bangladesh is predominantly an agricultural country. Its economy mainly depends on agriculture. About 84% of the people live on rural areas and are directly or indirectly engaged on a wide range of agricultural activities. This sector accounts 31.6% of total GDP.
The major challenge to soil and crop scientist as well as farmers is to maintain sufficient moisture to satisfy plant need. Farmers face acute shortage of water during dry season. Most of the surface water sources such as river, pond and tube well get dry and only option left behind then is ground water. The soil is fertile but deficient in nitrogen.
The endowment of human capability, the availability of new technical knowledge, the modern industrial inputs and the system of public and private institutions serving agriculture are also resources of considerable relevance to the process of growth and development in agriculture. Each is necessary element for agricultural development but each one by itself does not ensure development.
So, government and related organizations should take proper step to ensure supply of irrigations, fertilizers, and other facilities.